Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This textbook describes the rules for the design of steel and composite building structures according to Eurocodes, covering the structure as a whole, as well as the design of individual structural components and connections. It addresses the following topics: the basis of design in the Eurocodes framework; the loads applied to building structures; the load combinations for the various limit states of design and the main steel properties and steel fabrication methods; the models and methods of structural analysis in combination with the structural imperfections and the cross-section classification according to compactness; the cross-section resistances when subjected to axial and shear forces, bending or torsional moments and to combinations of the above; component design and more specifically the design of components sensitive to instability phenomena, such as flexural, torsional and lateral-torsional buckling (a section is devoted to composite beams); the design of connections and joints executed by bolting or welding, including beam to column connections in frame structures; and alternative configurations to be considered during the conceptual design phase for various types of single or multi-storey buildings, and the design of crane supporting beams. In addition, the fabrication and erection procedures, as well as the related quality requirements and the quality control methods are extensively discussed (including the procedures for bolting, welding and surface protection). The book is supplemented by more than fifty numerical examples that explain in detail the appropriate procedures to deal with each particular problem in the design of steel structures in accordance with Eurocodes. The book is an ideal learning resource for students of structural engineering, as well as a valuable reference for practicing engineers who perform designs on basis of Eurocodes.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Basis of Design

Abstract
This chapter introduces the objectives of steel structures and their main fields of application that include almost all types of works in the construction sector, listing the most important advantages for the basic material in terms of mechanical properties, the high prefabrication, the easiness of connection between elements, but also the “after construction” benefits, like recyclability, durability, or easiness for strengthening and repair. It makes reference to the Eurocodes and other specifications on which this book is based and more specifically to the parts and structure of Eurocode 3 that specifies the design of steel structures. It then gives the main types of actions and provides information on the determination of the most important ones for building structures like imposed loads, wind, snow, temperature or earthquake. The ultimate and serviceability limit states are defined and the combinations of actions, together with the relevant partial safety and combination factors. Finally, the main mechanical properties of steel and the structural steel grades are presented, with some basic information on the microstructure of steel and common steel making processes that help understand the source of attaining the specified mechanical, physical and chemical properties.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 2. Models and methods of analysis

Abstract
Structural analysis in nowadays performed electronically with use of appropriate software. This chapter gives criteria to set up numerical models for the entire structure or parts of it. It presents analysis models for the most usual applications, such as single story industrial buildings, but also for other common types of steel structures. It gives methods to incorporate composite slabs and treat composite beams in multi-story buildings and shows how to use sub-models for parts of the structure and more elaborated models for structural details that need special investigation. It then presents methods of analysis including linear and non-linear methods in terms of non-linear material behavior and geometric non-linear behavior, possibly accounting for geometric, structural or equivalent geometric imperfections. The implications of different types of analysis are illustrated for simple structural systems. It outlines the Eurocode provisions concerning the cross-section classification that allows or not the application of plastic analysis and design for steel structures. It finally presents the types and values of geometrical imperfections provided by the Eurocode and the analysis methods prescribed by the Code as well as alternative proposals of the authors on their selection.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 3. Cross-section design

Abstract
During loading of the structure, cross-sections of structural members are subjected to internal forces and moments. This chapter provides the design resistances of cross-sections to individual internal forces and moments and their combinations. It starts with axial tension, where design resistances are given for cross-sections with or without holes and goes to the compression resistance of sections, accounting for possible local buckling effects. It then presents the elastic and plastic bending resistance, depending on the cross-section class, and the resistance to shear forces. Torsion and its uniform and non-uniform mechanisms with the corresponding design resistances are described. The properties and main characteristics in respect to torsion are given for open and hollow sections. Elastic and plastic resistances to St Venant and warping torsion are determined. Subsequently, cross-section design to combined internal forces and moments is given. Elastic design is expressed in terms of limitation of the von Mises stresses. For plastic design, interaction relations between internal forces and moments are defined including biaxial bending and axial force as well as shear forces and torsion. Interaction relations for plastic design of I-, H-, rectangular or circular hollow sections and angle sections as proposed by Eurocode 3 or derived by the authors are presented.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 4. Member design

Abstract
This chapter describes methods for checking structural stability, such as flexural, torsional, lateral torsional or local buckling of members or cross-section walls. It gives the procedures to define the design buckling resistance, which are, according to Eurocode 3, similar for all types of instability. The evaluation proceeds on four steps: a) determination of the critical elastic, Euler, load, b) calculation of the relative slenderness, c) evaluation of the reduction factor to buckling and d) determination of the buckling resistance by application of this factor to the yield load with due consideration of safety. Useful information is given at each step, for example for the Euler load which is calculated by differential equations or the energy method. In addition, recommendations and modelling possibilities for design by means of numerical non-linear analysis methods, as well as ways for the application of the very promising general method as defined by Eurocode 3 are given. The chapter ends with design methods for plate girders composed of walls susceptible to local buckling, with guidance for design of laced or battened built-up members and with verification procedures for composite girders consisting of steel beams and concrete flanges.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 5. Design of connections and joints

Abstract
Connections and joints constitute a very important part of structural steelwork, to be met during its fabrication and erection. This chapter introduces the basis of design for mechanical and welded connections and joints. It gives the specifications of the different types of bolts and accessories, the geometrical properties for bolted assemblies and the installation of bolts. It then introduces the main categories of bolted connections, whether bearing or slip resistant at SLS or ULS when subjected to shear forces and non-preloaded or preloaded when subjected to tension forces. For these types of bolted connections and for connections with pins it gives the Eurocode 3 provisions to determine the design resistances and preforming the relevant checks. It presents welding connections, providing technological information on welding methods, residual stresses and welding deformations. It defines the types and geometric properties of welds giving the design resistances of fillet, butt and plug welds. It then gives the design of joints subjected to shear forces, whether long lap joints, or splices of members, providing elastic and plastic methods for groups of fasteners. Subsequently it introduces the T -stub as the basic element of joints subjected to tension or compression forces. It then provides the classification of joints, whether by stiffness or by strength. It finally presents design methods for typical joints, such as beam-to-column joints, welded or bolted, column bases, or hollow section joints.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 6. Single storey buildings

Abstract
This chapter presents the main structural elements of single storey buildings, whether industrial, commercial, serving for sports activities or other use. Several structural solutions are proposed, with their advantages and disadvantages, with emphasis on the most usual ones. Reference is made to both the main and the secondary structural elements. Hot rolled, welded or cold-formed elements are described as well as cladding panels. Several types of bracing systems are also presented, such as vertical bracings, providing lateral stability to the building, wind bracings on roofs or using the panels of the skin as stability elements. Special attention is given to buildings in seismic areas, where enhanced requirements are to be met in respect to strength and ductility.
Single storey buildings are often equipped with cranes, supported by the main structure through appropriate beams. Crane supporting beams are also presented here, including the applied to them crane actions, their resistance and serviceability requirements as well as the related constructional details.
This chapter may assist designers to select, during the initial phase of the preliminary design, the main design options such as the general arrangement of the structure, structural systems, their geometry or types of cross-sections.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 7. Multi storey buildings

Abstract
The chapter presents the structural elements of steel multi storey buildings, such as columns, main and secondary beams or concrete slabs. For these elements various cross-section types, both pure steel or composite steel-reinforced concrete, are shown and alternative options commented, presenting the advantages and characteristics of each one. Information is included in respect to the serviceability requirements, the behavior under fire conditions and the methods of construction.
It follows the presentation of the various structural systems that ensure the overall lateral stability of the buildings, such as moment resisting frames (MRF), concentric (CBF) or eccentric (EBF) bracing systems, shear walls of different types or combination of the above, in association with the diaphragm action of the floor slabs and the rigidity of the connections and joints (simple, rigid or semi-rigid joints). This enables the designer to obtain sufficient information to select, for each specific case of a building, the appropriate structural configuration for the overall structure, and for its parts, such as the form and cross-section type of the individual structural elements and the connections and joints.
The chapter concludes with the presentation of the provisions of EN 1998 (Eurocode 8) for buildings constructed in seismic regions. These rules are specific for each type of system ensuring the overall lateral stability of the structure (MRF, CBF, EBF etc.) and are presented in specific sections. The seismic rules are related to the required stiffness and strength, the hierarchy of yielding, known as capacity design, as well as the damage limitation for the non-structural elements of the building in cases of frequent earthquakes, weaker than the design ones. The above seismic rules are to be considered in combination with the corresponding ones, presented in relevant section of chapter 6.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 8. Fabrication and erection

Abstract
In this chapter the procedures concerning the construction of the structure of steel buildings are presented, divided in the in-shop fabrication activities and the on-site erection. Specific sections refer to each production phase, such as cutting and holing, welding, bolting, corrosion protection and erection, as well as to the quality control and the constructional imperfections. In all sections the guidelines and application rules provided in the frame of Euronorms are presented and discussed.
As far as welding is concerned, the relevant sections include: the general rules to be respected during welding procedures, the appropriate preparation of the structural elements to be welded, the usual types of welds’ defects, the methods of non-destructive inspection and testing and the limits of acceptable imperfections, in relation to the nature and the importance of the building.
Concerning the surface protection of the steel members, the environment types in relation to their corrosivity, the surfaces preparation, the different paint and protection systems, the methods of inspection and the constructional measures to ensure paints execution, inspection and maintenance, are commented.
A section is dedicated to the quality control and the procedures to be respected during the whole construction, as well as each specific phase, in order to ensure a qualitative, reliable and durable structure. Finally, a specific section is related to the limits of acceptable constructional imperfections within which strength, stability and functionality of the structure are ensured.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis

Chapter 9. Design Examples

Abstract
This chapter presents fifty-two representative numerical examples, based on the design rules for the verification of cross-sections and members, subjected to the usual types of loading, the verification of bolted and welded connections, as well as for specific items such as hollow section joints, uniform built-up compression members or column bases. The calculation steps are directly related in the text with the corresponding numbers of paragraphs, equations, tables or figures of the Eurocodes, which are highlighted in grey. If only numbers appear, it is understood that reference is made to the part of Eurocode 3 mentioned in the beginning of each example. Otherwise, the specific Eurocode is additionally mentioned.
Ioannis Vayas, John Ermopoulos, George Ioannidis
Weitere Informationen