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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes the results of Design Thinking Research carried out at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, USA and at the Hasso Plattner Institute in Potsdam, Germany. Offering readers a closer look at Design Thinking, its innovation processes and methods, the book covers topics ranging from how to design ideas, methods and technologies, to creativity experiments and wicked problem solutions, to creative collaboration in the real world, and the interplay of designers and engineers. But the topics go beyond this in their detailed exploration of Design Thinking and its use in IT systems engineering fields, or even from a management perspective. The authors show how these methods and strategies actually work in companies, introduce new technologies and their functions, and demonstrate how Design Thinking can influence such unexpected topics as marriage. Furthermore, readers will learn how special-purpose Design Thinking can be used to solve wicked problems in complex fields. Thinking and devising innovations are fundamentally and inherently human activities – so is Design Thinking. Accordingly, Design Thinking is not merely the result of special courses nor of being gifted or trained: it’s a way of dealing with our environment and improving techniques, technologies and life.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Design Thinking for the Twenty-First Century Organization

Abstract
The probability of breakthrough innovation has increased as we gain a deeper understanding of design innovation processes and the organizations that use them best. It is increasingly clear that an organizational “impedance mismatch” is a barrier to bringing breakthrough innovation home to corporations, governments, and economies.
A brief working definition of “impedance mismatch” is that which inhibits the movement of electrons, protons, money, and ideas. We include especially the inhibition of free flowing human communication and creative experimentation.
Larry Leifer, Christoph Meinel

Thisisdesignthinking.net: A Storytelling-Project

Abstract
ThisIsDesignThinking.net was started in 2015 and is the first website dedicated to examine design thinking adoption in organisations. The blog is managed by an international network of editors-in-chief who contribute articles or advice authors.
Eva Köppen, Jan Schmiedgen, Holger Rhinow, Christoph Meinel

Erratum: Design Thinking Research

Without Abstract
Hasso Plattner, Christoph Meinel, Larry Leifer

Design Thinking in Practice

Frontmatter

Colliding Influences

When Self-Organizing Teams Encounter Strategic Objectives and Established Routines
Abstract
This article illustrates findings from a case study on the impact of design thinking within a large organization. As teams apply design thinking as a framework for product discovery and development, there is an increased focus on the user as a source of inspiration as well as self-organizing teamwork. This phenomenon contrast to the result of other frameworks implemented in the organization (e.g., Waterfall and Scrum). These new influential factors are to some extent seemingly in collision with other existing influential factors, such as established routines in project management and a corporate strategy. Contrary objectives lead to paradoxical situations within teams and between teams and their managers. It appears that such situations can only be partially resolved by stakeholders. This case study empirically clarifies the impression from previous research that the integration of design thinking appears to be a managerial challenge yet to be mastered.
Holger Rhinow, Christoph Meinel

Mapping and Measuring Applications of Design Thinking in Organizations

Abstract
Design Thinking is a methodology many organizations use to drive creative innovation. As this practice continues it is critical to develop tools that accurate describe how design thinking is being applied in teams and across an organization as a whole. This chapter introduces two tools in development to meet these goals. The first is an Ecology Mapping that portrays an organization’s internal design thinking strategy. The second is a weekly “snapshot” of design thinking activities performed by industry teams working on creative projects.
Adam Royalty, Bernard Roth

The Design Thinking Methodology at Work: Capturing and Understanding the Interplay of Methods and Techniques

Abstract
The Design Thinking methodology is one example of a design methodology that supports the creation of innovative products or services. For that purpose, the Design Thinking methodology suggests a repertoire of design phases, design activities, and design methods that can be used to solve wicked problems in terms of innovative solutions. However, since the Design Thinking methodology does not prescribe any order of design phases, activities, and methods, applications of design phases, activities, and methods lead to different shapes of the Design Thinking methodology in practice. We hypothesize that these shapes of Design Thinking at work consist of different characteristics depending on the kind of design project that has been conducted. Understanding these characteristics, their influence on the design flow itself, as well as their impact on the outcome of the design project is of major interest to managers, innovators, and researchers.
In this chapter, we report on the result of a case study that we conducted to investigate different shapes of the Design Thinking methodology in practice. As a result of our case study, we conclude that different shapes of Design Thinking methodologies exist in practice. We describe the identified characteristics and their purpose.
Thomas Beyhl, Holger Giese

On Creating Workspaces for a Team of Teams: Learnings from a Case Study

Abstract
Workspaces provide resources, facilitate (different) modes of working, and communicate an organization’s culture. As such they are a powerful resource to amplify the innovation culture of an organization.
Changemakers and leaders of organizations face the challenge to create workspaces that promote innovative activities of teams. Companies too often copy well-known best practice examples and the physical design of the workspace is put into focus. Organizational structures and context are disregarded and the inherent needs of an organization and employees are neglected. As a result, the workspace is used differently as initially intended and expectations are not met. A methodological approach to the creation of workspaces that fit the needs of their users and managers is still needed.
Impact Hub Berlin—a co-working space for social entrepreneurs, serves as example of a workspace that amplifies the collaborative culture of its community. The approach to the creation of its new workspace involves the integration of users from the beginning and, thus, the creation of a “shared ownership.” This concept, which can be applied to a wide range of contexts, provides the basis for a well-functioning, innovative work environment in line with specific organizational needs and objectives. This article provides an overview of insights gained through the exploration of the case.
Marie Klooker, Claudia Nicolai, Stephan Matzdorf, Arne Trost, Karen von Schmieden, Lilith Böttcher, Ulrich Weinberg

Exploring Human-Technology Interaction

Frontmatter

Design Thinking in Health IT Systems Engineering: The Role of Wearable Mobile Computing for Distributed Care

Abstract
This research examines the capabilities and boundaries of a hands-free mobile augmented reality (AR) system for distributed healthcare. We use a developer version of the Google Glass™ head-mounted display (HMD) to develop software applications to enable remote connectivity in the healthcare field, and to characterize system usage, data integration, and data visualization capabilities.
In this chapter, we summarize findings from the assessment of the SnapCap System for chronic wound photography. Through leveraging the sensor capabilities of Google Glass, SnapCap enables hands-free digital image capture, and the tagging and transfer of images to a patient’s electronic medical record (EMR). In a pilot study with wound care nurses at Stanford Hospital (n = 16), we examined feature preferences for hands-free digital image capture and documentation; and compared SnapCap to the state of the art in digital wound care photography—the iphone-based Epic Haiku application.
The results of this study (1) illustrate the application of design thinking for healthcare delivery involving mobile wearable computing technology for distributed care, (2) improves our understanding of the benefits of human augmentation through enhanced visualization capabilities, and (3) explores a system’s ability to influence behavior change through equipping clinicians with tools to improve complex problem solving and clinical decision-making in context-dependent medical scenarios. The work contributes to the future implementation of new features aimed at enhancing the documentation and assessment of chronic wounds, and provides insight into the need for future IT systems engineering projects aimed at enhancing healthcare connectivity for distributed care.
Lauren Aquino Shluzas, Gabriel Aldaz, David Pickham, Larry Leifer

Redesigning Medical Encounters with Tele-Board MED

Abstract
The roles and perspectives of the patient and the health care provider could hardly be more different, yet both pursue the common goal of restoring or preserving the patient’s health. The path to a satisfying health care outcome is manifold, and the quality of the patient-provider relationship is an impactful factor. We discuss different models for the classification of patient-provider interaction as well as for patient empowerment. On this theoretical basis we elaborate on how patient-provider interaction can be enhanced in practice by means of the medical documentation system Tele-Board MED. This system is a collaborative eHealth application designed to support the interaction between patient and provider in clinical encounters. Simultaneously, it aims at making case documentation more efficient for providers and more valuable for patients. As a research paradigm, the Tele-Board MED project has used a design thinking approach to understand and support fundamental stakeholder needs. Psychotherapy has been chosen as a first field of application for Tele-Board MED research and interventions. This chapter shares insights and findings from empathizing with users, defining a point of view, ideating and testing prototypes. We found that a joint, transparent case documentation was very well received by patients. This documentation increased the acceptance of diagnoses and encouraged a team feeling between patient and therapist.
Anja Perlich, Julia von Thienen, Matthias Wenzel, Christoph Meinel

Embodied Design Improvisation for Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract
We have developed a generative, improvisational and experimental approach to the design of expressive everyday objects, such as mechanical ottomans, emotive dresser drawers and roving trash barrels. We have found that the embodied design improvisation methodology—which includes storyboarding, improvisation, video prototyping, Wizard-of-Oz lab studies and field experiments—has also been effective in designing the behaviors and interfaces of another kind of robot: the autonomous vehicle. This chapter describes our application of this design approach in developing and deploying three studies of autonomous vehicle interfaces and behaviors. The first, WoZ, focuses on the conceptual phase of the design process, using a talk-aloud protocol, improvisation with experts, and rapid prototyping to develop an interface that drivers can trust and hold in esteem. The second, the Real Road Autonomous Driving Simulator, explores people’s naturalistic reactions to prototypes, through an autonomous driving interface that communicates impending action through haptic precues. The third, Ghost Driver, follows the public deployment of a prototype built upon frugal materials and stagecraft, in a field study of how pedestrians negotiate intersections with autonomous vehicles where no driver is visible. Each study suggests design principles to guide further development.
David Sirkin, Sonia Baltodano, Brian Mok, Dirk Rothenbücher, Nikhil Gowda, Jamy Li, Nikolas Martelaro, David Miller, Srinath Sibi, Wendy Ju

Prototyping

Frontmatter

Can Anyone Make a Smart Device?: Evaluating the Usability of a Prototyping Toolkit for Creative Computing

Abstract
Can anyone make a smart device? Affordable sensors, actuators and novice microcomputer toolkits are the building blocks of the field we refer to as Creative Computing. With the growing maker movement, more tools are becoming available to novices, but there is little research into the usability evaluation of these toolkits. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of closing the gap between idea and prototype, the need for systematically evaluating the usability of novice toolkits, and a strategy for doing so. Specifically, the chapter presents the Tiny Device Test, a method for evaluating the usability of novice electronics toolkits. Using a standard set of building challenges based on common household electronics, we discuss methods for evaluating the Bloctopus toolkit, which was designed for novice electronics prototyping with low-resolution materials. This work aims to contribute to the idea of “making simple things simple, and complex things possible,” with prototyping toolkits of the future.
Joel Sadler, Lauren Aquino Shluzas, Paulo Blikstein, Sakti Srivastava

Making Examples Tangible: Tool Building for Program Comprehension

Abstract
Best practices in design thinking suggest creating and working with tangible prototypes. In software engineering, programmers interact with source code more than with customers. Their intent is to understand the effects of abstract source code on programs in execution. Existing tools for program exploration, however, are tailored to general programming language concepts instead of domain-specific characteristics and programmer’s system knowledge. In this chapter, we establish the need for adapting programming tools in use when navigating, viewing, and collecting examples to increase tangibility, that is, clarity of a concept or idea based on what can be experienced on screen. We present our Vivide tool-building environment, which is a data-driven, scriptable approach to constructing graphical tools with low effort. By exploring common programming scenarios, we conclude that tool building does not have to be a detached, effortful activity but can be accomplished by the same programmers who detect deficiencies during their programming tasks. Then exemplary information about software systems can become tangible.
Marcel Taeumel, Robert Hirschfeld

Case Studies on End-User Engagement and Prototyping during Software Development

An Overview of Current Practices in the IT Industry
Abstract
Today software reaches into almost every aspect of our lives, with mobile devices and their apps a major source of our everyday software experience. This trend has shifted our expectations toward a more user-friendly, intuitive and easy to use user experience. Thus appealing user interfaces and an excellent usability become key to successful software products and services.
However, great usability and user experience are not easy to develop, because system engineers traditionally design solutions without involving end users. On the other hand, current research suggests the involvement of end users in software development and the constant incorporation of testing and feedback to provide high-quality software and satisfying usability. Based on these facts, and with a rising awareness for user experience, companies are incorporating user-centered approaches, such as Design Thinking, which involve end users and other stakeholders in the development process. Most of these user-centered approaches are strongly based on early research and validation with end users and prototypes with different levels of fidelity.
This chapter provides a look into the development process of three major software companies and presents an overview of their current practices concerning end-user involvement and prototyping.
Franziska Dobrigkeit, Sebastian Meyer, Matthias Uflacker

Developing DT Teaching and Coaching Tools and Approaches

Frontmatter

Design Thinking At Scale: A Report on Best Practices of Online Courses

Abstract
Design Thinking has arguably become a state-of-the-art innovation methodology. It has received increasing attention from both media and educational institutes around the globe. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for Design Thinking education. In this research we aim to answer the question of whether and how Design Thinking can be taught in the form of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) that promise scalable teaching. In this chapter we discuss the potentials as well as challenges of teaching Design Thinking in a MOOC environment. In order to learn about the pedagogies and practices required for high quality teaching, we look into four Design Thinking MOOCs and through the lens of a widely used pedagogical framework called the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. We also pay careful attention to the technological features and the didactical methods applied in selected courses and how they support the fulfillment of these principles. Further, the research team aims at setting up an online course on Design Thinking in collaboration with the openHPI platform—one of the Europe’s frontrunner MOOC providers. Thus, we compare the results to the capacities and features of openHPI and examine its potentials for supporting and hosting a design thinking MOOC. Finally based on the best practices observed in the selected courses and the literature, we propose general recommendations for course designers and report on results of interviews with Stanford d.school course instructors on the challenges and potentials of a digital Design Thinking learning environment as well as the path of future research.
Mana Taheri, Thomas Unterholzer, Christoph Meinel

Designing Scalable and Sustainable Peer Interactions Online

Abstract
When students work with peers, they learn more actively, build richer knowledge structures, and connect material to their lives. However, not every peer learning experience online sees successful adoption. This chapter first introduces PeerStudio, an assessment platform that leverages the large number of students’ peers in online classes to enable rapid feedback on in-progress work. Students submit their draft, give rubric-based feedback on two peers’ drafts, and then receive peer feedback. Students can integrate the feedback and repeat this process as often as they desire. PeerStudio demonstrates how rapid feedback on in-progress work improves course outcomes. We then articulate and address three adoption and implementation challenges for peer learning platforms such as PeerStudio. First, peer interactions struggle to bootstrap critical mass. However, class incentives can signal importance and spur initial usage. Second, online classes have limited peer visibility and awareness, so students often feel alone even when surrounded by peers. We find that highlighting interdependence and strengthening norms can mitigate this issue. Third, teachers can readily access “big” aggregate data but not “thick” contextual data that helps build intuitions, so software should guide teachers’ scaffolding of peer interactions. We illustrate these challenges through studying 8500 students’ usage of PeerStudio and another peer learning platform: Talkabout. Efficacy is measured through sign-up and participation rates and the structure and duration of student interactions. This research demonstrates how large classes can leverage their scale to encourage mastery through rapid feedback and revision, and suggests secret ingredients to make such peer interactions sustainable at scale.
Chinmay Kulkarni, Yasmine Kotturi, Michael S. Bernstein, Scott Klemmer

Developing Instrumentation for Design Thinking Team Performance

Abstract
Multidisciplinary teamwork is a key requirement in the design thinking approach to innovation. Previous research has shown that team coaching is an effective way to improve team performance. However, the tools currently available for effective team coaching are limited to heuristics derived from either experienced design thinking professionals or clinical psychology practitioners. Our research aims to improve this situation by providing design thinking managers, coaches, and instructors a reliable instrument for measuring design team performance. In this chapter, we present the underlying methodology for instrument design. The development of a specific diagnostic instrument, based on a visual notation called the Interaction Dynamics Notation, is explained in terms of both the workflow of data through the instrument and the exploratory studies conducted to design the instrument user interface.
Neeraj Sonalkar, Ade Mabogunje, Halsey Hoster, Bernard Roth

The Topic Markup Scheme and the Knowledge Handling Notation: Complementary Instruments to Measure Knowledge Creation in Design Conversations

Abstract
The focus of this book chapter is the introduction of two complementary instruments, the Topic Markup Scheme (TMS) and the Knowledge Handling Notation (KHN) to analyze design conversations. Both instruments will be applied to a design conversation sample. TMS offers a diagnostic procedure that is capable of describing the topical structure of a conversation and its move-to-move coherence. KHN describes on the move-to-move level how innovation teams generate and share knowledge. The output of both instruments, in the form of strings of symbols can be used for sequence analysis and pattern detection of team dynamics. Together, the outcomes nurture the understanding of knowledge creation in and through design conversations in innovation teams.
Axel Menning, Andrea Scheer, Claudia Nicolai, Ulrich Weinberg

Developing Novel Neuroimaging Paradigm to Assess Neural Correlates of Improvisation and Creative Thinking Using fMRI

Abstract
The ability to produce novel yet appropriate (or useful) outcomes is broadly defined as creativity. Given the cultural significance of creativity, researchers have been attempting to uncover brain mechanisms underlying creative thinking since the early 1960s. However, several methodological issues have restricted researchers in uncovering the brain basis for creativity and previous neuroimaging studies have largely produced varied findings, with little overlap. Some of the methodological issues that could account for the large variance in results include treating creativity as a unitary construct, assessing creativity in a test-like environment, as well as explicitly prompting participants to “switch-on” creativity during certain parts of the experiment. To partly mitigate some of these issues, we recently developed a novel game-like and creativity-conducive neuroimaging paradigm that was employed to assess neural correlates of spontaneous improvisation and figural creativity in healthy adults (Saggar Sci Rep 5:10894, 2015). In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of the current state of neuroscience research focused on creativity. We also provide insights regarding our experimental design, challenges faced during prototyping as well as a summary of our results. Lastly, building upon our novel paradigm, we provide pointers to future work for assessing neural correlates of creative capacity enhancement and team creativity.
Manish Saggar, Lindsay C. Chromik, Adam Royalty, Grace Hawthorne, Allan L. Reiss
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