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Über dieses Buch

This book is the formal proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Design, Specifi­ cation and Verification ofInteractive Systems, DSV-IS'99, which was held at the Uni­ versity of Minho, Braga, Portugal from June 2 to June 4, 1999. The previous events of this series were held at Pisa, Toulouse, Namur, Granada, and Abingdon; the theme this year was "Engaging the Mind by Enriching the Senses", emphasising the importance of the interface in making interaction both effective and enjoyable. Presentations and discussions covered topics that included specification methods and their use in design, model-based tool support, task and dialogue models, distributed col­ laboration, and models for VR input. As in previous years, there was a strong emphasis on formal representations and modelling techniques, and their use in understanding in­ teraction and informing the design of artefacts. However, the aim of the workshop is to encourage an exchange of views within a broad community, and other approaches, in particular tool support for model-based design, were also represented. This book includes the papers of the two invited speakers (one as an abstract only), the fourteen full papers accepted for publication, two shorter position papers, and the reports from the working group discussions. The format of the workshop aimed to mix formal paper presentations with informal discussion sessions, with the two invited talks setting the tone for the meeting.



Invited Talks

Haptic Interactions in the Real and Virtual Worlds

In humans or machines, haptics refers to the use of hands for manual sensing and manipulation. Recently, haptic machines that enable the user to touch, feel, and manipulate virtual environments have generated considerable excitement. Synthesizing virtual haptic objects requires an optimal balance between the human haptic ability to sense object properties, computational complexity to render them in real time, and fidelity of the device in delivering the computed mechanical signals. In this paper, we primarily describe the progress made in our “MIT Touch Lab” over the past few years concerning the development of haptic machines, the paradigms and algorithms used in the emerging field of “Computer Haptics” (analogous to Computer Graphics), and experimental results on human perception and performance in multimodal virtual environments. Several ongoing applications such as the development of a surgical simulator and virtual environments shared by multiple users are also described.
M. A. Srinivasan, C. Basdogan, C.-H. Ho

Matching Technology to People for Telepresence

The first steps towards a multi-media telepresence revolution have already been taken. Ubiquitous network connectivity with variable bandwidth on demand will be available in the near future due to the evolution of Global IP-networks and fixed mobile convergence, e.g. UMTS. In order to efficiently deliver the radical variety of services that will become possible it is necessary to match the delivery technology to the end user’s needs. It will be necessary to enable a range of communications tasks with a variety of bandwidths, local processing power, and user requirements. To do so the delivery systems will have to be adaptive and context sensitive. The network, middleware and delivery technology must be optimised using perceptual criteria. These criteria will be in terms of audio/video perception and communications task requirements. Perceptual models are being developed at BT Labs. For multi-media systems we require multi-modal models for which the influence of task is very significant. In order to account for this level of task dependency we are having to develop and evaluate cognitive models. Examples that illustrate the diversity of emerging service propositions and the complexity of the optimisation task they represent include: immersive telepresence environments, desktop video and video-graphic conferencing tools, portable multi-media terminal, and wearables.
M. Hollier

Papers Presented

An Analysis and a Model of 3D Interaction Methods and Devices for Virtual Reality

The growing power of computing devices allows the representation of three-dimensional interactive virtual worlds. Interfaces with such a world must profit from our experience in the interaction with the real world. This paper corrects the early taxonomy of interaction devices and actions introduced by Foley for screen based interactive systems by adapting it to real world and to virtual reality systems. Basing on the taxonomy derived, the paper presents a model for a Virtual Reality system based on Systems Theory. The model is capable of including both traditional event-based interaction input devices, as well as continuous input devices. It is strongly device oriented, and allows to model mathematically all currently possible input devices for Virtual Reality. The model has been used for the implementation of a general input device library serving as an abstraction layer to a Virtual Reality system.
Charles Albert Wüthrich

Towards Hybrid Interface Specification for Virtual Environments

Many new multi-modal interaction techniques have been proposed for interaction in a virtual world. Often these techniques are of a hybrid nature combining continuous interaction, such as gestures and moving video, with discrete interaction, such as pushing buttons to select items. Unfortunately the description of the behavioural aspects of these interaction techniques found in the literature is informal and incomplete. This can make it hard to compare and evaluate their usability. This paper investigates the use of HyNet to give concise and precise specifications of hybrid interaction techniques. HyNet is an extension of high-level Petri Nets developed for specification and verification of hybrid systems, i.e. mathematical models including both continuous and discrete elements.
Mieke Massink, David Duke, Shamus Smith

Contrasting Models for Visualisation (Seeing the wood through the trees)

It is widely recognised that design quality is influenced by the perspective adopted by developers. In the case of formal methods such perspectives are frequently offered by identifying and/or developing appropriate models, from which requirements and systems can be expressed and even verified. In addition, to this there is a growing recognition that selecting and employing a model is an activity which is less dependent upon formal adequacy and more dependent upon ease of use. In this paper we examine and assess factors relevant to design quality that are apparent in comparing two alternative modelling approaches. The specific case study used is that of a system for visualising and manipulating a logical tree.
Chris Roast, Jawed Siddiqi

Towards User Interfaces Prototyping from Algebraic Specification

This paper describes the use of an algebraic specification language GRALPLA 1, 2, 3, to specify User Interface. In order to obtain a description at a high level of abstraction, the specification language has been enriched with such concepts as Interactive Objects, and user actions. A description of a prototyping tool based on this language has been given.
M. Cabrera, J. C. Torres, M. Gea

Computer-Aided Design of Menu Bar and Pull-Down Menus for Business Oriented Applications

Building a usable menu bar, related pull-down menus and submenus or cascaded menus remains an important design activity in the development of interactive applications, especially in the domain of business oriented ones. To provide some assistance to designers who are responsible for achieving this task, a two-phased design method for a menu bar and related pull-down menus is presented. Based on a entity-relationship model of the final application, a first phase automatically generates an initial menu tree; a second phase enables designers to interactively perform refinement operations on the initial tree to obtain a final menu tree. This tree can be finally exported to a graphical editor for free editing and adaptation. This method covers the selection and the positioning of menu items, a first proposal for mnemonics and accelerators that are intrinsically based of menu design guidelines.
Jean Vanderdonckt

Presentation Models by Example

Interface builders and multi-media authoring tools only support the construction of static displays where the components of the display are known at design time (e.g., buttons, menus). High-level UIMSs and automated designers support more sophisticated displays but are not easy to use as they require dealing explicitly with elaborate abstract concepts. This paper describes a GUI development environment, HandsOn, where complex displays of dynamically changing data can be constructed by direct manipulation. HandsOn integrates principles of graphic design, supports constraint-based layout, and has facilities for easily specifying the layout of collections of data. The system incorporates Programming By Example techniques to relieve the designer from having to deal with abstractions, and relies on a model-based language for the representation of the displays being constructed and as a means to provide information for the tool to reason about.
Pablo Castells, Pedro Szekely

Refinement of the PAC model for the component-based design and specification of television based interfaces

Componentisation of software promises to deliver cost efficiency that has not been achieved through object orientation [19]. PAC [5] is a popular conceptual architecture for structuring user interface software in an object oriented fashion. This paper reports our experience of adapting and refining PAC as a component architecture in the context of consumer electronics, and On-screen Displays in particular. The paper describes a structured scheme for the specification of user interface software components, distinguishing ‘look’ and ‘feel’ specific components, and fostering their modular development and reuse.
Panos Markopoulos, Paul Shrubsole, John de Vet

Flexibly Mapping Synchronous Groupware Architectures to Distributed Implementations

Design-level architectures allow developers to concentrate on the functionality of their groupware application without exposing its detailed implementation as a distributed system. Because they abstract issues of distribution, networking and concurrency control, design-level architectures can be implemented using a range of distributed implementation architectures. This paper shows how the implementation of groupware applications can be guided by the use of semantics-preserving architectural annotations. This approach leads to a development cycle that involves first developing the functionality of the application in a local-area context, then tuning its performance by setting architecture annotations. The paper concludes with timing results showing that architectural annotations can dramatically improve the performance of groupware applications.
Tore Urnes, T. C. Nicholas Graham

Using TRIO Specifications to Generate Test Cases for an Interactive System

User Interface Systems (UIS) are quite an important part of many current applications involving human end-users. Testing such open reactive systems requires an interaction with the end-user which must be carefully guided so as to avoid inherent non-determinism and combinatorial problems. In this paper we propose an approach based on a formal expression of UIS expressed in the temporal logic TRIO which uses a process of model generation to produce significant test cases and oracles. Moreover, we show how this approach can be integrated into a general validation and verification process in which the UIS is still informally developed.
Bruno d’Ausbourg, Jacques Cazin

Using automated reasoning in the design of an audio-visual communication system

Formal reasoning about how users and systems interact poses a difficult challenge. Interactive systems design provides a context in which the subjective area of human understanding meets the objectivity of computer systems logic. We present results of a case study in the use of automated reasoning to aid the formal analysis of interactive systems. We show how we can use human-factors issues to generate properties of interest, and how we can use model checking and theorem proving to analyse our specifications against those properties. This is part of ongoing work in the development of a tool to allow the automatic translation of interactor based specifications into SMV, and in the analysis of the role which different verification techniques might have during the development of interactive systems.
José C. Campos, Michael D. Harrison

Analysing User Deviations in Interactive Safety-Critical Applications

Usability and safety problems have often been addressed separately in designing interactive safety-critical applications thus obtaining fragmented results. In this paper we present a method to analyse possible deviations of users in performing their activities in order to elicit safety requirements and to improve design of interactive safety-critical applications. An application of the proposed method to a case study in the Air Traffic Control domain is discussed.
F. Paternò, C. Santoro, B. Fields

Dialogue Validation from Task Analysis

Up today, formal methods have mainly been used to allow designers to verify that software conforms to its specification. In this article, we propose a validation method and a tool to analyse whether the design actually fulfils the original requirements for the system. The principle of our validation method is to generate the complete set of possible user interaction sequences from the task analysis. Then, this set is injected in the Dialogue Controller Component of the application. At last, the Dialogue Controller Component’s calls to the Functional Core are intercepted, and compared with the user’s goals. Our case study is in the general Computer-Aided Design area, in which systems support a huge number of tasks.
Francis Jambon, Patrick Girard, Yohann Boisdron

Task- and Object-Oriented Development of Interactive Systems — How many models are necessary ?

In the field of model-based development of interactive systems, several approaches have been proposed to integrate task and object knowledge into the development process and its underlying representations. Within the paper different types of models are classified according to their importance for the development process. The relation between existing, envisioned and programming models are discussed and a task driven approach for object-oriented programming is suggested.
Peter Forbrig

Usability Properties in Dialog Models

Usability has gained a lot of attention in the design community and it is one of main goals of every design project. Evaluating usability is usually done with end-users after a prototype has been built and there are not many techniques available that allow usability evaluation during the early design phases. Current dialog modeling techniques generally do not deal with usability aspects, as they are often functional based models, dealing only with states and state changes. This paper investigates how usability aspects can be incorporated into dialog models so that usability can be evaluated during the design process without doing usage tests. A set of measurable properties is given which together could give an indication about the usability of the design, This way, some usability aspects can be covered early in the design process without the need for an executable prototype or end-users.
Martijn van Welie, Gerrit C. van der Veer, Anton Eliëns

Position Papers

Cross-Contextual Reference in Human-Computer Interaction

One of the themes of this year’s workshop is the challenge of designing usable systems that make use of shared environments. Based on this, one of the scenarios selected for discussion by the working groups consists of “genuinely co-operative applications, involving concurrent interaction between multiple parties in some form of shared world”.
Jon Rowson, Peter Johnson, Graham White

Modelisation of Co-operative Work

Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in user co-operation and the different ways of accomplishing user tasks. Users share a common scenario sinudtarreously. In such systems, we must take into account technological aspects as well as human factors. Characteristics involved with users (such as usability and performance) as well as the social and contextual organisation Hurst be studied. By doing so, an abstract model, regarding design and implementation details, allow us to contemplate the efficiency of these properties.
M. Gea, F. L. Gutierrez, J. C. Torres, N. Padilla, M. Cabrera

Working Group Discussions

Discussion topics for the DSV-IS’99 working groups

As part of the DSV-IS workshop, participants are split randomly into working groups. For the 1999 workshop, three groups were organised and were given two design scenarios as a starting point for discussion. Each group was free to work on either or both of the scenarios. A Rapporteur was appointed for each of the groups, and the following three chapters of these proceedings contain a summary of the points that were raised within the groups.
D. J. Duke

Working Group 1 Report

Without Abstract
S. P. Smith

Working Group 2 Report

Without Abstract
G. White

Working Group 3 Report

Without Abstract
D. A. Duce


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