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Über dieses Buch

The four-volume set LNCS 11583, 11584, 11585, and 11586 constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, DUXU 2019, held as part of the 21st International Conference, HCI International 2019, which took place in Orlando, FL, USA, in July 2019.
The total of 1274 papers and 209 posters included in the 35 HCII 2019 proceedings volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 5029 submissions.
DUXU 2019 includes a total of 167 regular papers, organized in the following topical sections: design philosophy; design theories, methods, and tools; user requirements, preferences emotions and personality; visual DUXU; DUXU for novel interaction techniques and devices; DUXU and robots; DUXU for AI and AI for DUXU; dialogue, narrative, storytelling; DUXU for automated driving, transport, sustainability and smart cities; DUXU for cultural heritage; DUXU for well-being; DUXU for learning; user experience evaluation methods and tools; DUXU practice; DUXU case studies.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

User Experience Evaluation Methods and Tools

Frontmatter

Development and Validation of Usability Heuristics for Evaluation of Interfaces in ATMs

ATM systems are part of the devices that have more managed approach and facilitate the use of financial services for people. However, on occasions, displayed interfaces can be frustrating to use. Usability is a principle that contemplates such situations, so it is necessary to have appropriate tools to evaluate ease of use on the products. For this reason, we present a revised version of eighteen usability heuristics proposed for ATM applications. In this paper, we describe the process that is followed from the collection of information, creation of the heuristic set, validation and refinement.

Cristhian Chanco, Arturo Moquillaza, Freddy Paz

Usability and Playability Heuristics for Augmented Reality Video Games in Smartphones

Nowadays, Augmented reality technology is being used in many applications of the industry. This technology generates new user experiences by mixing elements of the real world with virtual objects. Its use in video games is one of the most prominent, which expands the ways in which players interact with the game and its characters. This article presents a proposal of usability and playability heuristics for the evaluation of augmented reality video games on smartphones. The proposal was validated with surveys and a case study, with the help of end users and usability experts.

Alberto Chang, Lourdes Montalvo, Freddy Paz

The Potential of User Experience (UX) as an Approach of Evaluation in Tangible User Interfaces (TUI)

The objective of this paper its presents the potential of using UX as the main evaluation approach in TUI, starting from results of a Systematic Review of Literature (SRL), in which it found other studies published in the last five years that evaluate TUI applications, analyzing the methods and tools used to perform them, relating these with an experiment of evaluation at AR Sandbox application, discuss in order to contribute of the proposal of new methodologies that aim to evaluate the applications of tangible interfaces, considering their due particularity.

Vinicius Krüger da Costa, Andréia Sias Rodrigues, Lucas Barreiro Agostini, Marcelo Bender Machado, Natália Toralles Darley, Rafael da Cunha Cardoso, Tatiana Aires Tavares

Which Instrument Should I Use? Supporting Decision-Making About the Evaluation of User Experience

User Experience (UX) has been intensively investigated lately, resulting in the proposal of several evaluation instruments, methods, and techniques. However, the definition of UX and its constructs is still a work in progress, making User Experience a concept open to various interpretations. Consequently, the development of UX evaluation methods and instruments rely on very different assumptions, often making professionals and beginning researchers uncertain about choosing the right methods to evaluate user evaluation aspects. Aiming to help fill in this gap, in this work we present the results of a systematic snowballing procedure conducted to investigate the characteristics of the UX evaluation instruments that have been proposed and used by HCI community in the last years. We compiled information about 116 instruments aiming to assist researchers and practitioners in making informed choices about which instruments can support UX data collection, according to their research goals. In addition to that, the data analysis provided a glance on the directions the research on UX evaluation instruments is taking.

Ticianne Darin, Bianca Coelho, Bosco Borges

Game for PLAYability Heuristic Evaluation (G4H-PLAY): Adapting G4H Gamification to Allow the Use of Playability Heuristics

Several initiatives have applied the Collaborative Heuristic Evaluation to minimize the discrepancy between the severity ratings made by different evaluators. G4H (Game for Heuristic Evaluation) is one of these proposals and its a gamification developed to engage and motivate the evaluators in the Heuristic Evaluation process. This gamification was designed considering only the Nielsen’s usability heuristics. This article presents G4H-PLAY (Game for PLAYability Heuristic Evaluation), an adaptation of G4H to allow the use of playability heuristics. For the definition of this new gamification, the first step is to select the playability heuristics to support. There are many playability heuristics proposals, but G4H-PLAY uses one study that summarizes a set of playability heuristics into a general set of heuristics. Then, information on the specification and use of the heuristics was extracted, which allowed identifying the necessary adaptations to adapt the G4H to the set of chosen playability heuristics. Finally, solutions were developed for these adaptations, thus achieving the adaptation of gamification. G4H-PLAY enables to obtain the motivation and engagement benefits provided by the G4H with the Playability Heuristic Evaluation. This gamification needs to be validated in future empirical studies to ensure that the benefits of G4H can also be achieved by G4H-PLAY.

José Cezar de Souza Filho, Ingrid Teixeira Monteiro, Paulyne Matthews Jucá

Proposal of Usability Metrics to Evaluate E-commerce Websites

Usability form as an important aspect nowadays for software products, even more, when we talk about transactional websites. However, in the present, there are not enough metrics to help us measuring usability level from an E-commerce portal, for this reason, we present a new proposal of metrics of usability. While working on the proposal, we did a research to identify 39 metrics and 10 existing aspects, then we created usability metrics and finally we validated the proposal with five specialists, based on interviews and questionnaires.

Ediber Diaz, Silvia Flores, Freddy Paz

Usability Test Based on Co-creation in Service Design

Service design often solves complex system problems. The diversity of users’ requirements and uncertainty of “interaction” in the service delivery process lead to the uncertainty of service usability. The focus of usability in service on design and test can avoid or minimize the uncertainty of service experience to the maximum extent. The concept and mechanism of “Service Co-creation” in this paper plays an important role in this process, including co-design in service planning activities and value co-creation in the process of service delivery. At the same time, after considering the definition of service design, specificity of service and usability factors of interactive products comprehensively, service usability can be summarized as 8 elements in the paper, including adaptability, standardization, flexibility, learnability, memorability, fault tolerance, efficiency and satisfaction. And then take the “Hotel Family Services Design” project as an example, it carries out usability design and test involved people (stakeholders), events (processes) and objects (touchpoints) in the service system. On the one hand, “multi-role stakeholders” participating in the “co-design workshop” can identify the precise needs of users and develop useful and usable services with more pertinence in the service planning stage. On the other hand, different forms and approaches of “prototype test” (Discussion Prototype, Simulation Prototype) to verify the usability and experience of service systems and processes in the service development and delivery phase help service designers and providers ultimately achieve their goals to improve service usefulness, usability and attraction through service iteration.

Xiong Ding, Shan Liu, Jiajia Chen, Manhai Li

Exploiting the meCUE Questionnaire to Enhance an Existing UX Evaluation Method Based on Mental Models

Several definitions of User eXperience (UX) are present in the literature, representing the references for different UX evaluation methods and tools. Among these methods and tools, the irMMs-based method and the meCUE questionnaire show different peculiarities and seem good candidates to speculate on their integration, aiming at improving applicability, completeness and effectiveness of UX evaluation activities. The goal of this research is indeed to integrate the irMMs-based method with the meCUE questionnaire in order to enhance the former by exploiting the stronger points of the latter. To achieve this, we analyze the lacks of the irMMs-based method and verify the meCUE questionnaire capabilities in overcoming these lacks. Once verified, we proceed with the integration by modifying the evaluation activities of the irMMs-based method. Finally, we perform a first validation of the enhanced release by comparing it to the old one in the field. Researchers can exploit the same procedure to integrate other methods and tools in order to improve them; on the other hand, industrial practitioners can use the enhanced release for their UX evaluations since it is ready to be applicable even by non-developers.

Stefano Filippi, Daniela Barattin

A User Study to Examine the Different Approaches in the Computer-Aided Design Process

The computer-aided design process is in a complicated non-linear structure involving selections from a pool of configurations with optimized parameters. In order to understand and improve this decision-making process, this paper conducted a user study on students and expert professionals with more than three years of computer-aided design experience. The study revealed the common design problems and challenges faced by CAD designers. The findings also showed that the design approaches students and expert professionals used were different. Additionally, we found that computer-aided designers expect the system to be able to understand vast quantities of multivariate data, control high-quality products for low costs, manage the knowledge personalization and codification within the company, as well as prevent the design mistakes at the design stages. Our findings may lead to the future development of new approaches to improve the computer-aided design process and close up the gap between student and expert professionals in computer-aided design. This paper provides initial support for this future approach.

Chen Guo, Yingjie Victor Chen, Zhenyu Cheryl Qian

Developing Usability Heuristics for Recommendation Systems Within the Mobile Context

The rapid development of advanced mobile technologies and wireless Internet services has accelerated the explosion of the mobile service market. Such an extension encourages an increasing number of users engaging in mobile applications. However, the challenge of designing “useful” mobile applications still remains. To overcome this challenge, this study conducts a systematic review of mobile applications, identifying a set of heuristics and relevant features in mobile applications design. More specifically, seven usability heuristics, namely navigation, content, error handling, consistency, functionality, cognitive load and aesthetic design have been developed for mobile applications. The results identify a number of design features based on the proposed usability heuristics, and the associated requirements of usability heuristic to mobile physical constraints are described. The major contribution is to propose a systematic analysis of mobile application usability for mobile developers and designers.

Zhao Huang

The Advent of Speech Based NLP QA Systems: A Refined Usability Testing Model

This paper outlines a refined usability testing model, developed for industry specific comparative usability testing of two natural language processor (NLP) based question answering (QA) systems. The systems operate over differing modalities, one through text and the other speech. The revised model combines two existing usability testing frameworks, the System Usability Metric (SUM) and the System Usability Scale (SUS). It also integrates the context-specific determined target user - financial managers working within the financial services industry. The model’s metric weightings are determined through key informant interviews. The presented model will be the working framework from which a series of comparative usability tests will be carried out within the target organisation.

Diarmuid Lane, Robin Renwick, John McAvoy, Philip O’Reilly

Research on User Experience Evaluation Model of Smart Jewelry Based on Kansei Engineering

Kansei engineering is a theory that pays close attention to the emotional experience of users. This paper is based on Kansei engineering theory. The research group collected a certain number of emotional words related to the user experience of smart jewelry, and established a multilevel evaluation model of user experience based on analytic hierarchy process. Then the researchers get the weight of various indicators by calculating the judgment matrix. Thus the researchers can quantify the user experience status of the smart jewelry, and improve the design of the product.

Jinghan Lin, Jian Shi, Chao Yu

A Systematic Literature Review of Usability Evaluation Guidelines on Mobile Educational Games for Primary School Students

Recently, mobile educational games became a trend for primary school students, because it makes children learn in an entertaining way, and since nowadays they spend more time with their mobile devices, especially smartphones, the usage of this games is widespread. This kind of games must consider different aspects so these can cover all the purpose that they want to provide, such as usability, playability, learnability, effectiveness, simplicity, and so on. That is why the usability evaluation plays an important role in it. However, despite the fact that a lot of usability evaluation methods exist, most of them are focused on traditional computer usage and those are not 100% compatible with mobile phone usage. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify usability evaluation guidelines for mobile educational games, which are concerning primary school students as users. This work is the first step toward making a set of usability guidelines for the evaluation of mobile educational games for Primary school students.

Xiao Wen Lin Gao, Braulio Murillo Véliz, Freddy Paz

Using Mobile Eye Tracking to Evaluate the Satisfaction with Service Office

Eye tracking can be applied to a variety of scenarios as a means of measuring visual attention and interpreting visual solution strategies. In this article, we use mobile eye-tracker to collect information to evaluate user satisfaction with the tax service office. Mobile eye tracking can collect precise information concerning the users’ visual attention and interactions in authentic environments. Unlike screen-based eye-tracker using a laboratory or stationary computer, mobile eye tracking also can be used effectively in a walk a round scene where users could walk around and interact with diverse resources. In the progress of eye tracking data analysis, fixations and gaze points, areas of interest (AOIs), heat-maps play an important role. This annotation is typically the most time-consuming step of the analysis process. To reduce processing time and human effort, we introduced the latest computer vision techniques (i.e., You Only Look Once, YOLO) based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect and recognize specific objects in recorded video. We propose a new method to evaluate the user satisfaction of a service system by implicating mobile eye tracker. In addition we gave a new idea of using CNN-based object detection technique to annotate video data collected by mobile eye tracker, which could be followed up for further analysis.

Zai Xing Liu, Yi Liu, Xun Gao

Information and Experience Visualization: An Analysis Approach and Decision-Making Tool for the Usability Research

With the transformation and development of the age of network, information and digital, information has evolved into the basic exchange in our lives. Information visualization serves as a communication and dialogue interface between people and objects, between human and environments, and between individuals themselves. It emphasizes the context of information application scenarios and the need to effectively convey information oriented to users’ needs and purposes, providing users with sound and efficient meaningful behavior guidance as well as experience characterized by cultural metaphors and aesthetic significance. In the usability research of products and services, visualization is a means of external representation of thinking as well as an expression method of cognitive tools or conceptual structures. Based on dematerialized service systems, user behavior and experience, information and experience visualization present quantitative or qualitative usability-related research in an intuitive and figurative manner. In this way, it enables us to objectively understand the operational status of products or services, analyze the effectiveness and adaptability of links between process tasks, functional architectures, system feedback of user behaviors and experience. In addition, it offers guidance and new insights and plays an analytical and decision-making role in solving complex problems. Meanwhile, visualization represents an ideal tool to help the team to promote comprehensive cognition, build consensus to ensure smooth communication in the design research process.

Xi Lyu, Yang Wang

Development of a Heuristic Evaluation Tool for Voice User Interfaces

Voice user interfaces (VUIs) are now a common means of interaction with IT systems. To assist in evaluating the usability of such interfaces, a set of evaluation heuristics assessing speech interfaces was developed by following an existing methodology for defining usability heuristics. Two groups of eight participants conducted an evaluation by inspection of three speech-based systems, a mobile phone assistant, a smart speaker and an in-car hands free phone system. One group used Nielsen and Molich’s general heuristics for user interface design while the other group used the VUI heuristics. The second group found, on average, more problems than the first group. However, most heuristics from both sets were rated as useful during the study. This indicates that a mixture of both general and application specific heuristics are needed for a comprehensive evaluation to be performed. Experience from a pilot study, where a smart speaker was set up in a domestic setting, highlighted the need to also consider social and environmental issues to gain a complete picture of user experience when interacting with speech systems.

Martin Maguire

Web Accessibility Evaluation Methods: A Systematic Review

In this paper, we present the results of a systematic review involving the techniques or methods of web accessibility currently used, the domains that have been covered and the disabilities that were focused. The search strategy identified 343 studies, where only 20 were finally selected for the review. We found that automatic tools are the most frequent techniques used to evaluate web accessibility. In addition, most studies performed in the educational domain and the majority of studies do not focus on a special disability.

Almendra Nuñez, Arturo Moquillaza, Freddy Paz

Seeing Potential Is More Important Than Usability: Revisiting Technology Acceptance

With ever-increasing technology complexity, there is a need to consider how technology integrates within typical and specific environments. Empirical work with technology acceptance models has to date focused largely on perceived or expected ease-of-use along with the perceived or expected usefulness of the technology. These constructs have been examined extensively via quantitative methods. Other factors have received less attention. There is some evidence, for instance, that technology adoption may depend on how technology contributes to self-efficacy and agency. Less accessible perhaps to standard quantitative instruments, it is time to consider a mixed-methods approach to examine these aspects of technology acceptance. For this exploratory study, we have begun to evaluate a security modeller tool within a healthcare. We asked IT professionals working in hospital environments in Italy and Spain to work with the technology as part of a limited ethnographic study, and to complete a standard ease-of-use questionnaire. Comparing the results, we found that the quantitative measures to be poor predictors of a willingness to explore the affordances presented by the technology. Although limited at this time, we maintain that a more nuanced picture of technology adoption must allow potential adopters to be creative in response to how they believe the technology could be exploited in their environment.

Brian Pickering, Mariet Nouri Janian, Borja López Moreno, Andrea Micheletti, Alberto Sanno, Michael Surridge

DUXU Practice

Frontmatter

A Solution Development Model for Industry Based on Design Thinking

This work presents the program BlueJourney that was created with the objective of identifying problems and challenges of our clients and, in a process of collaboration, develop processes and systems innovation projects. BlueJourney was designed by ThinkLab Brazil, the innovation laboratory of IBM Research that has an environment suitable for co-creation and a specialized team. The program is based on Design Thinking techniques, therefore, innovation is achieved with a focus on people’s need, and with technical and business feasibility analysis. With defined steps, we engage industry, technology, business and research experts in activities like co-creation, research, interviews, prototype development and testing. The experts understands and explores the challenges of the subject or area to be transformed and create the most complete solutions. At the end of the program, we have a list of projects to be developed, changes in processes and systems, and people who have learned to seek innovation in a creative, collaborative and engaged way. The most important is a change of mindset, because solutions might be about human needs. In this article, we’ll present in detail the steps of BlueJourney applied in a real case.

Raquel Zarattini Chebabi, Henrique von Atzingen Amaral

Overcoming Organizational Barriers to the Integration of UX Methods in Software Development: A Case Study

Despite User Experience (UX)’ increased popularity, the willingness of organizations to integrate it into their processes and UX practitioners still encounter challenges in integrating UX methods. Research in HCI has presented theoretical and pragmatic models. Most of the time, these models lack presenting validation in practice, documentation or support for their use when difficulties appear. Even if difficulties could be expected. In this paper, we present a categorization of organizational barriers extracted from the relevant literature: lack of UX resources, lack of UX literacy, poor use of UX artifacts and communication breakdowns. Then, we propose a 4-step procedure to identify and overcome organizational barriers with a case study describing how this procedure helped us to anticipate and overcome organizational barriers encountered in a project. With a UX Capability/Maturity (UX CM) assessment conducted at the beginning of the project, we were expecting organizational barriers and constant readjustment of our UX strategy. We Communicated about findings and readjustment to stakeholders in order to increase their awareness about problems along the way of the project and we had prepared remediation strategies for the emergence of barriers.

Vincent Kervyn de Meerendré, Luka Rukonić, Suzanne Kieffer

Analysis the Impacting of “User Experience” for Chinese Mobile Phone’s Brands Market Changing

Entering the 21st century, the transition of the economic form and the “people-centered” design of the force of the trend of combining people show a strong preference blurs aesthetic inclination, and experience design attention; and highlights the importance of user perception value. The mobile phone market is not exceptional also, under the lead of apple, each of big mobile phone brands have set up the user experience department, to introduce the relevant personnel. Not only in terms of visual image, interaction design, through the visualization image visual summary, show the characteristic of enterprise spirit and enterprise culture. More vivid, specific, sensitive to product characteristics, brand value, corporate philosophy, and other information to the audience. For consumers the most direct and most users and vivid brand image, create a better experience for the foundation. And, in the process of enterprise overall brand management, are often based on user experience, a good user experience has become a brand is the key to improve the image of the market. This paper mainly focuses on China’s current mobile phone market, respectively for major brands, such as Apple, Huawei, Xiaomi, Samsung, … etc., to analyze the change course of brands,and to discuss the user experience in brand building and the important role and significance in the process of communication.

Hui Li, Yi Wei

Making Meaning: How Experience Design Supports Data Commercialization

The work aims to analyze the different stages of data commercialization and explore the research paradigm of making meaning through the experience process. Based on the cases of data-driven products, a classification study was conducted through induction and summary, and the characteristics of four stages of data commercialization was illustrated. In the era of big data, data is not just about extra output or subsidiary force or core competency, but raw materials in the process of commercialization, which is an inevitable trend. The goal of data commercialization is to make meaning by the way of experience design. At different stages of data commercialization, the methods of experience design have to adjust as consumers’ demands for meaning are various. With the development of internet technology, the correlation and connection between people’s daily life and data will be strengthened unconsciously, and the appeal to meaningful experience of data products will become more common. When data is treated as a kind of raw material in the fourth stage of data, the mode of experience design is: data infrastructure as theater, data-driven services or products as the stage, data as props, and engaging data consumers as actors in a way that creates some memorable and meaningful events.

Manhai Li, Xiangyang Xin, Xiong Ding

New Intelligent Information Technology-Assisted Design Innovation Entrepreneurship Course Potential for User Experience Economy in China

Currently, there are a number of experience economy and experience design research in China, but it is lack of user experience economy course for design innovation entrepreneurship education. Moreover, using new intelligent information technology has been more considered for business model innovation, and little attention is paid to the discussion of entrepreneurial process. Furthermore, carefully considered experience design is aiming for promising value proposition resulting in entrepreneurial success in experience economy. There is a need for considering new intelligent information technology for user experience design and economy to entrepreneurship education. Therefore, this paper is focused on exploring the potential aspects, such as a business model architecture and an entrepreneurial process model architecture in terms of design innovation and entrepreneurship, a new intelligent information technology approach architecture for entrepreneurship, and a experience design and economy approach architecture for design innovation entrepreneurship, which have been used for establishing a proposed new intelligent information technology-assisted design innovation entrepreneurship course framework for user experience economy. The proposed framework has a triangle structure with three interactive modules, namely, new intelligent information technology module, entrepreneurial module, and experience economy and design module, which contains all the above investigated aspects.

Zhen Liu, Zhichao Liu, Ruiqiu Zhang, Minfang Shen

Research on Automatic Fault Diagnosis Technology of IT Equipment Based on Big Data

This paper studies the automatic diagnosis technology of large data-based IT equipment faults. By combining traditional IT equipment operation and maintenance system with mobile terminal, users can receive alarms and important performance indicators of network equipment in real time at any time, understand the operation status of network equipment clearly and intuitively, and maintain network equipment remotely through mobile terminal. Now IT equipment centralized operation and maintenance management. The knowledge base of IT equipment is formed by integrating the experience, knowledge, skills, reasoning and synthesizing of many experts in fault diagnosis of IT equipment. A set of general fault diagnosis platform is constructed. The equipment fault can be diagnosed automatically by computer. The normal index of the knowledge base of IT equipment expert is retrieved by the expert system of IT equipment through the technical parameters of the tested equipment, and the reasoning and judgment are carried out. Output of failure components, test results of indicators, causes of failure, treatment measures, etc.

Xiaomei Liu

The Purpose Quadrant: A Collaborative Workshop Method to Brand UX Teams and Raise Their Reputation in Organizations

Design and User Experience (UX) of products and services today are recognized as key differentiators. Accordingly, the respective teams in organizations have grown both in size and relevance.However, UX and other creative teams are often included too late in projects. Sometimes they are only called in to fix a user interface at the last minute before shipment and without thoroughly researched user needs or problems. Even though the Return of Investment of UX work can be determined [28] and the value of design and UX in businesses manifested [39], the reputation of these teams still has the potential to improve.Purpose has become an integral element in branding. Purpose-led companies perform better and products designed with a purpose resonate with customers as they match their quest for the product which does the job they need to get done [2]. Our research shows that UX teams often cannot clearly communicate how they are adding value to their projects, organizations or society. However, a purpose, a raison d’être, and an understanding of everybody’s contribution to a larger whole is key to a successful, recognized and valued team. We argue that by closing the ‘purpose gap’, the reputation and success of UX teams can be increased. This paper discusses a new method enabling UX teams to jointly develop their purpose statement and thus raise their standing and reputation.

Alexandra Matz, Anja Laufer

Measuring UX Capability and Maturity in Organizations

Measuring organizational UX Capability/Maturity (UXCM) has been difficult or inaccurate. Moreover, the lack of empirically developed maturity models, models validated in practice, studies demonstrating their benefit and poor documentation or support for their use, has made this measurement even more problematic. To date, there is no straightforward and efficient method to assess UXCM although such assessment is a prerequisite for the improvement of UX processes. UX artifacts, methods and resources contribute toward the execution of UX processes: the production of UX artifacts demonstrate the execution of a process, whereas the use of UX methods demonstrates the implementation of specific UX processes with specific UX resources. In this paper, we present a measurement structure aiming at assessing organizational capabilities to implement UX processes. This structure consists of a capability scale, a maturity scale, a rating scale and a set of process attributes as measurable characteristics of UX processes. The contribution of this paper is threefold: a description of the measurement structure for the UXCM assessment, a questionnaire for the capability assessment by means of online survey or remote interviews and the documentation of a case study demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed model in an industrial project.

Luka Rukonić, Vincent Kervyn de Meerendré, Suzanne Kieffer

A Value-Centered Approach for Unique and Novel Software Applications

It is difficult to make accurate predictions about what delivers value for users, especially in innovative contexts. The challenge lies in the lack of understanding of the problem and solution space. Design Thinking helps here with its converging and diverging thinking in which different solutions are tried out in practice and compared with each other. Design thinking becomes challenging when using software as a medium, since software development is usually not designed to implement several alternatives simultaneously. Therefore, we present in this paper the outline to an approach how this can be realized with software which we call Insight Centric Design & Development (ICeDD). The special aspect of ICeDD is the combination of Design Thinking as a front–end technique with non–software and the conducting of field experiments with several software alternatives. The idea behind ICeDD has been developed iteratively and incrementally by acting in real–world contexts, observing the effects and reflect on them with the help of a literature research.

Björn Senft, Florian Rittmeier, Holger Fischer, Simon Oberthür

The Construction and Practice of Risk Control Model in User Research

The importance of user research has been fully recognized by the design industry. However, user research is a project that requires a lot of resources. How to control the risk in the process of user research is very important to the success of the project. Based on the theory of “node control”, this paper constructs a risk control model for user research, and analyzes the design process and organizational structure from six indicators: redundancy, one-time, openness, dynamics, isolation and full participation. On this basis, it puts forward three major risk control principles: joint innovation, landmark management and full participation. The risk control of user research was applied on a well-known sports brand’s user research. Through the comparative study, it was found that the risk of user research has been effectively controlled. This risk control model of user research is becoming more and more popular and in-depth application in the process of user research, which will greatly improve the cost-effectiveness and success rate of user research.

Yan Wang, Junnan Ye

DUXU Case Studies

Frontmatter

Challenges in Evaluating Efficacy of Scientific Visualization for Usability and Aesthetics

This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the efficacy of scientific visualization for multiple categories of users, including both domain experts as well as users from the general public. Efficacy was evaluated for understanding, usability, and aesthetic value. Results indicate that aesthetics play a critical, but complex role in enhancing both user understanding and usability.

Julie Baca, Daniel W. Carruth, Alex Calhoun, Michael Stephens, Christopher Lewis

Evaluating Response Delay of Multimodal Interface in Smart Device

Multimodal interface based on natural language processing (NLP) technology is becoming more and more popular. Many studies show that response delay is a key factor to evaluate multimodal interface performance that can influence naturalness and fluency of interaction experience. However, few studies have been conducted to define the optimum response delay time. Focused at multimodal interface with voice as dominant modality, in this paper, we built a research framework to evaluate response delay according to user perception during the voice interaction, in which the system output process was divided into three successive stages. We carried out two experiments to evaluate the influence of response delay time in different stages, a smart speaker with screen and a smart TV were involved in the experiments. The first experiment focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) feedback delay time, and the second experiment was designed to investigate the influence of both query response delay time and loading response delay time. We defined the satisfying and acceptable delay time for each stage respectively, which could be used as the references to improve corresponding technical performance.

Xiantao Chen, Moli Zhou, Renzhen Wang, Yalin Pan, Jiaqi Mi, Hui Tong, Daisong Guan

Developing QR Authentication and Fingerprint Record in an ATM Interface Using User-Centered Design Techniques

ATMs are widely used around the world, which leads to the development of new functionalities that need to consider usability. For this reason, the following article presents the development of graphical interfaces for ATM of BBVA Continental Bank, which follows a user-centered process design. In the first place, we gathered information about our target user. Then, we developed a prototype based on the previous information and the needs of the bank, which also took into account expert’s feedback. Finally, real users in the bank itself validated the prototypes.

Diana Chumpitaz, Kevin Pereda, Katherine Espinoza, Carlos Villarreal, William Perez, Arturo Moquillaza, Jaime Díaz, Freddy Paz

Enhancing the Usability of Long-Term Rental Applications in Chinese Market: An Interaction Design Approach

At present, there are numerous usability problems in the long-term rental application in Chinese market, including unreasonable interaction design problems and irregular interface design problems. The usability elements and the interaction design principles of the long-term rental application are proposed to support the usability improvement. The usability elements, namely effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, learnability, security, and versatility, and the interaction design principles include meeting user mental models; focusing on the analysis and design of different touchpoints; completing information searching path; reasonable information display methods. User behaviors and usage preferences are explored through focus group, non-participant observation and questionnaire survey. One long-term rental application is redesigned to follow the interaction design principle. For usability testing, the measured person uses the application before and after the improvement, counting the usability score and level to determine whether the redesign has been improved. The principle of interaction design can improve the interaction design level and achieve the goal of improving usability of the long-term rental application.

Jing-chen Cong, Chun-Hsien Chen, Chao Liu, Yang Meng, Zhi-yuan Zheng

A Usability Evaluation of Privacy Add-ons for Web Browsers

The web has improved our life and has provided us with more opportunities to access information and do business. Nonetheless, due to the prevalence of trackers on websites, web users might be subject to profiling while accessing the web, which impairs their online privacy. Privacy browser add-ons, such as DuckDuckGo Privacy Essentials, Ghostery and Privacy Badger, extend the privacy protection that the browsers offer by default, by identifying and blocking trackers. However, the work that focuses on the usability of the privacy add-ons, as well as the users’ awareness, feelings, and thoughts towards them, is rather limited. In this work, we conducted usability evaluations by utilising System Usability Scale and Think-Aloud Protocol on three popular privacy add-ons, i.e., DuckDuckGo Privacy Essentials, Ghostery and Privacy Badger. Our work also provides insights into the users’ awareness of online privacy and attitudes towards the abovementioned privacy add-ons; in particular trust, concern, and control. Our results suggest that the participants feel safer and trusting of their respective add-on. It also uncovers areas for add-on improvement, such as a more visible toolbar logo that offers visual feedback, easy access to thorough help resources, and detailed information on the trackers that have been found.

Matthew Corner, Huseyin Dogan, Alexios Mylonas, Francis Djabri

Identifying Psychophysiological Pain Points in the Online User Journey: The Case of Online Grocery

The objective of this study is to identify implicit psychophysiological pain points during an e-commerce interaction. In this article, we propose a method that allows to identify implicit pain points in the user’s experience, by targeting moments when the user has both a high level of arousal and a negative emotional valence, compared to his baseline state; which means that the user feels an intense negative emotion. Identifying those pain points and combining them with eye-tracking data gives key insights into the user journey and helps identify implicit pain points shared among users. It also allows to gain a deeper understanding of pain points that users may fail to identify during the post-task interview. Our results show that the temporal occurrence of psychophysical pain points can be accurately identified and that it is more reliable than pain points explicitly mentioned by users. This study contributes to the user experience literature and practice by proposing a reliable method to visualise peak emotional reactions experienced by users while performing a task. Thus, providing more precision and reliability in identifying pain points when compared to pain points mentioned by users after the task.

Caroline Giroux-Huppé, Sylvain Sénécal, Marc Fredette, Shang Lin Chen, Bertrand Demolin, Pierre-Majorique Léger

The Relationship of the Studies of Ergonomic and Human Computer Interfaces – A Case Study of Graphical Interfaces in E-Commerce Websites

The concept of the Human-Computer Interaction - HCI - has contributed to create several tools and interaction devices that allow to perform the tasks of day to day with greater ease, efficiency and intelligence. It provides optimization of energy consumption, agility in mobility and accessibility, performing actions that promote the improvement of people’s quality of life. Digital Design course has as main objective the search of solutions for digital interfaces and focus on the value of the users. This article will present the result of the heuristic evaluation related to the ergonomic quality of graphical interfaces of websites, through the Ergonomic Aspects developed by Scapin and Bastien, carried out along the discipline of Ergonomics.

Marly de Menezes, Marcelo Falco

Why and Why Not Use My Face?—A Case Study of Face Recognition Solutions in the Workplace

Face recognition (FR) technology is permeating and changing our lives from mobile phone to public space in China. Baidu utilizes advanced FR technology to support tens of thousands of employees in their daily access and payments. However, as a new way of human–machine interaction, a handful of researches of face interaction in the field of HCI were conducted. This study aimed to solve three issues: Users’ behavior during face interaction; What are the reasons for using and not using FR? What are the advantages of user experience of FR? With the methodology of field observation and interviews, we studied the face interaction on five typical scenarios, including the gate barriers, corridors, canteen, supermarket, and vending machines. Through the analysis of these issues, we had a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of experience problems and advantages of face interaction in public space. Basing on our findings, design implications were given focusing on reducing or avoiding these problems, and strengthen the advantages of face interaction. We believe it would be beneficial for the FR which is at the early stage of HCI research.

Sinan He, Yi Zhang, Jingya Zhang, Xiaofan Li, Zhun Wu, Jun Niu, Daisong Guan

Usability of University Recruitment Web Pages from International Doctoral Students’ Perspectives

This study examined a group of international doctoral students’ interactions with the recruitment web pages at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK). It employed eye-tracking and exit interviews. Students performed six assigned search tasks, and their task outcomes were measured based on success, dwell time, and time-based efficiency. Time to first eye fixation and fixation counts were measured using heatmaps and Area of Interests (AOIs), respectively. The findings showed that while the students were able to use the websites and find answers to most of the search tasks, they faced challenges with the usability of these websites. The findings have implications for designing recruitment web pages that are user-centered and supportive of international doctoral students’ information needs and interaction behaviors.

Li-Min Huang, Dania Bilal

Redesigning a Main Menu ATM Interface Using a User-Centered Design Approach Aligned to Design Thinking: A Case Study

Currently, development teams face many challenges when designing user interfaces. There are more, and more, new methodologies, processes and techniques to make user-centered design. However, these teams often lack specific techniques or methods to accomplish these designs themselves in a real-world development process. The following is a proposal of a user-centered design approach through a case study. The approach was applied to successfully redesign the main menu of an ATM interface of a Peruvian Bank. In this iteration, the convenience of aligning the proposal with proven methodologies such as Design Thinking was observed. This proposal continues to be applied successfully in the development process of the ATM team of said bank.

Arturo Moquillaza, Fiorella Falconi, Freddy Paz

Towards the Meaningful 3D-Printed Object: Understanding the Materiality of 3D Prints

Digital fabrication (e.g. 3D printing) provides opportunities for people to act as a product designer and create or adapt objects to their needs and preferences. While research has frequently studied the applications of 3D printing, little is understood on how people engage with the 3D-printed objects after production. This paper begins to fill in this gap by investigating how people perceive 3D-printed objects at two levels: first, basic material properties, and second, meaning or interpretation. A study was conducted with 22 participants comparing 3D-printed objects made of two materials (SLA resin and PLA) with mass-manufactured plastic objects. Qualitative and quantitative results revealed that people perceive material differences in texture, shine, and quality, and that they interpret 3D-printed and mass-manufactured objects differently. The study results can inform the design of 3D printing technology and software such that resultant objects are better aligned with users’ design intents and preferences.

Beth Nam, Alex Berman, Brittany Garcia, Sharon Chu

Optimization of User Interfaces in the Digitization of Paper-Based Processes: A Case Study of a Mobile Aviation Application

Many companies across several industries have made the switch from paper to electronic documentation with the goals of improving efficiency, lowering costs, and providing employees with ways to easily access important information all at their fingertips. In the aviation industry, Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) have transformed all required inflight, paper documentation into digital formats that are easily accessible to pilots on the flight deck. Unfortunately, in the development of first generation EFB documentation applications, and many other document-rich applications in industry, little attention has been paid to human factors design principles, resulting in applications that are inefficient and can burden user performance. This paper describes a usability analysis that was performed on a current EFB application used by a major U.S. air carrier, and provides redesign recommendations to increase usability of the EFB and streamline pilot performance. These results provide insight into potential problems to avoid in future flight deck application design, as well as for applications that serve to digitize paper-based process. Additionally, the results provide guidelines to help ensure effective and efficient user interfaces.

Paige L. Sanchez, Meredith B. Carroll

From Hardware to Software: Evaluating the Swipe Gestures Navigation Feature on Mobile Phones

This paper presents the user experience evaluation of a smartphone feature to allow users to do gestures in a small, pill-shaped button that replaces the typical Android navigation bar. This proposed pill-shaped button, located at the bottom of the screen, allows swipe and tap gestures to do the same functions available on the navigation bar: go back, go to home screen and open the recent apps. However, the pill-shaped button is smaller than the whole navigation bar, which leaves more space to the apps to show their content on screen. In order to evaluate this feature, 252 participants were invited to use it during about 3 months and report any issues using some apps to describe them as well as collect logs remotely. Also, participants were also invited to answer a few user satisfaction surveys after some time using the feature. Based on the findings from this evaluation process, it was possible to fix the issues found and improve the overall usability before the feature hit the market.

Lúcia Satiko Nomiso, Eduardo Hideki Tanaka, Raquel Pignatelli Silva

The Use of the Virtual Fashion Tester: A Usability Study

Internet shopping has been around for a number of years, changing the way companies deal with their customers and technologies have followed that process through new tools and experiences. The fashion industry has followed these changes and has modernized itself to the point where consumers can get clothes without leaving their homes through the use of virtual tasters. From the simplest models that use few anthropometric measures to the most advanced ones with Augmented Reality, avatars and body movements, virtual testers have become allies for both business profits and user experiences. This paper portrays the experience of using a virtual fashion taster by a group of Fashion Design students at a university in Brazil. After evaluating this tool and answering a questionnaire about usability, some questions about ergonomic factors were discussed and proposals were generated for future designs.

Ademario S. Tavares, Marcelo Soares, Márcio Marçal, Luiz W. N. Albuquerque, Aline Neves, Jaciara Silva, Samantha Pimentel, José C. Ramos Filho

Exploring the Relationship Between Web Presence and Web Usability in Peruvian Universities

Currently the use of the internet is an essential requirement for any business that aspires to reach many customers, sharing the information of their products, their achievements, their day to day, etc. This leads to the generation of a quantity of information year after year by these companies, which allows them to gain presence in the network. This reality also applies to the education sector, so this work will focus on Peruvian universities. Universities generate a large amount of content, and therefore it is necessary to be easy to find and read. In this way they will not be at a disadvantage compared to other universities that compete to attract more applicants. Our motivation is based on a study conducted in Turkey whose results show that the universities with the greatest web presence in that country have better usability. With this motivation, it was decided to do this work that, repeating the Turkish experience, verifies if there is a relationship in the Peruvian universities with greater presence, according to a ranking of universities called Webometrics. This evaluation takes as reference other usability studies, among them those that use tests with users and questionnaires, to obtain a ranking of web usability and to be able to contrast it with the web presence ranking.

Luis Torres Melgarejo, Claudia Zapata Del Río, Eder Quispe Vilchez

Research on Factors Affecting Behavior of Taking Selfies in China Based on Logistic Regression Analysis

With the popularity of smartphones and photo-based social networking sites, taking selfies have become a trend among young people. A number of camera apps developed by third-party with face-beauty feature have become popular in China and original camera apps (developed by phone manufacturer) such as HUAWEI have also added face-beauty feature. However, smartphones such as iPhone without face-beauty feature are criticized by the majority of Chinese users. At present, there is little research on the design of original camera apps. In this paper, behavior of taking selfies of Chinese users were focused. An online questionnaire was used to investigate Chinese behavior of taking selfies and the design of face-beauty feature in original camera apps. The analysis of variance and Ordinal Logistic Regression analysis were used as the primary method of data analysis. This study concluded the factors affecting the user’s frequency of taking selfies, high-frequency scenes of taking selfies, the relationship between face-beauty feature and recognition of taking selfies, the function usage of original camera apps and third-party camera apps, as well as the influence of face-beauty feature on taking selfies. It can help to design the functions of original cameras of foreign smartphone brands entering the Chinese market to a certain extent.

Si-qi Wu, Wen-jun Hou, Meng-yun Yue

A Study of Usability Design of Baren Products

In recent years, with the rapid development of the domestic cultural economy, the development of the printmaking market is also at a good opportunity. As an important rubbing tool in the production of prints, baren plays an important role in the effect of printmaking. The development of printmaking determined that baren has a significant commercial development value and design research significance. However, the user may experience hand soreness, chassis edge puncture paper, chassis wear during the process of using the baren to rubbing prints. This paper creatively introduces the usability analysis into the design research of baren from the perspective of user experience.

Ke Zhang, Xiaoli Dong

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