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Über dieses Buch

In constant effort to eliminate mine danger, international mine action community has been developing safety, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of clearance methods. Demining machines have become necessary when conducting humanitarian demining where the mechanization of demining provides greater safety and productivity. Design of Demining Machines describes the development and testing of modern demining machines in humanitarian demining.

Relevant data for design of demining machines are included to explain the machinery implemented and some innovative and inspiring development solutions. Development technologies, companies and projects are discussed to provide a comprehensive estimate of the effects of various design factors and to proper selection of optimal parameters for designing the demining machines.

Covering the dynamic processes occurring in machine assemblies and their components to a broader understanding of demining machine as a whole, Design of Demining Machines is primarily tailored as a text for the study of the fundamentals and engineering techniques involved in the calculation and design of demining machines. It will prove as useful resource for engineers, designers, researchers and policy makers working in this field.



Chapter 1. Humanitarian Demining Techniques

This chapter provides insight in general scale of mine threats worldwide together with efforts of the counter-mine community for their removal. It covers state-of-the-art available demining technology, from the aspect of demining safety and effectiveness based on demining machine use. Efficiency comparison between deminers, dogs and machines is provided, and it is confirmed that demining mechanization through detectors and machines assures greatest effect, safety and cost reduction. On grounds of machine and specific anti-mine equipment effectiveness, demining mechanization brings in a significant difference compared to deminer’s manual demining. That is deducted through experience in demining machine usage. Key features of machine mine destruction get explained. Also demining machines get classified in several categories, light, medium and heavy, as well as per their adequate application. Likewise, auxiliary demining machines, demining excavators with long reach arms and types of working tools, flails, tillers and vegetation cutters are described.

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Chapter 2. Mechanics of Machine Demining

A description of the basic physical–mechanical soil characteristics, soil categorization, soil digging resistance and soil trafficability is provided in this chapter. The theory of mechanical demining calculation is shown, based on soil treatment with flail and tiller to a certain soil depth and density for neutralization of mines. Demining machines neutralize buried mines by their destruction to bits or their activation. Moreover, mechanical demining theory is explained on basis of rollers. Emphasis of flail mechanics is given through flail parameters, hammer striking force, hammer force impulse, power requested for machine operation and total required demining machine strength. Flail design is derived, with flail geometry to optimal shapes of a striking hammer, then flail parameters for striking hammers, helixes and flails with relevant values. In addition, described are the means of testing flail durability against mine explosions. While analyzing demining rollers, AT mine destruction reliability is derived together with analysis of factor influence on activation of buried mines.

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Chapter 3. Design of Demining Machines

The project requests are set for demining machine design, operating conditions, mobility, transport, performance, remote control, endurance, soil digging density, protection, reliability, maintainability, documentation requirements, and testing requirements. As a result a design of light, medium and heavy demining machines is offered. Calculation is given for machine working conditions, movement resistance and soil digging resistance, the needed force and power for digging the soil. This includes the diagram of resistance force and hammer impulse force in correlation with flail rpm and tool shear. For specific depths of 10–20 cm respectively, specific power to a meter of rotor length is calculated, as well as total flail strength for processing soil of specified category. On grounds of machine movement resistance values and machine work, required engine power is determined, and finally the components of hydrostatic transmission are suggested. The output is a machine concept with two flails and a combined machine concept with flail and tiller. Its features of soil digging and neutralization of AP and AT mines are determined, as well as mine destruction reliability. Since machines often need to perform in toughest climatic and thick dust conditions, what was considered was a design of engine and transmission oil cooling system, together with air filter. Through machine acceptance assessment in real demining conditions, certain dilemmas over machine shaping, with flail, tiller and rollers, were cleared out. A vision of demining machines was suggested in its developing guideline:




machines and diesel-electric demining machines in ecological acceptability.

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Chapter 4. Design of Mine Protected Vehicles

An escorting mine protected vehicle is remotely controlled with a demining machine because this type of vehicle assures operator safety from mine threats. Mine protected vehicles are commonly used for military purposes, and less as escort vehicles in humanitarian demining. Mine protected vehicles are not adequately suitable for escorting mine protected vehicles in demining. When choosing mine protected escort vehicles it is highly important to implement good proportions in requirements of visibility, counter-mine and ballistic protection, and soil trafficability. Here the project requirements are primarily set, then an example is shown of chassis selection, mine protected vehicles’ design, as well as the level of necessary counter-mine protection according to

cone destruction

. It is of key importance that mine protected vehicles acquire certificates of crew counter-mine protection from real mine threats.

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Chapter 5. Personal Protective Equipment

Two kinds of machine operator personal protection are introduced.

Passive protection

refers to conforming to the safety procedures of the machine operator during the very process of demining. Keeping a safe distance from the machine and walking behind the machine provides certain protection from fragmentation mines, but not full protection.

Active protection

refers to PPE of a machine operator (vest, helmet with visor, footwear). In practice, the level of protection is limited with the capability of machine operator movement. Due to higher equipment weight and fast machine operator weariness, his moveability lapses. This is why less equipment is favoured, but with sufficient resistance to mine threats.

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Chapter 6. Test and Evaluation of Demining Machines

Test and evaluation of demining machines is described and shown through specifications and interpretation of results: performance testing, survivability testing and acceptance testing. Performance test focuses on developing a machine that will reliably neutralize AP or AT mines on defined soil types and required soil digging depth profile of a working tool. Survivability and protection tests focus on two areas: machine survivability—mine blast effect on the machine, and operator survivability—level of protection provided to operators subjected to blast effects. Acceptance testing focuses on the machine capability to operate in local demining conditions.


test range is introduced, for testing demining equipment. On the test range, demining machines, mine detectors and detection dogs are tested, and deminer together with other personnel training is performed, as well as research and development of new technologies in both controlled and natural environment. Demining machine testing process includes following activities: preparing documentation, test of digging depth and efficiency, testing done on AP mines, testing AT mines, operator protection testing, testing of excavators and supporting machines, annual compliance testing and additional testing.

Dinko Mikulic


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