Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
After the Fukushima accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, nuclear transmutation acquired much interest as an effective option of nuclear waste management. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes the transmutation of minor actinides by an accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead–bismuth eutectic alloy (Pb-Bi) as a spallation target and a coolant of the subcritical core. The current ADS design has 800 MWth of rated power, which is driven by a 20 MW proton LINAC, to transmute minor actinides generated from 10 units of standard light water reactors.
To obtain the data required for ADS design, including the European MYRRHA project, JAEA plans to build a Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) within the framework of the J-PARC project. TEF consists of two buildings: one is an ADS target test facility (TEF-T), in which will be installed a high-power Pb-Bi spallation target, and the other is the Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P), which will set up a fast critical/subcritical assembly driven by a low-power proton beam. TEF will be located at the end of the 400 MeV LINAC of J-PARC and accept a 250-kW proton beam with repetition rate of 25 Hz. As major research and development items of TEF-T, irradiation tests for structural materials and engineering tests for Pb-Bi applications to determine the effective lifetime of the proton beam window will be performed. The reference design parameter, that considers operating conditions of the ADS transmutor, was determined by thermal-hydraulic analyses and structural analyses. When the target operates with full-power beam, a fast neutron spectrum field is formed around the target, and it is possible to apply multipurpose usage. Various research plans have been proposed, and layout of the experimental hall surrounding the target is under way. Basic physics application such as measurements of nuclear reaction data is considered as one of the major purposes.
Sasa T et al (2004) Research and development on accelerator-driven transmutation system at JAERI. Nucl Eng Des 230:209–222 CrossRef
The Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK (2000) The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators (in Japanese). JAERI-Tech 2000-003
Oigawa H et al (2001) Conceptual design of transmutation experimental facility. In: Proceedings of the Global 2001, Paris (CD-ROM)
Sasa T et al (2005) Conceptual study of transmutation experimental facility. (2) Study on ADS target test facility (in Japanese). JAERI-Tech 2005–021
Tomisawa T et al (2005) Investigation of photo neutralization efficiency of high intensity H-beam with Nd:YAG laser in J-PARC. In: Proceedings of the 7th European workshop on beam diagnostics and instrumentation for particle accelerators (DIPAC 2005), Lyon, p 275–277
Soule R et al (2004) Neutronic studies in support to ADS: the muse experiments in the MASURCA facility. Nucl Sci Eng 148:124–152 CrossRef
Uyttenhove W et al (2011) The neutronic design of a critical lead reflected zero-power reference core for on-line subcriticality measurements in accelerator driven systems. Ann Nucl Energy 38(7):1519–1526 CrossRef
Niita K et al (2010) PHITS: Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, version 2.23. JAEA-Data/Code 2010–022
- Design of J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility
- Springer Japan
- Chapter 8
Fallstudie Überschwemmungskarten/© Thaut Images | Fotolia