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This book showcases cutting-edge research papers from the 8th International Conference on Research into Design (ICoRD 2021) written by eminent researchers from across the world on design processes, technologies, methods and tools, and their impact on innovation, for supporting design for a connected world. The theme of ICoRD‘21 has been “Design for Tomorrow”. The world as we know it in our times is increasingly becoming connected. In this interconnected world, design has to address new challenges of merging the cyber and the physical, the smart and the mundane, the technology and the human. As a result, there is an increasing need for strategizing and thinking about design for a better tomorrow. The theme for ICoRD’21 serves as a provocation for the design community to think about rapid changes in the near future to usher in a better tomorrow. The papers in this book explore these themes, and their key focus is design for tomorrow: how are products and their development be addressed for the immediate pressing needs within a connected world? The book will be of interest to researchers, professionals and entrepreneurs working in the areas on industrial design, manufacturing, consumer goods, and industrial management who are interested in the new and emerging methods and tools for design of new products, systems and services.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Design of Systems, Services and Product Service Systems

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Future of Home Service: Integration of User Behavior and Scenario Planning in the Domestic Plumbing Service Design

In the present era, with rapidly changing measures and uncertainty, it is beneficial for researchers, organizations, as well as for the government to anticipate future events. The substantial economic boost in the on-demand service sector leads to the development of home services in India. As increasingly products and services sold over the Internet, it becomes all the more essential to build up knowledge of design in planning and anticipating future events. This paper proposes user behavior analysis and plausible futuristic scenarios with the practical case of domestic plumbing services. The research aims to identify the interrelationships and significance of service aspects in domestic plumbing. The study also aims to understand the future in this context through scenario development. We conducted in-depth interviews, including exploratory surveys. Structured questionnaires were developed to study various aspects of stakeholders of the system viz. plumbing service provider, plumber, and users. Further, insights from the survey result were incorporated into scenario planning. Scenario planning was used to discover new strategic options for the future and to gain a deeper level of foresight. This study provides an integrative approach of user behavior study and scenario planning for service design with special emphasis on domestic plumbing. It acts as a road map for service design in general, primarily to similar service sectors viz. electrical maintenance, domestic appliances maintenance, and carpentry. The study will benefit students and practitioners in the field of service design. It would finally contribute to design for development.

Sachin Shivaji Jadhav, Pratul Chandra Kalita

Chapter 2. India Post Services—A Speculative Service Design for Behaviour Change

Service design has proved its potential in creating effective and innovative solutions, desirable by users as well as service provider organizations. Service design, which follows holistic and human-centred approach, exhibits an enormous scope to address complex, large-scale problems like designing citizen services that are experiential, efficient and effective. Citizen services involve complexity due to the diverse user base and their varying needs; rapid technological advancements and increasing demands of users. The involvement of multiple stakeholders, socio-political and environmental changes across the globe makes it more complicated. In order to explore the effectiveness of the service design approach, methods and tools for citizen services, we undertook a speculative case study of Indian Postal Services. The study was broadly divided into research, analysis, ideation and conceptualization stages. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used for user research, and derived insights were taken forward through ideation workshops using tools provided by CraftChange—service design for behaviour change framework. Ideas were clustered to create a service ecosystem comprising of peripheral as well as core services for India Post. This study emphasizes on adopting differentiating practices, tools and methods while designing citizen services, to achieve greater adoption and sustained usage of the services. Service design for behaviour change approach towards citizen services seems to be promising to have more holistic, valuable and sustainable services for the users, service providers, associated organizations and the society and environment.

Shivani Ganwani, Radhika Verma, Ravi Mahamuni, Varnika Naik

Chapter 3. Design Intervention for Improving Accessibility and Affordability of Ocular Care—A Context-Specific Study of Rural Assam

Practices in conducting eye screening camps in rural underserved areas seem to have not changed lately. Majority of the settings organizing eye screening camps, lack the necessary facilities and do not meet the general medical standards. Adverse terrain conditions also do not allow for medical mobile unit vans to be an option in such areas. Such factors result in the exclusion of a significant portion of the population, who are at risk of developing ocular abnormalities due to diabetes and other farm-related injuries. Field studies conducted in eye camps of rural Assam and subsequent interviews with healthcare providers and recipients established the novelty of the information. Considering these constraints as an opportunity, the author engaged the healthcare experts for mining a context-specific design from the perspective of the specialists. The information collected through ethnographic narratives, focus group discussions, interviews, and field studies were shared with a team of healthcare experts. The healthcare team, by means of a design workshop, tried to address user needs in their concept design. This research examines the role of association of designers with the healthcare professionals in bringing about solution-oriented design services and systems, meeting the specific needs of the indigenous people as well as the healthcare facilitators. The paper aims to reflect the versatility of design education in addressing socially significant problems, intending to direct it toward the unmet healthcare needs in low-resource settings. Such context-specific interventions can open the window to valuable insights into the position of design education in other professional domains.

Abhijit Kakati, Amarendra Kumar Das

Chapter 4. Frugal-IDeM: An Integrated Methodology for Designing Frugal Innovations in Low-Resource Settings

People living in low-resource settings at the base of the world income pyramid (i.e. base of the pyramid—BOP) face several constraints. To satisfy their unmet needs, integrated frugal innovations are necessary. Several studies, discussed using many names such as ‘design for base of the pyramid’, ‘design for development’, ‘product service systems’, ‘frugal innovations’, ‘humanitarian engineering’, ‘appropriate technology’, have explored the design of such integrated frugal innovations for the BOP. Based on ten key design aspects, gleaned from such studies, this paper aims at developing an Integrated Design Methodology for designing frugal innovations for the BOP (Frugal-IDeM). We have related the key design aspects with the various phases in the design and development process. The Frugal-IDeM also includes recommendations for how to implement the key design aspects.

Santosh Jagtap

Chapter 5. Artificial Neural Networks Supporting Cause-and-Effect Studies in Product–Service System Development

A data analysis method based on artificial neural networks aiming to support cause-and-effect analysis in design exploration studies is presented. The method clusters and aggregates the effects of multiple design variables based on the structural hierarchy of the evaluated system. The proposed method is exemplified in a case study showing that the predictive capability of the created, clustered, dataset is comparable to the original, unmodified, one. The proposed method is evaluated using coefficient of determination, root mean square error, average relative error, and mean square error. Data analysis approach with artificial neural networks is believed to significantly improve the comprehensibility of the evaluated cause-and-effect relationships studying PSS concepts in a cross-functional team and thereby assisting the difficult and resource-demanding negotiations process at the conceptual stage of the design.

Omsri Kumar Aeddula, Johan Wall, Tobias Larsson

Chapter 6. The Factors Influencing Usage Intention of Urban Poor Population in India Towards Mobile Financial Services (Mobile Payment/Money)

Considering the promise mobile telephony offers and the dramatic increase in mobile telephone usage in India, several initiatives have emerged in extending financial services to the marginalised population. However, these mobile financial services have not resulted in the desired acceptance among this targeted population. Following the contextual inquiry methodology, this paper presents the outcome of two empirical studies that aimed to identify factors that underlie this lack of usage of mobile payment options among the urban poor population. While the first study examines mobile phone features and services’ usage patterns and services, the second study examines the prerequisites to access and use BHIM and Paytm, the two most popular mobile payment/money in India. The two studies’ outcomes help understand the acceptance and adoption levels and their shortcomings in the existing design features. The study suggests desired features that may guide in designing of these financial services.

Raman Saxena, Ravi Mokashi Punekar

Chapter 7. Bridging the Gap Between Service Design Specification and Technical Specification

Well implemented services can have a transformative impact on any organisation. The implementing team receives service design specifications once the design phase is complete. These specifications include blueprints, storyboards, touchpoint guidelines, among many other custom artefacts. Implementation of technical touchpoints, as envisaged by the designer, will bring the experience alive not only for service users but also for all stakeholders, including those from the service provider. However, after the handover, inconsistencies may often be introduced during the development of touchpoints. The touchpoints may differ from the designers’ original vision and affect the stakeholders’ unified experience. The place where touchpoints’ implementation went wrong is hard to trace. Hence, the long-term involvement of the designers with the development effort is recommended but may not always be feasible. The handover process, and the form and content of the service specifications are critical to reducing the strong dependency on the designers post-handover. In this paper, we propose a framework to map service specification to technical specifications, focusing on traceability and completeness. After scrutinising various technical specification templates to find the essential components, these components were mapped directly or indirectly, by diving deep into multiple artefacts of service specifications. Mapping this extensive technical specification with design specifications early in implementation makes it comprehensive and complete. They are hence reducing the dependency later in the implementation cycle. Such a technical specification document leads to seamless implementation.

Ravi Mahamuni, Supriya Mantry, Mayur Jadhav

Chapter 8. Service Design for Scale—Overcoming Challenges in Large-Scale Qualitative User Research

Services must scale up to meet the varying contexts and demands of diverse consumer groups, especially for global consumers, citizen services and organisational services. To enable services for scale, the activity of service design must scale up concerned processes, tools, techniques and people. Beyond traditional design approaches, rather than depending on a handful of designers and stakeholders, we can reap benefits of a more significant number of people and designers, across regions, and considering a wide variety of issues, users and methods to inform the design of the services. In this paper, we deliberate on this conversation of scaling service design by primarily considering the phase of primary research, specifically qualitative user research. Although qualitative user research is accepted as an academic approach, it is often questioned on the grounds of validity and practicality of logistics. When considering service design for scale across very diverse user groups, data saturation may be challenging to achieve with a small number of samples. We argue that it is necessary to tackle more extensive qualitative studies if we want to scale up designing for services, with technology as an enabler. We highlight this need for conducting large-scale qualitative studies while covering theory and critique in literature and propose some of the approaches we have attempted in our service design practice.

Ravi Mahamuni, Shivani Ganwani, Sylvan Lobo, Bhaskarjyoti Das, Radhika Verma, Ulemba Hirom, Supriya Mantry, Mayur Jadhav

Chapter 9. Design for Small Businesses in India—Helping the Real Entrepreneurs

Sustainable development goals (SDGs) set in 2015 by the United Nations aims to achieve a better and sustainable future for all, intended to accomplish by 2030. This paper presents the innovative and creative efforts taken up by a multidisciplinary team of designers, researchers, engineers, and architects worked on a pilot project, which was presented to the Ministry of Micro-Small Medium Enterprises (MSME), India. The focus of the project was to understand the challenges faced by a non-organized business or small business trades ranging from tea vendors, vegetable vendors, etc. How to design interventions can bring an improved ‘value perception’ in the society while providing ease of work, more earnings, cleanliness, and overall well-being to these hardworking people in India. Design is considered an essential strategy for innovation to create differentiation in the market. During this project, the designing is explored as a catalyst to bring positive social change. The team studied selected popular trades, which are generally present in every town of India, by conducting field trips, photography, and observational studies to collect data. The map of problems versus opportunities was generated. The specific requirements derived from this study offered rich insights and established the need for design interventions at the product-service-system level. Further, a co-design workshop was conducted with design students focusing on future of vending, improving employment opportunities in small businesses through mobility. The paper highlights the design process, creative explorations, and design developments of solutions. This pilot project provides future directions and lists ample opportunities for designers to play an active role in bringing social transformation.

Vipul Vinzuda, Jitendra Singh Rajput, Amresh Panigrahi

Chapter 10. A Tool to Design a User-Centred Town Plan

The race of rapid urbanization has ended up developing numerous smart cities around the globe. A large amount of funds and resources are exhausted in this sector but the returns are not satisfactory. The infrastructure development is as per the vision and brainstorming of the experts and policymakers of the society. But the same is not accepted by the end user of the recently developed smart cities. So, it is very important to understand the requirement of the end-user, to make these projects successful. The conventional methods of data collection for town planning like questionnaires, personal interviews, group discussions, public hearings, etc. are having their limitations. The major issue with these data collection tools is that they all are very time-consuming and effort-intensive. The end users lose their patience or interest and end up giving biased data which fails the entire purpose of end user data collection. Hence, in this paper, we have designed a tool to collect user-centred data from a large number of people, in a short duration of time. We have used card sorting techniques for making it interesting and easy to understand for the users. The zoning of the city can be easily done, and the same can be used as a framework for detailed planning. So, this paper is on designing a user-centred town planning tool. This tool will ensure that the requirement of majority of the population is taken into consideration. It can be converted into a mobile app-based tool to have the vote of the entire population for designing their own town.

Abhishek Singh, Pratul Chandra Kalita

Chapter 11. The Cancer Positive Journey: A System Design Thinking Perspective

Background Breast cancer, one of the most common invasive cancers for women both in the developed and developing world, poses a threat as a multi-dimensional malignancy branching out into an array of medical, physical, financial, social, emotional and sexual turmoil. This paper reports research that has been carried out in an academic pursuit for answers to queries encapsulating the social perception, impact and aftermath of breast cancer—affiliated healthcare systems, effective caregiving, healthy coping and holistic healing mechanisms. Objective The study aims at presenting the illness and its negative imprints as a cumulative concern, instead of singularly scrutinizing it through a clinical lens. It urges practitioners and caregivers to innovate and intervene at three identified and overlapping target phases of the journey: (i) awareness and diagnosis, (ii) short-term healing and (iii) long-term recovery. Methodology With underlying system design practices, this qualitative study was conducted as a part of a visual communication project under the graphic design department at National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad. The deployed methodology made use of empathy mapping, opportunity mapping, gigamaping, interviews and questionnaires as tools to engage the two stakeholder groups, one including health care providers, patients and their support systems personifying direct stakeholders of the journey and the second being a group of general participants embodying indirect stakeholders. Conclusion This approach devised cancer positive, a collective and curative movement, which provides a systemic solution to downsize the trauma of the illness, foster interpersonal relationships and eradicate the perceived and actual stigma attached to breast cancer. The proffered system provides strategies for accessible and responsive caregiving, remote monitoring, telemedicine and behavioural modification by proposing an allocated breast cancer data unit. This paper primarily elaborates on the design rationale that suggests the imperative need of an all-inclusive recovery-centric approach instead of a mere survival outlook towards the life-threatening phenomenon.

Alishka Shah

Chapter 12. A QFD Approach for Selection of Design for Logistics Strategies

Designing products considering logistic costs and improved customer service in the field of supply chain management is termed as design for logistics (DfL). By improving the design of the products for logistics, organizations can reduce the costs spend on logistic and delivery. Some of the critical factors of adopting DfL are ease of transport, ease of packaging, ease of loading/unloading, minimize logistic cost, and so on. To improve the DfL characteristics at the product design stage, five strategies, namely flat packaging strategy, design for non-circular subparts, modular design principles, and design for ease of fabrication, have been identified. Quality function deployment (QFD) approach, a successful method often used for new product development, was used in the selection of strategies for designing products from a logistics viewpoint. The results of QFD show that flat packaging strategy and ease of handling are the critical DfL strategies for the improvement of logistics characteristics of the product at the design stage. The methodology has been tested through a real-case application in a packaged drinking water manufacturing organization.

Mahadharsan Ravichandran, K. E. K. Vimal, K. Jayakrishna, Asela K. Kulatunga

Chapter 13. Design Interventions for Improvement of Adoption Rate of Micro-irrigation in Assam

Agriculture contributes to about 16.5% of India’s Gross Value Added (GVA) and provides direct and indirect employment opportunities to a large proportion of India population, nearly 70%, which more than any other sector in the country. Increasing demand for food has put stress on the sector to increase its production. This necessitates increased dependence on irrigation to meet crop water needs. However, due to decreasing water table, it is imperative to popularize water efficient technologies for irrigation. Despite progressive schemes of the government, the highly efficient micro-irrigation system has not been well adopted in Assam. This paper studies the present system in the state and correlates with the feedback received from 225 beneficiaries to develop a framework for design of an effective system. Design intervention can play a major role in designing such system.

Manoj Kumar Verma, Amarendra Kumar Das

Chapter 14. Inclusive Design in Higher Educational Institutes for People with Disability

Concepts of universal design are gradually making its roads in the design and development of public spaces (airports, shopping malls, metro-railway stations, etc.) and public utilitarian facilities (ATM, ticket vending machines, telephone booths, etc.). Although the educational institutions are an essential category of the public space, it is still deprived of harnessing the benefits of universal design in the majority of the countries. When infrastructures are created for educational institutions’ buildings, due considerations are given for architectural space layout, strength and stability of the architectural structure, aesthetics and functional aspects, sustainability parameters, etc. Barrier-free environments are created mainly for wheel-chair users to make the institutional space inclusive to accommodate physically challenged/specially-abled stakeholders (students, teachers, supportive staffs, and visitors). Still, the requirements of different types of specially-abled people are not aptly addressed to make the built-space inclusive. Here, it is worth mentioning that the difficulties due to their various limitations among specially-abled people are diverse. Thus, all these necessities are to be addressed collectively in the infrastructure of an educational institute. Besides infrastructures, various assistive aids are crucial to facilitate quality education among specially-abled stakeholders. Through a systematic review, the current research aimed at determining the extent to which the issues/problems of the specially-abled stakeholders have been addressed in the design and development of infrastructures and assistive aids in educational institutes.

Priyanka Yadav, D. Udaya Kumar, Sougata Karmakar

Chapter 15. Modular Communication as a Structure for Sustainability Within Social Enterprises

How can communication designers think systemically, within the context of modular communications, to design for social enterprises aiming to create socio-environmental impact? This research explores modular communications as a structure to empower sustainability within social enterprises and to create social impact through messaging. It contextualizes the working of over less with more. By using a multiple case study approach (five social enterprises mainly from India, South Africa, and Kenya), the findings of which communication strategies work (education, participatory action, positive messaging, action-oriented engagement) and which do not (negative messaging, blind reliance on social media, no social proof), become core themes. Interviews with the enterprises’ key leaders address the intention and outcome of their messaging. Thematic analysis was used as a systematic yet flexible approach to achieve the core themes. The study also led to the creation of a diagram to visually analyze the communication touchpoints of the enterprises, in modules. The core themes (as foundation) and modular communication (as structure) together suggest the achievement of sustainability within social enterprises and on-going effectiveness of their communication systems. This paper can act as a guide for designers passionate about creating impactful communication. It sprouts conversations about processes that are required in order to achieve the desired end-product.

Mehak Gupta

Design Training and Education

Frontmatter

Chapter 16. Introduction to Self-help Books/Texts for Design Students

Time spent at college is a happy experience and a fond memory for most of the students but for some, it has many rough patches. Everyone’s situation is unique, but there are a few problems that almost all college students deal with at least once during the time they spend in college. 72% of students in India are unaware of how to deal with stress and its ill-effects as studied by Dr. S.G. George. A study by NIMHANS has also found that 11% of college students have attempted suicide because of stress. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kind of stress design students go through and how taking help from a self-help books/texts can guide students to deal with the feelings, thoughts or behavior that come with stress and anxiety and can act as bibliotherapy for them. Self-help books take insights from psychological science and draw in particular on the newly developing “positive psychology”. There is evidence that bibliotherapy is effective in the treatment of psychological disorders. To know how self-help books can help the design students, eight in-depth interviews with the current and former design students were taken who have experienced the stress and triumphed over that with the help of self-help books. A survey amongst the students was conducted to know about the stress they go through and how they deal with it, what they most need at that moment and their awareness about self-help books.

Shefali Yadav

Chapter 17. Mapping the Research Thread of PhDs in Design: A PhD Citation Analysis of the Portuguese Doctorates

The present study undertaken within the DesignOBS project is based on 172 PhD theses in Design submitted to the Portuguese National Design Schools between 2005 and 2019. It focuses in particular on the extraction and analysis of 522 PhD citations appended to design doctoral work. The analysis is used to observe school impact, explore the weight of previous design focused and non-design doctoral work to develop PhD research in design in the country. The results reveal few connections between doctorates and few overlaps in-between as well as outside design schools; thus, indicating poor continuity and reproducibility of domestic doctoral work, little tradition of PhD citation, and an important weight of non-design schools. A network-based visualization of the connections between PhDs in design within PhD thesis, by use of a citation analysis method, enabled to draw reflections on the status of domestic doctoral research in Portugal and provides an empirical approach to explore the reproducibility of this type of research which may be used in other countries.

Nina Costa, Rui Costa, Afonso Borges, Vasco Branco, Raul Cunca, António Modesto, Ana Catarina Silva

Chapter 18. Pedagogic Influences of Art and Design Schools on Architecture Education in India

This study investigates the pedagogic relevance of art and design schools that have had major influences on schools of architecture in India. The data presented is a culmination of literature review of published articles and papers and analysis of curriculum. The curriculum of top ten architecture schools as ranked by NIRF in 2020 are considered here as representative of what is largely being taught in schools of India. The conclusion of the study establishes the prevalent influences of pedagogy of art and design schools, subjects that have gained importance and vice versa, and their relevance to the future.

Harshitha G. Raju

Chapter 19. Product Design with Form, Strength, and Function for Undergraduate Product Design Students—A Case Study

At the undergraduate level, many students studying product design often focus on the visual and tactile aspects of the design process. Those students inclined toward a wider perspective with respect to a desire to also focus on the functional, and strength aspects of products, may need a framework to understand how a design moves from an idea to a product. This study, through the example of designing a bicycle (for road use), provides a study on how undergraduate students could be engaged to better understand certain elements in the design of a tangible product. (1) Form, function and strength are key elements of any design which needs to be linked with the user. (2) Trade-offs of various types are needed at every stage of a design process. (3) The tools (including computing software) used are easily available to students at no charge. Product needs to be safe, efficient, attractive, and comfortable. Its complexity, in terms of mechanics and mathematics, is provided at levels where a ‘high-school student’ who has studied mathematics and physics with some training in mechanics and kinematics can understand; while also allowing application of other aspects of knowledge learnt by them, such as ‘color theory’. This, and other studies of similar nature, focused on the incorporation of ‘applied sciences’ more intimately with product design courses, at undergraduate levels, might help graduating students to be better prepared to serve in industry.

Saurabh Kumar Mukherjee

Chapter 20. Non-technical Competencies for Succeeding as a Designer in a Digitally Transforming Workplace

Digitization is disrupting our world and shaping the challenges that newly minted graduates will need to address in their professional careers. The solution to manage such disruptions is anchored in the principles of sustainability and values that are foundational to mitigating inequities by managing the tensions between the pulls of people, planet, and profit. To succeed in the digitized world, we suggest that we provide the opportunity for our soon to be designers to develop five non-technical, career sustaining competencies: 1. To continue learning through reflection and the associated creation and articulation of knowledge. 2. To speculate and identify gaps that foster innovation. 3. To ask questions, actively listen, reflect, and identify gaps and opportunities worthy of further investigation. 4. To make decisions using incomplete information. 5. To think critically (deductive reasoning and inductive speculation) and identify a way forward. Our intent in this paper is to promote reflection, dialog, and action on modifying curricula to provide our soon to be designers the opportunity to internalize non-technical career sustaining competencies and values that empower them to foster societal and technological innovations that promote sustainable development and mitigate societal inequities.

Farrokh Mistree, Janet K. Allen

Chapter 21. Application of ASPECTSS™ to the Design of Vocational Training Spaces for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that leads to a characteristic pattern of perceiving, thinking and learning. ASD, due to its complex nature, has not been given enough attention in design guidelines or building codes. Designing spaces in which an individual with ASD could be sensorily comfortable can potentially help in the management of as many of the symptoms as could be manifestations of their sensory discomfort. The personal interpretation of a physical environment affects the meaning attached to it. Thus, it becomes essential to design the built environment for individuals with ASD in order to maximise their independence and efficiency. Vocational training in craft-based skills involves a specific sequence of process requirements. The working environment can embody these requirements to be more conducive to learning for individuals with ASD. The study explored the application of ASPECTSS™, a design index, for the design and layout of the training institute. Based on the preliminary observations, the study mainly focused on three areas, acoustics, compartmentalisation and escape spaces. Improvement of acoustics through installing high noise reduction coefficient materials, provision of an escape space and collapsable structures for compartmentalisation were the interventions that were suggested to the institute.

Nithya Venkataraman, Kudrat Kashyap

Chapter 22. Ways of Teaching—Simulating Real-Life Scenarios into Twenty-First Century Interior Design Education

The dichotomy that exists between the sanitised atmosphere of campuses versus the messy reality of ‘sites’ often strikes interior design educators and practitioners alike as anomalous. It is imperative for students to better understand real-life scenarios, but the very nature of interior design sites means that it is difficult to recreate those conditions on campuses, and hence, the experience is incomplete. All design schools christen the core courses in which projects are undertaken by their students as ‘studios’ (similar to what design practices call themselves), but in their present form these do not allow for several crucial issues to be addressed. While certain other design disciplines find it easier to simulate these conditions as the nature of their creations is of a standalone variety, the proposed design of an interior space is a conception that is rooted and hence dependent on many external factors. Secondly, if an interior design proposal (or even a mock up) is to be created in three dimensions for the purposes of demonstration, it requires such a high investment of resources (time, labour and money) that it becomes unfeasible. This paper aims to investigate the ways in which students, through their undergraduate interior design education journey, can learn in a studio environment that accurately reflects the potential which an ongoing site holds, along with its intrinsic constraints and challenges. While the wind beneath the students’ wings is the educator who encourages them to dream, experiment, make mistakes and be free of the commercial shackles that often dictate design decisions on sites, in order to have a complete education and become well-rounded designers, today’s design studio must better equip them with a holistic outlook of the profession, which includes the ability to recognise and acknowledge practical considerations. This, in the long run, will only improve the employability and placement prospects of the graduates of tomorrow.

Amrita Ravimohan

Chapter 23. Ethnography as a Tool to Study Indigenous Craft Clusters to Build Cultural Sensitivity and Inclusivity Amongst Design Students

The narrative of traditional Indian craft and traditional textile is woven tightly with sub-continent’s culture. These indigenous crafts and traditional textiles in India are clustered in small weaver communities or tucked away in rural artisan pockets far from the urban settlements. These craft cluster communities make artisanal handmade products for unchanged rural, massy urban and niche luxury markets. Spradley (1979) defines, ethnography as the work of describing a culture from the native point of view. Ethnography in that sense, in this study, bridges the rural and urban divide to understand indigenous art, craft and the people in them [20]. This paper describes ethnographic research methods that are used as a way of studying different indigenous Indian art and craft forms, and the craft communities who make these artisanal products. It enlarges how design students co-create and innovate design solutions in the textile and craft sector. And within these inter-cultural exchanges and interactions, students learn the life lessons of being culturally sensitive. Through an extensive review of existing literature, decade long ethnographic studies in various craft clusters through out India (conducted in past by the author), and semi-structured interviews with the students, the study aims to answer the core questions of the research with an objective of perhaps finding more harmonious and inclusive societies.

Lavina Nimba Bhaskar

Chapter 24. Game-Based Learning for the Awareness of Culture & Tradition: An Exploratory Case Study on the Indigenous Naga Tribe

Game has always been an enjoyable part of human life. Nowadays, gamification technique efficiently relates learners from various domains to their concerned area of interest. This paper attempts to integrate the ancient culture of the Naga tribe of North-east India with the digital gamification realm. The Naga culture survived centuries through oral tradition of tales, myth, customs and beliefs. This traditions mainly flourished in their dormitories called “Morung”.The advent of modernization replaced the traditional system with western education, which led to the constriction of sharing cultural values. Gamification, if designed with indigenous insight, serves its own outlook and can go far beyond gameplay session. For understanding the acceptance of the content of the conceptual game, a survey was carried out within a group of Naga people. Their affinity towards the gaming world enhances the further possibilities of development of the conceptual game, which may serve as an archive of their cultural heritage.

Susmita Roy, Pankaj Pratap Singh, Abhijit Padun

Chapter 25. THINK Lab: An Initiative to Foster Creative and Critical Thinking Amongst First Year Design Students

Synonymous with imagination and reasoning, creative and critical thinking used together increases the possibility of desirable outcomes in situations requiring problem-solving which is a prime function of design. Teaching creativity and criticality appears to be an inevitable task in design education. However, it is often assumed that learners will gain these thinking skills tacitly as a by-product of certain course content delivery that focuses on conceptual or factual knowledge and technical skill development, for the creative disciplines. This paper examines the effectiveness of “Think Lab”, a domain-specific, experimental learning module, that aims to develop the creative and critical thinking potential of foundation (first) year undergraduate students of design. Drawing from the work of creativity experts Edward De Bono and Michael Michalko, amongst a few others, Think Lab equips students with formal tools, techniques and strategies for creative and critical thinking. It takes a constructivist approach to learning-teaching, strategically combining the tenets of experiential learning theory and collaborative learning. Primary data has been collected from three batches of students who attended Think Lab, to investigate the appropriateness of the content (what is taught) as well as the effectiveness of the learning-teaching methodology (how it is taught), in context of their future design learning and practice.

Prachi Mittal

Chapter 26. Active Learning Strategies for Teaching Research Skills to First-Year Design Students

The studies have shown that research is fundamental to design education and to equip students with the nuances of research, research methodology and academic paper writing are included in the curriculum. The purpose of this study is to establish that teaching research skills, rather than research methods, is a more engaged learning process for foundation-level design students at the undergraduate level. Teaching strategies applied in a controlled environment built on Bloom’s taxonomy and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development theory using Kolb’s experiential learning theory along with motivational strategies have proven to be engaging and enabling for the students. This is mapped through a cultural context-specific research project. To analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of active teaching and learning strategies applied in the entire module, a student survey was conducted on two consecutive batches. According to our findings along with achieving all the intended learning outcomes, the strategies have been instrumental in increasing students’ engagement and minimize their inhibitions and have provided opportunities to keep them intrinsically and extrinsically motivated toward practicing research skills.

Anshoo Rajvanshi, Gauravi Mittal

Chapter 27. Design Thinking Instructions and Cognitive Processes

In the era of the 4th industrial revolution, new jobs demand that the workforce should have several essential skills such as problem-solving, creativity, critical thinking and innovation skill. School education is the right time to impart these skills in young children who are members of the future workforce. Literature shows that several cognitive processes are at the core of these skills. These cognitive processes are also mentioned to be at the heart of the design thinking process, justifying the need for teaching design thinking process at the school education level. In the pedagogic context, the revised Bloom’s taxonomy defines 19 specific cognitive processes and classifies these into six major categories. With the help of this taxonomy framework, an attempt has been made to find the association between the instruction for activities within the ‘IISC design thinking’ process (a specific process that aims to optimise design thinking) and the cognitive processes. Results indicate that following the above instructions while performing IISC design thinking activities enable most of the cognitive processes recommended by Bloom, covering all his six categories. This has the potential to support the development of higher-level cognitive skills that are required for the twenty-first-century workforce.

Apoorv Naresh Bhatt, Lavannya Suressh, Amaresh Chakrabarti

Chapter 28. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Undergraduate Education: Design Thinking to Redesign Courses

Problem-based learning (PBL) has profound implications on the motivations of the student to learn and is known to help develop critical thinking, complex problem-solving, self-learning, collaboration and communication skills, thereby enabling fresh graduates to be industry-ready. However, most institutes of higher education in South Asia offering undergraduate programmes have instructional and didactic pedagogical systems. The Erasmus + project, ‘Strengthening Problem-based Learning in South Asian Universities’ (PBL South Asia) aims to build capacity of the South Asian partner institutes by collaboratively developing best practices in PBL for undergraduate education, bringing expertise and experience of peers from across Europe and India. Therefore, to gain benefits of the PBL approach, the redesign of existing courses was undertaken and the novel strategy of conducting a Design Thinking workshop to do so, was engaged. During the five-day workshop, faculties from the institutes in Nepal and Bhutan, who are most well aware of the challenges, shortcomings and strengths of their curriculum, were mentored step-by-step, by their Indian and European peers, who have more experience in delivering PBL courses. Backed by the strategy of Design Thinking, the complex problem-solving activity of course design was addressed systematically, and the five institutes proposed redesigned courses which are currently in the process of implementation.

Shakuntala Acharya, Apoorv Naresh Bhatt, Amaresh Chakrabarti, Venkata S. K. Delhi, Jan Carel Diehl, Ellen van Andel, Andrius Jurelionis, Laura Stasiuliene, Luis De Jussilainen Costa, Riina Subra

Chapter 29. Reinventing Design Education for Twenty-First Century

Design is everywhere and an integral part of our lives. It is a passion for our ‘feel-good factor’ adding excellence and efficiency in our activities. Increasing complexity has made design education more challenging. In the process of development, design extended into various disciplines like architecture, planning, fashion, textiles, graphics, visual communications, fine arts, interiors, multimedia, and jewelry. All these design disciplines have design principles common in them, but attributes change as per the discipline. These disciplines mark their presence independently and have been consistently synergizing each other to create a newer vision. There has been a need for reinventing design education. An interdisciplinary approach in design is vital for excellence and furtherance of know-how in allied fields. To bridge the distance between the disciplines, we have been developing a design education model at Manipal University Jaipur (MUJ). The paper will evaluate the model of design education and give recommendations.

Madhura Yadav

Chapter 30. Do Design Entrance Exams in India Really Test Creative Aptitude? An Analytical Study of Design Tests Conforming Creativity Benchmarks

Design entrance exams are common nowadays for securing admission to design schools in India, be it private or public institutes. Students are often examined during these competitive exams to test their creative aptitude. Over the years, format of design entrance exams in India has gone through innumerable changes. In some formats, objective questions are preferred, in some subjective tests are conducted, while few prefer a combination of both lack of a standardized format of testing creativity across design schools in India, unlike engineering and medical colleges, raises questions like (1) Do these design entrance tests really capture creativity to its fullest? (2) Do they conform to any standardized format of creativity testing? The study reported in this paper intends to investigate these questions by conducting a detailed comparative study of existing entrance exam formats of Design Schools of India. A detailed analytical approach by using affinity mapping and generating open codes was used to classify and categorize question formats of different Indian Design entrance exams. The open codes were then mapped with the extracted factors of the literature review with an objective to identify the factors confirming to creativity evaluation. The results highlight that existing entrance exam, while capturing major factors for creativity evaluation, lacks in capturing a few essential factors that provide greater insight into the creative instincts of an individual assessed. A model for standardization of creativity assessment has also been suggested based on the study results. This study would provide new light into the nature of design-based entrance examinations in India and might lead the way toward a standardized Design entrance exam in the future.

Nandita Bhanja Chaudhuri, Debayan Dhar, Pradeep G. Yammiyavar

Chapter 31. Innovation by Design—A New Post-Graduate Program at SUTD

Design thinking has been gaining importance in training and education worldwide, but mostly in the form of short courses and executive education initiatives. Although there is enormous value in short courses and executive education, they often lack the depth required to effectively practice the tools and methods learned and thus to realize design as a strategic investment for both companies and countries. The particular focus of this paper is Singapore. At the Singapore University of Technology and Design, a new Master of Engineering (MEng) program has been set up to address this perceived gap in education. The MEng program in Innovation by Design (MIbD) is a research-based program that takes design thinking and design innovation to the level of other post-graduate programs in other areas worldwide. The organization allows practitioners to participate part-time. Three terms into the program, the balance is extremely positive. The program has been very well received in several presentations to companies. It is expected that these students will either start their own business or easily find jobs in a context that is craving for people with this formal education: a broad view of design and the ability to implement it.

Arlindo Silva, Lucienne Blessing

Chapter 32. Role of Authoritative Elements in Design

The importance of learning theories is that they expose the learner to a wide spectrum of ideas, thereby expanding the knowledge base while allowing the learners to experiment, analyze and internalize their observations. In all the study of design, the principles, factors and elements that comprise, modify and establish design can be summed into three categories, namely physical elements, modifying elements and authoritative elements. There are factors that physically comprise design, factors of ephemeral and intangible quality that modify design, and authoritative factors that root and establish design at a particular place in time. In most cases of theoretical analysis, there is a sense of looking backward—to the study of established facts and the principles that may be gleaned from the study. The authoritative elements, in particular, comprise the primary establishing elements which form the base for study. The word authority has its roots in the word “author” which means someone who has the power to bring something into existence and sustain it. With respect to design, it is these elements that bring richness to design or add the dimension of depth. The authoritative elements are history, typology and context. At the time of undertaking this research, there is no literature that comprehensively brings the elements of design together to enable place-making. However, such an endeavor would be hugely beneficial to the design community in terms of providing a framework, within which their design may be generated while also proving relevant to its time. The purpose of the research is to establish the impact of authoritative elements on form and space. The methodology of inquiry and research is through the literature study and survey questionnaire.

Sunalini Esther, Sheeba Chander

Chapter 33. Social Connectedness in Online Versus Face-to-Face Design Education: A Comparative Study in India

The global pandemic has affected almost every aspect of life across the globe including medical services, essential services, production units and educational institutes. People have been forced to physically and socially isolate themselves. This study focuses on the sudden shift that design schools in India had to make from having traditional face-to-face (F2F) classes to starting virtual classrooms online. This paper reports the results from semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with ten design tutors from ten different design schools across India. The authors attempt to understand how the design instructors compared the online classes with traditional F2F classes, and how they perceived the effects of instructor–student connectedness and interaction on teaching motivation and satisfaction in online design teaching. This study found that most instructors felt a lack of social connectedness with the students during the online classes. The paper discusses details of some of the reasons for this lack of felt connectedness and how it affects the teacher satisfaction and learnability of the design students. In addition, it reports the insights given by the instructors about some of the creative learning practices in design courses that they are currently finding challenging to replicate online.

Christy Vivek Gogu, Jyoti Kumar

Design Teams, Collaboration, Communication

Frontmatter

Chapter 34. The Infinity Process: A Design Framework for Interdisciplinary Problem-Solving

Designers are posed with problems that typically require an approach involving knowledge and expertise sourced from multiple disciplines. They often rely on specific predefined design processes to tackle these complex, open-ended problems. These processes were conceptualized as a flexible methodology to approach design problems. However, these design processes are not explicitly designed to facilitate interdisciplinary problem-solving, which is fundamental in tackling most design problems. In this paper, we present an overarching framework for interdisciplinary problem-solving, as observed through an interdisciplinary project involving the hearing-impaired community while interacting with experts from different disciplines. The paper proposes the infinity process, a design framework that can be applied while working in interdisciplinary product design teams. It takes into account the facets of research, design, development, and testing while also addressing the gap of need validation and iteration. The infinity process breaks down the problem-solving process into four distinct phases. Each phase focuses on one aspect of product development. Designers can apply the four phases starting from any phase, thereby eliminating rigidity of the process. Designers may also use each phase of the framework independently, depending on their respective stages of product development. The cyclical nature of the infinity process captures the iterative nature of the design process.

Sree Mahit Munakala, Chetan Manda, Sharmistha Banerjee

Chapter 35. Co-designing with Visually Impaired Children

Co-design methodology takes user-centred approach a step ahead by including end-users directly in the design process. It ensures that their needs are well addressed by involving them as true experts of the experience. But when it comes to visually impaired (VI) children, it presents some unique challenges which mostly remain unaddressed with limited research in the domain. The paper addresses this gap by presenting a set of learnings which can assist the development of techniques for co-designing with VI children. We explore the co-design methodology for conducting ideation as part of a broader project centred around indoor navigation for VI children. We begin with a discussion of existing literature around co-design techniques for children and related work done for VI adults. Primary research was further done to understand the routine activities that VI children involve in and the challenges they face. Inspired by the insights gathered from this research, new co-design techniques were ideated. In all, five activities were chosen and conducted during the co-design session with six VI children. Findings and observations from this session are presented in the paper. Activities were found to be useful and thought provoking amongst children. It helped them in thinking and expressing new creative ideas which finally contributed in determining key directions for the solution. Finally, we present our learnings and discuss the best practices for conducting co-design sessions with VI children. These learnings can be further expanded and referred by fellow practitioners to build more innovative and accessible solutions for VI children.

Anupriya Gupta, Lokesh Fulfagar, Pankaj Upadhyay

Chapter 36. Design-Audited Mass Communication Model

Assam is world’s largest tea growing region, even as the tea industry labourers lag behind in human development parameters, suffering high magnitude of malnutrition, infectious diseases, superstition. This research paper tries to understand and analyse the communication process prevalent among them, whether various communication campaigns have effectively served necessary awareness messages to them, whether existing communication models are adequate for them and what design intervention can do for a better tomorrow of such population by exploring the scope of designing a new model. A usability study examines the characteristics of their interaction with media and processing of messages and meanings. The gap in communication message designs indicates the need for a new approach to deal with the unique challenges. An intervention study has been conducted. A new and exclusive model is proposed for them: a model of mass communication to be audited on the principles of design and contextual usability.

Suresh Goduka, Amarendra Kumar Das

Design Theory and Research Methodology

Frontmatter

Chapter 37. Impact of Culture on Design Versus Design on Culture

Globalization has led to manufacturers selling their products all over the world and due to financial and manufacturing feasibility of designed products, these are mass manufactured and sold in different parts of the world. However, success of a product is impacted by the culture of a country/region. Therefore, it is important to consider cultural impact on design. Similarly, design can have significant impact on culture of a country/region. This paper studies impact of culture on design and vice versa and proposes a table for culture versus design, with qualitative parameters for culture and design and this is justified through case studies from two different culture. In these case studies, the impact of culture on design and design on culture in India and the Netherlands were carried out by considering the proposed table. The results help in understanding the impact of culture on design and vice versa.

Lau Langeveld, Amarendra Kumar Das

Chapter 38. Understanding the Dynamics of Emotions During the Design Process

Research on emotion and design literature has relied primarily on the product generated by the designers and the emotional experience felt by the users while using the product. A limited number of studies have addressed the dynamics of the designer's emotions during the design process. This exploratory study attempts to understand the emotional experience of designers during the design process with supporting empirical evidence. Twenty-five designers were asked to carry out a design task for a limited period of time. The data was analyzed using the FBS ontology framework, linkography, and PANAS ratings to establish the dynamics of the emotions during the design process based on the video and audio recordings of the task. This study demonstrates mostly positive affect throughout the design process with associated high entropy scores and high outcomes, where the affective states varied between different time intervals and at different phases of the design process.

Mritunjay Kumar, Satyaki Roy, Braj Bhushan, Ahmed Sameer, Swati Mittal, Bharat Sarkar

Chapter 39. Design of Multifunctional Artefacts as Perceived by Potential Users: Findings from a Preliminary Investigation

Multifunctional designs such as the Swiss army knife, sofa-cum-bed and smartphones are commonplace, but there is limited research to assist designers in determining what factors to consider while designing such products. Therefore, findings from a survey-based empirical study that seeks to understand how potential users perceive the desirability of multifunctional products in which the functions of two or more existing products are combined into one product, are presented. The findings from this study can be used by designers to build better multifunctional designs. The empirical study builds on related theoretical work on sharing in designs, especially structure sharing and resource effectiveness, where factors identified from previous work such as relative importance (RI) of the different functions performed by the product, the quality of functions (QoF) and the emergent negative functions (NF) in the multifunctional product, are found to be relevant. The results and insights from the responses to the survey are presented, and the implications for opportunities for further research are discussed.

Vishal Singh, V. Srinivasan

Chapter 40. Patterns and Insights From a Design Group’s Mobile Chat–Preliminary Findings and Commentary on Participation in Online Communities

The discussions in online groups and communities that share a common identity and interest can provide useful insights into various attributes and behaviors of the group as well as their beliefs and thinking. Such discussions may also be useful to make preliminary conjectures and hypotheses about the wider community they identify with. Accordingly, this paper seeks insights from an extended group chat among the alumni of a design school of a reputed institute over a logo rebranding exercise commissioned by their alma mater. An almost collective sense of dissatisfaction among the design alumni with the approved rebranded logo of their alma mater ensured that the discussion extended over a month, providing a rich volume of data and discussion to analyze and reflect on. While the situation was somewhat unique because of the sentiments attached to their alma mater, the range of discussions covered several comments on the outcomes (designs), process, and people (stakeholders). Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analysis of the discussion. This analysis sought to gain insights into their thinking and beliefs, both as individuals as well as a group. Implications of the findings for design education as well as participation in online communities are discussed.

Vishal Singh, V. Srinivasan

Chapter 41. Our Machines

Our relationship with machines has evolved to the point where it dislocates our connection to the natural world. Our machines are a series of curated exhibitions and events which include a selection of video art and objects that explore emerging technologies and reflects on our lives as cyborgs. Artists and designers often work at the forefront of new technological eras, exploring, utilising and adapting new apparatus, materials and systems. By looking at the evolution of some of the work of these practitioners, it is possible to trace a trajectory of the development of new means to express transformation, empathy and affinity to one another and with technology. This text considers how the selected works within these exhibitions enhances our post-human existence by offering imaginative and positive experiences of our lives as cyborgs.

Louise Colbourne

Chapter 42. A Qualitative Study of Global Design Practices to Build Directions and Opportunities for Indian Social Design

The design industry including design knowledge and practice is constantly evolving itself to fulfill the evolving needs of society in order to deliver a larger social impact. Social design is a field that stresses the positioning, responsibility and collective societal impact of designers and designed products. The underdeveloped and developing world can benefit largely from social design interventions. India is a developing country with social problems like poverty and poor health care—giving a large scope for social design work. However, major development of social design is limited to other countries. A qualitative study was conducted with 14 global design practitioners to understand the social design theory, knowledge and practice existing globally and identify directions and opportunities for the Indian context, by using a cultural lens. The study suggests creating open dialogue, simplifying vocabulary, bias-busting, fostering cross-cultural social design and encouraging mindfulness as the main opportunities. These opportunities can be applied both in social design practice and design education.

Tanishqa Bobde, Raman Saxena

Chapter 43. Anecdotes to Animation: Role of Oral History in Visual Adaptation Study

This paper investigates the qualitative research method of oral history collection through in-person interviews in the context of visual adaptation studies. For this discourse, two academicians cum animation scholars across two countries, India and Malaysia, are interviewed. Personal testimonies are validated to understand the process and decisions for designing traditional visual art informed animation styles. The study evaluates the research method through relevant, practice-based examples and context analysis. This scholarly approach is nascent in the field of visual art studies and animation. Hence, the findings of this study hold significant value for designers, creative practitioners and academicians.

Swayamsiddha Panigrahi, Hans-Martin Rall, Mazhar Kamran

Chapter 44. Design Thinking as a Strategy to Inculcate Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Undergraduate Education Across South Asian Universities

The Bologna declaration states that, “successful learning and studying in higher education should involve students in deep learning”. However, a survey of faculty across institutes in Nepal and Bhutan highlights that the undergraduate students in engineering and management lack skills needed to be industry-ready. They face difficulty in getting employed after graduation and if placed, then struggle during their employment due to insufficient practical experience, lack of good communication skills and unawareness of broader socio-economic contexts. The Erasmus + funded project, “Strengthening Problem-based learning in South Asian Universities” (PBL South Asia) is an endeavour to address these pressing concerns in education quality, employability and overall sustainable development of the region and to imbibe deep learning capabilities. Therefore, as an empirical study to clarify and in turn, inculcate PBL in South Asian undergraduate education, the young faculty of the inexperienced institutes from Nepal and Bhutan, alongside the students from the experienced institutes from India and Europe, were mentored by faculty and researchers from the latter to undertake multidisciplinary case studies. The strategy of “design thinking” was employed to methodologically guide the cases and keep it consistently problem-based, i.e. the learning is driven by the problem with no one correct solution. Results showed that the participants reflected improvement in problem-solving skills and increased motivation, apart from enhanced collaboration and improved communication ability. Based on these findings, further development of curricula to imbibe PBL in its existing courses and guidelines to train the trainers for implementation of the same, are currently in progress.

Shakuntala Acharya, Apoorv Naresh Bhatt, Amaresh Chakrabarti, Venkata S. K. Delhi, Jan Carel Diehl, Nelson Mota, Andrius Jurelionis, Riina Subra

Design Management, Knowledge Management and Product Life Cycle Management

Frontmatter

Chapter 45. Capturing Knowledge Transfer Using Zachman Framework in Bio-inspired Design Process

Natural entities are sources of inspiration for designers as they exhibit nature's unique and novel strategies and help them design products. For understanding and abstracting principles from nature, the knowledge of a biological entity is a must. Knowledge capture and representation in bio-inspired design is a complex process. Firstly, the biological entities are documented in different places such as books, articles, blogs, etc. A designer might need to spend considerable time while shuffling through these documents without coming to any conclusion. Secondly, biological knowledge is intricate and from a different domain. This complexity at the entity level and retrieving captured knowledge can lead to confusion and frustration. Thirdly, the roles of various stakeholders are not clearly defined. Hence, the knowledge collection, compilation, usage, and representation process are vague. We provide an organizational approach to represent bio-inspired design knowledge collection, compilation, and usage and representation process using the Zachman framework. Zachman framework provides the descriptive representation of enterprise architecture, uses six primitives, and can handle complex systems. In this research, we understand and apply the Zachman framework to capture and represent bio-inspired design knowledge with an organizational viewpoint. This research aims to organize and represent captured knowledge transfer, building, and representing processes and making it readily available for designers who can use it to make design decisions.

Sunil Sharma, Prabir Sarkar

Chapter 46. MCDM-Based Decision Support System for Product Design and Development

The process of product design and development (PDD) consists of various sequential stages. Each stage requires a complex evaluation and the right decision to attain a successful product. Decision making in these product design stages often is involved with multiple criteria and it is important to use multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) to assist design practitioners for more appropriate decisions. Nowadays, various MCDM methods are available and applied in various areas. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of decision-making problems that may creep during different design stages and possible MCDM methods that might be applicable to solve them. This paper presents comparative analysis and gives information about some of the most popular MCDM methods with the design decision applications as per the available literature. This knowledge can help enterprises make better decisions in a particular design stage to ensure the success of their PDD.

Prabhat Kumar, Ayan Tiwari

Lexicon, Taxonomy, Ontology, Machine Learning and Data-Driven Design

Frontmatter

Chapter 47. Mindmaps-Based Tool for Planning and Structuring Design Research Papers

Research papers are a tremendous source of cutting edge knowledge. Writing a good research paper requires proper planning and structuring of paper, which often comes from experience. Planning and structuring the research paper is tedious for novice researchers due to the lack of a process that could assist novice researchers in planning and structuring their paper. We conducted workshops on writing research papers based on a generic framework to understand the mindset and problems faced by novice design researchers. Workshops provided us with helpful insights about how and what novice researchers think while writing research papers. We came up with a concept of using mindmaps that allows novice researchers to plan and structure the content of the research paper before writing the paper. It was observed that it reduced stress and anxiety around organizing the contents of a paper while writing it and researchers could focus more on the language of the paper while writing it. This directly increases the quality of a paper in terms of its language and narration.

Mashahib Nawaz Hassan, Sharmistha Banerjee

Chapter 48. Inference Variable—A Human Cognition and Design Perspective on Knowledge Graph Visualization

In this paper, we expound our theoretical hypothesis covering effective visualization factors in the area of visual analytics for a knowledge graph (KG) considering human cognition aspects of inferencing. The paper reflects on the first and foremost challenge with visualizations—which is effectively harnessing the potential of a knowledge graph visually. While there is a progress on the technical front in allowing an inference to be queried, there is limited scope to do the same visually. The second challenge identified is when the user has to use his mental space and cognitive reserve to conflate and schematize knowledge to infer. There are certain constraints with this as to how the human attention is efficiently oriented toward the relevant information and the visualized information is not cognitively loaded for the user to infer from it. As far as the visualization aspect of the knowledge graph is concerned, the aim is to reduce the cognitive resources used for building a new schema of the task inside long-term memory. Hence, the proposed inferencing variable in the paper enables the release of space and conserves the cognitive reserve for further higher cognitive process of decision making. It also includes the elements of motivation for the user to visualize knowledge in knowledge graphs and an overview of the existing visualizations of KG.

Rani Joseph, Abhilasha, Prithvi Raj Ramakrishnaraja, Ramesh Manickam, K. Vineetha, Srinjoy Ghosh

Innovation Management and Entrepreneurship

Frontmatter

Chapter 49. Store Atmospherics, Shopping Motives, and Buyer Behavior—An Indian Consumer Perspective

In the modern era of marketing, creating pleasurable experience by enhancing store atmospherics, which we coin as ambience, has emerged as a deciding factor for profitability of firms. Hence, retailers have been investing a lot to create positive experience and identifying the factors that stimulate the conative, affective and cognitive factors. Current increased usage in information and communication technology, free knowledge sources has made the consumer more aware of substitutes and better options at better prices. Hence, studying the impact of store atmospherics, which include lighting, visual merchandising, color that stimulates positive experience has been studied to increase the profitability of retailers and improve customer experience from user’s perspective. The study undertaken will help to understand the dimension in designing the store atmospherics, which are most effective in attracting the customers and affecting their conative, cognitive and affective replies. This study is based on the user’s experience in buying the product and evaluating the factors that stimulate the buying intention through the usability audit. The findings of this investigation will help the retailers to develop better in-store atmospherics, helpful in increasing the sales and consumer loyalty that contribute to the profitability.

Ramchandra Alias Ameet Chate, S. R. Bharamanaikar

Chapter 50. Creation of Value in Ecosystems—A Perspective from Design Innovation

With design becoming more and more explicitly recognized and used as part of the innovation in businesses, design innovation as a discipline is also maturing. Design innovation is helping recognizing value creation explicitly in all stages of innovation. Innovation itself is moving from offering innovation to experience innovation and from a single business firm driven to ecosystems driven. In this paper, we review literature from design innovation discipline and business ecosystems discipline. From the literature review, we establish that design innovation needs to go beyond offering innovation and address value creation within multiple firms from the ecosystem perspective. We also discuss business models of ecosystem participants and their influence on each other as first step in this research direction.

Nikhil Ravindranath Zope

Chapter 51. Understanding and Evaluating the Needs of a Respiratory Assessment Device for Community Health

In public health settings, most of the patients with respiratory-related complaints come with chronic conditions, where the disease has already developed to a chronic stage that requires immediate care. As per the Global Asthma Report (2018), more than one billion patients suffer from chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). Pneumonia is considered the single most significant cause of mortality in children worldwide with over 2 million deaths. Factors such as malnourishment, low zinc intake, overcrowding, exposure to parental smoking, indoor air pollution play an essential role in increasing children’s susceptibility to respiratory infections. Due to the lack of pulmonologists in primary care centres and lack of time, patients remain undiagnosed, which leads to a rise in the number of chronic cases. The problem is worse for babies suffering from pneumonia, where any delayed diagnosis can be fatal. In a crowded and noisy atmosphere, it is challenging to hear the sound of congested lungs through a regular stethoscope. To improve our understanding of the screening process and gather clinicians’ perspectives, several face-to-face interviews and online surveys were conducted. We also documented the existing diagnosis methods and tests prescribed by clinicians to detect pneumonia. This research paper documents and highlights the need for a respiratory assessment device. The research paper is divided into three segments; firstly, it highlights the existing diagnosis methods for respiratory disease and issues related to it, and secondly, recording and analysis of clinicians’ perspectives and challenges. Finally, conceptualizing a novel solution to assist clinicians in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases.

Nibedit Dey, Priyabrata Rautray

Chapter 52. Context of Design Innovation: Development of Practice Support in Accordance with Design Research Methodology for Enabling Creation of Value

The context of design innovation refers to harnessing human creativity for ‘creation of value’. With innovation pointing to transforming the ideas for success in the market place, it is a reasonable expectation for creativity-based design practice to enable this particular transformation. The review of design innovation literature suggests that the practice ought to be explicit with regard to ‘creation of value’. The research study looks at this scope towards developing a practice support for enabling ‘creation of value’. The literature on business model refers to the rationale behind creation of value, which may be adapted into design practice. The development of practice support adopts the various perspectives from the literature on business model and introduces the resulting approach as part of standard design phases, in order to address ‘creation of value’ explicitly. The stages in design research methodology are adhered with, while developing the practice support. An initial study with reference to the context of design startups indicates validation of the developed practice support.

Doji Samson Lokku, Deepak John Mathew

Chapter 53. Designing Brand-Led Cultures in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME’s) Struggling Through Midlife Crisis

Small and medium-sized enterprises are engines of employment and innovation, contributing to 95% of businesses in most countries. The world of branding is dominated by large businesses, but there exists a lack of SME perspective on the subject (Berthon et al. in J Small Bus Manage 25–45, 2008, [1]; Krake in J Prod Brand Manage 14:228–238, 2005, [8]; Wong and Merrilees in A brand orientation typology for SMEs: a case research approach, 2005, 15). This study investigates into challenges of SMEs that limit their understanding and use of brand-led strategies and states how SMEs can use their own brand to enhance longevity and sustenance for their companies. It will therefore benefit SMEs across the globe, irrespective of what sector they belong to. As observed, SMEs have successfully challenged large corporations by developing market-focused brands in the last decade. The UK Design Council has also noted that SMEs adopting a design-led approach are more successful than those who do not. It therefore becomes essential to identify the challenges and overcome them through further research. This research follows a qualitative approach and expresses a metaphorical relation between humans and SME brands. Brands are personified and their life cycle is illustrated. SME struggles are compared to midlife crisis in the human life cycle. It can be said that SMEs are in the same ambiguous state of mind as humans facing the advent of midlife crisis. The recommendations made in this study will equip SME leaders to understand their organization from a grassroots level and benefit through development of a brand-led culture within their organization, making them competitive through strategic use of their own brand. This study is attending to identify a much larger gap in the industry, raising a conversation that has potential for further research.

Isha Patel

Chapter 54. Understanding Bodo Identity in Their Handloom

According to S. Endle, the Bodos are one of the largest ethnic communities among the Indo-Mongoloid origin of Tibeto Burmese language family and the largest single speaking ethnic community in North-east India. The community has significant traditions of visual culture, particularly of wood carving, handloom and textile, craft works, horticulture, and folklores. The community also had wide knowledge in weaving garments from grasses, fibers and cotton, what they grew from silk, both wild and domesticated. It is significant that the silk of sericulture was introduced in north-eastern states of India, many centuries before the arrival of Vedic Aryans by the ancestors of Bodos (Endle 1997). However, the new generation of the Bodo community rarely follows the ancient cultural practices due to lack of preservation, documentation, and research of about the art and artefacts of this community. “Considerable amount of changes has taken place in the dress outfits not only the male section but the female section as well. Similarly, the art of dying yarn and cloths which was a community secret of the tribe is gradually fading out”. (“Tribe of Assam Part- I” by Bordoloi et al. [Bordoloi B.N., Sharmah G.C., Saikia M.C.: Tribe of Assam. Part-I. B. N. Bordoloi, Guwahati (1987)]) So, this paper evolves from the research gap through a critical review of the limited literature available in the field of Bodo handloom design, understanding of Bodo community, and philosophy of the culture.

Maneswar Brahma, Utpal Barua

Chapter 55. Entrepreneurs Motivation for Selecting Homestay Businesses: Special Reference to Ella, Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan tourism industry is one of the key important sectors to develop within the country. Ella is one of the destinations which has recently become popularized with its attractive and unique geographical features, chilling climate, and authentic local lifestyle. Homestay accommodation is playing a major role in fulfilling an excess demand for accommodation in Ella and it is contributing to the economy of small and medium entrepreneurs (SMEs). The main objective of this study is analyzing push and pull motivation factors of entrepreneurs to select homestay business in Ella. Primary data has collected from fifty homestay entrepreneurs and researcher used semi-structured questionnaire to collect data. Confirmatory factor analysis has been used to analyze the data. The study revealed that, to generate additional income is the primary push factor which is pushing entrepreneurship by negative external factors. Enjoyable things to do in the homestay accommodation business can be identified as main pull factor which is attracting entrepreneurs to homestay businesses. Apart from that, this study identified some issues and challenges which entrepreneurs have to face when they are doing homestay businesses such as lack of security, lack of facilities, competition with unregistered homestay operators, lack of service orientation, difficult to maintain the standards, not enough training to manage homestays, language barriers, lack of cross-cultural understanding, lack of brand image and marketing activities, lack of accessibility for transportation and communication, and lack of monitoring from the ministry and Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (SLTDA). Basically, this study reveals the reasons of entrepreneurs to start homestay businesses in Ella, Sri Lanka. Relevant authorized parties can be involved and analyze the challenges and issues of homestay entrepreneurs and required to give solutions for them as well. Finally, this study suggests innovative practices for homestay entrepreneurs to face identified challenges and problems and become more unique business in the industry.

C. P. Danthanarayana, T. G. A. H. C. Amarawansha, P. G. M. S. K. Gamage

Chapter 56. Measuring Design in Businesses and Government—A Framework to Measure Design Impact

Private and public sector organizations are realizing significant and lasting economic and social value through the adoption of design (Sheppard et al. in The business value of design. McKinsey & Company (2018), [1]); (2015 dmi: Design value index results and commentary—design management institute (2015), [2]); (Brown in Design thinking. Harvard Business Review, [3, 4]). As such, projects and initiatives that are design focused are increasingly being undertaken by businesses and governments. However, there is only a nascent understanding of how the impact of design should be measured. A comprehensive framework has been developed and tested with businesses and the government of Singapore to measure the outcomes of their designs. The framework consists of four impact areas—enabling economic transformation, raising quality of life, advancing brand and culture, and making ground-breaking achievements in design. The design impact framework considers different types of impact and shows that while certain types of “impact” can be quantified, we also now have other ways for measuring impact and widening its definition. The design impact framework provides a basis and common language for discussing designs across disciplines and scale. The framework and tool jointly create a comprehensive and robust structure that may assist designers and organizations communicate their designs more effectively.

Ashreya M. Venkatesh, Kristin L. Wood, Arlindo Silva

Chapter 57. Design, Frugal Innovations, and Low-Resource Settings: An Analysis of Five Contextual Aspects

Designing frugal innovations is crucial to alleviate problems faced by people living in low-resource settings. Many design studies have been undertaken in such low-resource settings. These studies are discussed using a variety of names like ‘frugal innovations’, ‘appropriate technology’, ‘design for the Base of the Pyramid (BOP)’, ‘product service systems for BOP’, ‘community development engineering’, ‘design for development’, etc. There is an important need to know in what context these studies were undertaken. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the contextual aspects of these studies, we review a wide range of literature, focussing on design studies in this field. The review findings show a multifaceted picture, revealing a large variety in examination and presentation of contextual aspects such as income, design sectors, countries, rural–urban, and gender. Based on the review findings, we offer recommendation for practice, education, and research of designing frugal innovations in low-resource settings.

Santosh Jagtap

Fablabs, Makerspaces and Design Spaces

Frontmatter

Chapter 58. Journey of Product in Maker Spaces—A Case Study

India being a country of variety, there is a variety of innovative products, available and made. Here is a journey of a small product and its development with the help of different maker spaces. The interest to use bamboo as a product designer has always pushed the imagination after experiencing the material. Bamboo is a very common material and has been a major source of living for many tribes. In past decades, mainly south Asian countries have brought bamboo as an industrial material. Just research and development in bamboo is not enough as the world is changing rapidly. An emerging trend of design collaboration is the key to our problems. As our environment and resources are changing, it puts us into a great threat. As the technology could not grow beforehand, the growth of such technology depends on research and development of materials and product and user experiences. The small-scale industry could not afford such research and development, designers, and engineers do not have laboratories to innovate. Thus, a makers culture brought in some revolution were in, making is more focused then designing or innovation. Making something automatically inculcates innovation based on the requirement and comfort of the product. With this maker's culture, many makers were inspired but not everyone can avail space as per their need. In India, such space might be seen especially in the art institute, but these spaces are restricted to students only. Such a concept was taken forward and some maker spaces and design spaces were evolved. The paper will have a comprehensive and case study of a product. This product which was incepted by a maker’s space and went through different maker spaces until its first prototype. The further study shall include the development requirement of a maker’s space and survey on some other maker spaces. Post research will be examined on the need of such maker space and its boon to the society.

Arun Soman, Neha Chourasia

Enabling Technologies and Tools (Computer-Aided Conceptual Design, Augmented/Virtual Reality, MEMS, Haptics, Smart Technologies, IoT, Cobotics, etc.)

Frontmatter

Chapter 59. Digital Health Interventions to Enhance Patient Care for Indian Nurses

The health care and nursing profession in India has suffered neglect both historically and in present times. We propose the use of information and communication technology-assisted learning (ICTAL) for creating a large capacity of qualified, skilled, and competent health care workforce in a short period. The “Indian Nursing Knowledge System (INKS)” an online platform uses a blended learning approach with, including, but not limited to customized, individualized digital health content, maximum utilization of smartphones, Web portal, SMART products, simulations, with inter-sectoral coordination with sectors of society addressing health and well-being. We envisage improving nurses’ clinical skills, competence, critical thinking, decision making, and the ability to work in teams.

Vydianathan Ramaswami, Raj Arjunan

Chapter 60. Enhancing Creative Learning Methods by Immersive Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study in Classroom Environment

Technology is increasingly essential in engaging millennials. Over the past few decades, education pedagogy has struggled to develop new methods and tools to create better and higher quality education. Virtual reality (VR) technology is one of the solutions for new education pedagogy that can solve the restriction of space, time, and the act of learning. The VR inclusion into learning pedagogy also facilitates self-learning and problem-solving as well as assist students to explore new ideas. This study aims to develop and trial lessons of art and design using VR technology instead of traditional art and design classes. The participants are 6th standard school students. Within traditional teaching of art and design, depth of learning is insufficient. To challenge the traditional environment, VR technology-based art and design lesson are applied in the core curricula of art education in this study. Two sets of tests are conducted with 6th graders, one is pre- and post-test with VR-based lesson, and the other is pre- and post-test with non-VR-based lessons. Overall, this study hypothesizes that VR will make for better learning and upskilling of students’ knowledge of art and design. This study found that the teaching outcome with VR and conventional teaching outcomes has a number of significant differences. Besides, it shows the pathway of VR-based teaching methodology in classroom environment.

Sumana Som, Deepak John Mathew, Shivanes Phillipson, Indranil Saha

Chapter 61. The Influence of Industry 4.0 on Product Design and Development: Conceptual Foundations and Literature Review

Since its introduction in 2011, industry 4.0 has been coined the “fourth industrial revolution” following mechanization, industrialization and IT/automation as the first three, and represents the current trend of automation technologies (cyber-physical systems, Internet of things, cloud computing, etc.) in the manufacturing industry, with their potential for disruption of the manufacturing paradigm as we know it. However, the effect and role of industry 4.0 on the design and development of the new products to be manufactured in industry 4.0 facilities is not clear. This research presents a literature review to: (1) understand the concept of industry 4.0 from an implementation (state of practice) viewpoint, (2) learn about approaches and considerations currently deployed for developing products to be produced in manufacturing plants progressively transforming into industry 4.0 environments. Results reveal that the potential of industry 4.0 is underexploited within product design and development, especially in the conceptual stages lacking methods, tools, and approaches. While later stages of the product development (production planning, ramp-up) have received some attention in regards with optimizing production operations, several publications acknowledge its potential to benefit earlier process stages.

Sravan Tatipala, Tobias Larsson, Christian Johansson, Johan Wall

Chapter 62. Digital Preservation of the Qutb Shahi Monuments: Archiving Architecture for Historical Education

Organized assortments of photographs have given birth to the method of photogrammetry which has earlier helped geologists in topographically mapping terrain and landscapes. Photogrammetry is a technique of measuring from photographs. It is usually associated with the making of maps from aerial photographs. When the same logic is set as an algorithm, it helps the software yield an even more accurate topographical product, but now with the additional capability of 3D projections. This can, in turn, be used to create photo accurate 3D models of any building, object, landscape desired. Along with technologies like virtual reality, photogrammetry can enable a viewer to be present in a digitized landscape that can be developed to look close to the original. This paper documents how the above set of technologies were used to virtually archive the monuments of Qutb Shahi tombs in Hyderabad. The process included photogrammetry, point cloud creation, UV mapping, texture modeling, mesh generation, etc. Thereafter, a digital setup of it was made and displayed through virtual reality. The result was a tangible, virtual landscape of the Qutb Shahi tombs, where the viewer could digitally navigate and see the monuments up close. The built artifact was then tested in a pilot study (n = 35) for its engagement with high school students as a tool for education in the classroom. The early results of the respondents have been positive in adopting VR exploration of historical monuments as a supportive tool for education. The future scope of evaluating this setup includes more exhaustive testing in schools of India.

Chaitanya Solanki, Deepak John Mathew, Gino Joseph

Chapter 63. A Novel User-Centric Assistive Device for Enhancing Luggage Security in Indian Railways

The security system at the Indian railways mainly focuses on X-ray scanning of baggage and metal detectors for ruling out possibility of any life-threatening object. Though so, the current management does not focus on the user centric needs of safety and security as a service within the trains. The number of passengers traveling by Indian railways is ever increasing, and implanting a strong security system at all major/minor stations remains a challenge. Baggage theft in trains has remained unapprehended as a crime causing people to stay attentive by themselves which add to cognitive load for the users/passengers. To investigate this problem from a design perspective, field research was performed based on a survey of 101 participants, and 15+ interviews were conducted as a part of direct observation and analysis. Multiple user case scenarios were used to generate insights based on which a solution was proposed. This solution presents an electronic device which is paired with a smartphone. The user can place this device inside the baggage for leveraging the security of their luggage. On lifting the bag without informing its owner, the device shall detect and pass the information to the owner’s smartphone through wireless technology. The smartphone receives the data and raises an alarm. The device is insensitive to the rotation and vibration of the train movement. The design of the user interface in the smartphone is based on the heuristic design principles to facilitate maximum convenience for users to operate it.

Md. Arif Ahmad, Chiranjeeb Deb, Tushar Sindhwal, Biswajeet Mukherjee

Chapter 64. Design Strategies Enabling Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 focusses on digitalization and developing intelligent products and processes. There exists need to develop robust products with enhanced process efficiency. Also, it includes integration of technologies to facilitate interoperability, modularity and so on. Design strategies would facilitate design engineer’s rapid decision making for product development. In this context, this article deals with analysis of 15 design strategies. The strategies are prioritized using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach. The priority order of design strategies is derived for further deployment in terms of developing products and processes.

Vishal Ashok Wankhede, S. Vinodh

Chapter 65. How Real is Virtual reality—An Immersion, Interaction and Embodiedness Study

In the past few years, virtual reality (“VR”) has been explored as a potential medium that provides immersive experiences. VR features are being evolved for active engagement. However, there is a lot of scope in researching how the VR experience varies across demographics. For example, how does an emergent user (education below tenth standard, hardly exposed to information and communication technologies, or “ICTs”) experience VR in comparison to a tech-savvy user (graduate, highly exposed to ICTs)? We performed mixed-method research with two experiments using mobile VR headsets. Experiment-1 was conducted to study the “immersion” effect by asking the participants to watch a virtual “roller coaster” ride video. Experiment-2 was conducted to gauge the effect of “embodiedness” and the “embodied interaction” with the medium. Here, the participants were asked to play the “Moon Bird” VR game, while moving their hands like a bird's wings. Qualitative and quantitative results were compared across the two user groups. Neither had experienced VR before. We found that emergent users got engaged better than tech-savvy users when there is only a perception of the virtual environment (Experiment-1). Hand movements acted as a cognitive load for emergent users (Experiment-2) in the beginning, but eventually, most expressed themselves as the game character. On the other hand, tech-savvy users possessed a strong distinction between the virtual and real environment but were found to be more engaged when they could interact with the virtual environment, rather than just perceive it. We discuss the findings and provide recommendations for future studies.

Deepak Ranjan Padhi, Sugandha Katoch

Chapter 66. Designing Sustainable Tourism Experiences for the Tourists of Tomorrow

Tourism is one of the fastest-growing and most important economic sectors in the world with its continuously evolving trends and its potential to create millions of job opportunities. The rise of globalization, changing demographics, and the constantly evolving needs of people has widened the canvas for tourism. However, improved connectivity and an increase in the purchasing power of people have resulted in rapid and unplanned tourism which has proven to be an environmental challenge. With a desire to travel and unwind being the topmost priority among today’s population, the number of tourists is predicted to increase by 3.3% per year causing tourism to become more of a hassle. Considering the current world scenario, the emerging generations (Generation Z and Millennials) are expected to contribute a significant market share in the tourism sector by the year 2040. The paper aims to identify the various pain points in the tourism experience and help advance the research and development of a sustainable tourism model. Specific attention is focused on illustrating tourism as a part of the “Experience Economy” and demonstrating how technological innovations such as Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, Internet of Things have given rise to the possibility of “Smart Tourism” and can contribute to help empower the host communities and, at the same time enable a transparent, reliable, and seamless travel experience, for the tourists.

Anamika Menon, Sagarika Jayawant

Chapter 67. Virtual Reality-Based Fire Safety Training for the Indian Context

A large number of fire accidents occur across India every year due to appalling status of fire safety measures and general laxity among the public. This paper explores the potential of virtual reality (VR) to educate and raise awareness amongst the masses about precautionary measures of fire safety. The VR experience is primarily targeted for non-fire fighters. A user-centered design approach was adopted to identify various problems faced at the time of fire emergencies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and online surveys were utilized for data collection. Based on insights gained from analyzing the collated data, VR experiences were prototyped utilizing Google cardboard and HTC vive. The prototypes educate the user about the use of fire extinguishers and behavior of smoke.

Alan Sha, Anmol Srivastava, Madhav Haldia, Pranav Kumar, Pankaj Badoni

Chapter 68. Mobile Technologies for Ageing Population with Dementia in Singapore

Prevailing literature has shown the relevance of information to caregiving of persons with dementia. Using the case of the newly introduced Dementia Friends app in Singapore, this research examines caregivers’ awareness of the availability of information resources and support services and their perception of existing app features, barriers to use and the information and support services that they most want for their caregiving. The online survey findings of 69 respondents promote the need for a systems approach towards supporting the households of persons with dementia. Active support networks can support caregivers to cope with day-to-day demands, and future app development needs to include more stakeholder discussions to address the complex needs of caregiving of persons with dementia and experiment solutions that can connect them to doctors, experienced caregivers and friends when is needed.

William Siew, Belinda Yuen, Arlindo Silva

Chapter 69. Design for Immersive Experience: Role of Spatial Audio in Extended Reality Applications

The incredible growth of extended reality (XR) applications will be leading us to a world beyond our imaginations in the coming decades. Extended reality is an umbrella term that encompasses different categories of immersive technologies like virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR). From the traditional applications like entertainment and training, XR has been spreading its wings into a large number of applications in health care, aerospace, product design and prototyping, e-commerce, workspace productivity, architecture, and building industries. Immersibility of the virtual reality scene into the physical world will be crucial for its acceptance by mainstream industries and future development. In addition to the virtual scene's visual perception, spatial audio is a key feature in designing truly immersive XR. Hearing is the fastest sense of humans, which makes virtual auditory display (VAD) an ineluctable part of any XR application. In this work, the importance of three-dimensional spatial audio in XR applications is explored in the user perspective approach. User experience (UX) is improved to a large extent when the applications make use of spatial audio compared to direction-less hearing experience. Spatial sound has a crucial role in giving information regarding actions in the background and beyond the field of view (FOV), and thus in making proper three-dimensional realism. However, designing user-dependent virtual audio reality is challenging because of its parametric dependence on human anthropometric features. This work also suggests the possibilities of utilizing computer-aided designing (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools in producing personalized virtual audio reality. While the immersive extended reality experience evolves as the next frontier in user experience designing, a sophisticated 3D audio experience will be there at the heart of it.

Ganesh Kailas, Nachiketa Tiwari

Chapter 70. An Augmented Reality Application to Teach Human Anatomy to Secondary School Students

Students start learning about human anatomy starting from standard VI (i.e., between ages 10–15 years) and gain a basic idea about all of the important organs and their functions. However, a quick survey reveals that students find it difficult to visualize how human organs look from inside and outside. They also lack an understanding of the basic functions of these organs. Further, as most of the instructional medium is based on a two-dimensional static paper-based medium, it lacks the look and feel of actual organs. To tackle this problem augmented reality (AR) technology was utilized. AR is an interactive experience of a real-world environment that is enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities. AR is an easy and feasible solution through which we can see and understand objects which cannot be seen in the real world. The proposed interactive AR application helps students learn about human anatomy in detail. The application gives the users the option to view six different organs of the human body along with their internal parts in real time. Information about each organ and its classified parts is also provided by the application. The application helps the students to learn and visualize the human organs properly. This paper presents a qualitative analysis study of the application which can help the students as a learning aid.

Arkoprobho Debnath, Utkarsh Pathak, Pankaj Badoni

Design Evaluation and Optimisation

Frontmatter

Chapter 71. Part Consolidation in Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Two-Level Approach Using Complexity Metrics

Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) creates opportunities for improved product design. Part consolidation (PC) is an important design opportunity in DfAM. The existing methodologies for part consolidation in DfAM are mostly based on expert judgment or heuristic rules. In addition, they only suggest the candidates for part consolidation. They do not assess the manufacturability of the consolidated parts. This paper proposes a two-level approach for part consolidation using complexity measures at the system level and part level. At the system level, the centrality score (a complex network measure) is used to identify parts with high potential for consolidation, and at the part level, a geometry-based complexity measure—modified complexity factor (MCF)—is used to assess the manufacturability. This two-step approach is expected to improve efficiency and effectiveness in DfAM since it uses minimal information at the system level and detailed assessment of manufacturability is done only for those parts where AM potential is high. Such an approach can be extremely useful to product designers at the early stages of design. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Jayakrishnan Jayapal, Senthilkumaran Kumaraguru, Sudhir Varadarajan

Chapter 72. A Process to Understand Products in Terms of Design Elements Using Linkographs

A product undergoes through a sequential process from design stage to development. The design elements and utilitarian aspects of the product need to be taken into consideration while developing /designing. As designers thought processes are converted into sketches, one has to have good knowledge on the basic elements of design. Function, aesthetics, ergonomics and usability constitute the broad elements of design. Each design will have sub-parameters, which designers need to prioritize and give more emphasis to those elements in particular. Linkographs will help in identifying the spaces, where a product can be value added to make it innovative. For all the identified design elements along with sub-parameters, linkographs have been plotted by taking a design case study. This approach shall emphasize on value parameters while designing the product and shall serve as a template for reference. Value addition can be evaluated in terms of design elements via the developed linkographs.

Ravi Lingannavar, Pradeep G. Yammiyavar

Chapter 73. Daylighting Evaluation and Retrofit Strategies: A Simulation-Based Approach to Optimise the Artificial Lighting Consumption

Daylighting plays a major role in the design of lecture halls. Architects and designers take advantage of daylight in lecture halls to enhance visual comfort and energy efficiency by using daylighting simulation tools. Daylight simulations provide with the ability to compare many design parameters and optimise design alternatives to promote visual comfort and energy efficiency. Still, daylight is not commonly combined with the artificial lighting in buildings as there is a lack of information and documentation on daylighting simulation tools to assess the energy-saving potential in buildings. This study aims to bridge the gap between the use of daylighting simulation tools and evaluating the energy-saving potential of daylighting in buildings by using a single objective optimisation approach. Twelve lecture halls were selected, and five retrofitting strategies were analysed to enhance the daylighting performance and optimise the artificial lighting consumption of the lecture halls. The simulation results showed 58–95% energy savings after applying the retrofitting strategies. Similarly, the daylight autonomy increased from 40 to 89% for lecture hall G5 and 14 to 51% for lecture hall G12. The DA was found as a good performance indicator and showed a positive correlation with energy savings.

Tarun Verma, Padmanaban Gopalakrishnan

Chapter 74. Evaluation of Retrofitting Strategies to Optimize Thermal Performance of Naturally Ventilated Classrooms: A simulation-Based Approach

The thermally comfortable environment in classrooms is significant to improve the performance and productivity of students. A substantial number of researches emphasize energy-saving potential, especially for forthcoming projects, whereas existing buildings in the world consume 40% of the energy to meet the desired indoor comfort conditions. Passive retrofitting strategies provide opportunities for reducing energy consumptions to achieve sustainability in the existing buildings. Presently, architects and designers are taking advantage of building simulation tools that can compare and optimize design alternatives before the installation. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of twenty-two combinations of retrofitting solutions to optimize the thermal performance of existing classrooms in the Architecture Department located in Tiruchirappalli, India, by using a simulation-based approach. The simulation results showed that retrofitting strategy 1 (RS1—expanded polystyrene + shading device option 1 + night ventilation) was performed better among all other strategies to achieve maximum comfort hours (three times more than the actual comfort hours). However, retrofitting strategy 5 (RS5—shading device option 1 + night ventilation) was found as a cost-effective strategy which does not include any insulating materials. Retrofitting strategies such as the insulating materials and the shading devices were significant only with night ventilation.

S. Niveditha, D. Kannamma

Design Modelling, Prototyping, Simulation and Visualisation

Frontmatter

Chapter 75. A Role-Based Prototyping Approach for Human-Centered Design in Industry

In previous work, the so-called role-based prototyping approach (RBPA) was proposed. It is for interdisciplinary student teams and puts strong emphasis on autonomy and proactivity. Progress in the project is measured by the three lenses of human-centered design, feasibility, viability, and desirability. It guides the students on important aspects of fuzzy-front product development by providing a template of the overall process and specific tools, e.g., an adapted Kanban board. This approach was limited to academia. In this paper, an application of the RBPA in an industry setting is discussed. Industry settings are different from classical fuzzy-front end scenarios because a context is given. To address this, the roles of the proposed approach were refined by assigning specific tasks to incorporate customer requirements. The result was deployed in a university course where students were given design tasks from industry. Each team is guided through this process with the help of daily coaching sessions and their progress is tracked, recorded, and evaluated. The results are then discussed in detail with an outlook for the future.

Nuno Miguel Martins Pacheco, Anand Vazhapilli Sureshbabu, Markus Zimmermann

Chapter 76. Improvement of Operator Comfort of a Vibratory Compactor

Vibratory compactors are primarily used for compaction tasks in earthwork and road building. They are regularly exposed to vibrations caused by the moving elements within them like drum and engine and the unevenness of the road or soil profile. Because of these vibrations, the structures are subjected to dynamic loads and the operators are endangered to health issues. A higher prevalence of spine problem, pain in chest, abdomen, arm and shoulder are found in the drivers of the compactors. Strict norms concerning these health issues make the design of an effective operator compartment inevitable on the compactors. At present, Indian earth moving equipment manufacturers follow ISO 2631–1 and ISO 5349–1 to ensure the operator comfort in the compactors. These standards insist practical testing of the operator compartment which can be time consuming. The frequency of dynamic loading plays a pivotal role in determining the operator comfort as well as the damage of the operator compartment structures. The major vibrating frequencies prevailing in the compactor are its drum operating frequencies and engine rotating speeds. In order to protect the operator from health issues and the structures from failure, the operator compartment should be designed in a way that its natural frequencies evade the major vibrating frequencies prevailing in the compactor. In this work, an effort has been made to develop a methodology using finite element analysis to improve the operator comfort of the compactors. The FEA results have been compared with that of experimental testing, and the FEA methodology has been fine-tuned to get a good correlation. In future, this FEA approach will be used to finalize the operator compartment design prior to practical testing with an objective of reducing the development cost and time and ensuring the operator comfort.

A. Gomathinayagam, S. Babu, P. Antony Stephen, R. Raja Ganesh, D. Boopathi

Chapter 77. Harnessing Immersive Technology with Art and Design: A Conceptual Design Procedure with the Aid of Virtual Reality

Art and design are increasingly crucial in Indian school curricula. Lack of specific instructional pedagogy, schools, follows a different methodology to teach art. Therefore, most students neither achieve a basic understanding of creating art nor develop design or skill. Although the article art education in India 2010 reported that it is an essential tool for equipping students to stimulate cognitive development and encourage innovative and creative thinking. Furthermore, it also emphasizes using electronic media aids to teach this subject. Nevertheless, most schools are giving less importance to teaching art and do not take the initiative to develop better pedagogy. However, education pedagogy in recent decades has struggled to develop new methods and tools for better learning. Virtual reality (VR) is one of the meaningful solutions to technology-driven pedagogy. It allows us to visualize abstract content, provide information with clarity, and actively participate in the learning environment. In this study, the researcher introduced a teaching–learning design concept using virtual reality technology so that the sixth standard student could learn art and design in the VR environment. The content is developed on elements of art, and the topics have been chosen from the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) art education program. The result of this study shows the procedure and criteria for content design with the aid of virtual reality for the study of art and design. Besides, this study examines aspects of how virtual reality helps in terms of designing the teaching strategy.

Sumana Som, Deepak John Mathew, Kim Vincs

Chapter 78. Comparative Aerodynamic Performance Analysis on Modified UAV’s Propeller by Using CFD

In multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), the propeller and its noise generation are plays a focal position in the determination of the radar signature. Because of this detection possibility, the implementations of compact UAV in surveillance-based applications have been reduced. Therefore, nowadays, huge research is going on the noise reduction techniques in the UAV's propeller, in which propeller's profile modification technique primarily reduces the noise generation. But the research on noise reduction is the failure to include the primary consideration, which are aerodynamic parameters such as lift, drag, etc. In this work deals with the comparative aerodynamic performance analysis on various modified UAV's propeller, in which six conceptual designs of propellers are analyzed. The base propeller and five other profile modified propellers are used in this work. The finalized fundamental platform of this work is bull-nose propeller, which has a 4.5-inch pitch, 5-inch diameter and can provide 500 g average thrust. CATIA is an advanced modeling tool, which is supported a lot for all the models’ construction. An advanced CFD numerical tool, i.e., Ansys fluent is used in this work for the prediction of aerodynamic performance parameters for all the models. Finally, based on exit velocity and thrust, the propeller optimization and its edge modification are obtained by using CFD's numerical tool.

Prisha K. Asher, K. Deviparameswari, B. Feonsa Antonitta, S. Meenakshi, R. Vijayanandh, M. Senthil Kumar

Chapter 79. Prototype-Driven Innovation: Propositions Based on Challenges and Opportunities

Existing new product development (NPD) methods are specification driven, where product specifications are typically made before prototyping starts. The existing method does not allow enough space for modification because of the association of sunk cost. Hence, the prototype-driven specification would enhance new product development with better prototype experience. But the prototype-driven approach does not have structured tools and methods to foster. Hence, it is very difficult to introduce and practice in design education. Systematic literature review had been done to identify the drivers, principles or guidelines and support tools in prototyping and prototype-driven new product development process. A structured and sequential process is followed to illustrate the initial reference model and impact model to identify the means that may foster the emergence of prototype-driven new product development from design education perspective. This state-of-the-art review also describes, discusses and connects the existing research to articulate propositions, which would help the future research in prototype-driven innovation.

Supradip Das, Amarendra Kumar Das

80. Visuo-Locomotive Complexity as a Component of Parametric Design for Architecture

A people-centred approach for designing large-scale built-up spaces necessitates systematic anticipation of user’s embodied visuo-locomotive experience from the viewpoint of human-environment interaction factors pertaining to aspects such as navigation, wayfinding, usability. In this context, we develop a behaviour-based visuo-locomotive complexity model that functions as a key correlate of cognitive performance vis-a-vis internal navigation. We also demonstrate the model’s implementation and application as a parametric tool for the identification and manipulation of the architectural morphology along a navigation path as per the parameters of the proposed visuospatial complexity model. We present examples based on an empirical study in two healthcare buildings, and showcase the manner in which a dynamic and interactive parametric (complexity) model can promote behaviour-based decision-making throughout the design process to maintain desired levels of visuospatial complexity as part of a navigation or wayfinding experience.

Vasiliki Kondyli, Mehul Bhatt, Evgenia Spyridonos
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