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This book is concerned with the associated issues between the differing paradigms of academic and organizational computing infrastructures. Driven by the increasing impact Information Communication Technology (ICT) has on our working and social lives, researchers within the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) field try and find ways to situate new hardware and software in rapidly changing socio-digital ecologies.

Adopting a design-orientated research perspective, researchers from the European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies (EUSSET) elaborate on the challenges and opportunities we face through the increasing permeation of society by ICT from commercial, academic, design and organizational perspectives.

Designing Socially Embedded Technologies in the Real-World is directed at researchers, industry practitioners and will be of great interest to any other societal actors who are involved with the design of IT systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Meeting the Challenge of Change

Abstract
There is little doubt that insights gleaned from the turn to the ‘social’ (whatever that might mean) have had a profound impact on the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs). As was reported many years ago by Bannon (From human factors to human actors: the role of psychology and human-computer interaction studies in system design. In: Greenbaum J, Kyng M (eds) Design at work: cooperative design of computer systems. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 25–44, 1991), there was a major epistemological shift away from the ‘human factors’ approach which privileged ‘usability’ issues towards problems which seemed, at first glance, more intractable. These included, for brief mention, the problem of how ICTs might fit, or otherwise, into complex organisational contexts (see, e.g. Grudin J, The computer reaches out: the historical continuity of interface design. In: CHI’90 proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. ACM, New York, pp 261–268, 1990), how they might support interaction between different individuals and groups who might not be co-located and how coordinative and cooperative functions of various kinds might be supported. A range of by-now familiar (even classic) literature addressed various issues that attended on this shift, including how best to conceptualise the field (Schmidt K, Riding a tiger, or computer supported cooperative work. In: Proceedings of the 2nd European conference on CSCW. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1991; Schmidt K, Bannon L, Int J 1(1–2):7–40, 1992), what perspectives might prove fruitful for analysis (see, e.g. Hughes JA, Randall D, Shapiro D, Faltering from ethnography to design. In: Turner J, Kraut R (eds) Proceedings of CSCW’92 conference on computer-supported cooperative work. ACM Press, Toronto, pp 115–122, 1992, Hughes JA, Randall D, Shapiro D, Interact Comput 5:239–253, 1993; Heath C, Liff P, Collaborative activity and technological design: task coordination in London Underground control rooms. In: Bannon L, Robinson M, Schmidt K (eds) ECSCW’91. Proceedings of the second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, Amsterdam. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 65–80, 1991; Dourish P, Where the action is: the foundations of embodied interaction. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995), what methodologies might be usefully deployed (see, e.g. Randall et al. 2007), what a developing corpus of studies might reveal (Heath C, Hindmarsh J, Luff P, Workplace studies: recovering work practice and informing system design. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000) and what the consequences overall for our picture of information systems might be (see, e.g. Lamb R, Kling R, MIS Q 27(2):197–235, 2003). It is not unreasonable to suggest that these insights, insights which were largely promoted within the field of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), have had an influence in many different contexts. One only has to look at, for instance, the way in which ‘ethnographic’ approaches have become commonplace in any number of design- related areas. Having said that, these largely academic changes have not been accompanied by wholesale acceptance in the commercial and industrial world. Moreover, the greatly accelerating pace of change means that as fast as we reconceptualise our analytic problems, we are confronted with new ones. Few of us dealing with the way new technology had organisational and interactional consequences foresaw the development of, and huge consequences of, the World Wide Web. The various chapters in this book, therefore, constitute attempts to grapple with these themes.
Volker Wulf, Kjeld Schmidt, David Randall

The Business Perspective

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Socially Embedded Technology: The Pathway to Sustainable Product Development

Abstract
The design of IT artifacts has been focused for the past 50 years on delivering products that serve the needs of a particular set of end users. User-centered design methods relating to the design of IT artifacts have evolved in both the academic context, in fields such as HCI, and in the commercial context. Both share a common commitment to the analysis and understanding of stakeholder requirements. The underlying rationale of such methods was that there exists a “perfect” design solution for supporting a given set of use cases and that the shipped design should reflect this as much as possible to guarantee product success.
Jörg Beringer, Markus Latzina

Chapter 3. Elastic Workplace Design

Abstract
With the consumerization of IT, rugged, process-centric enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are increasingly challenged by small fit-to-purpose productivity applications that are designed for very specific use cases. ERP content, which used to reside in transactional database applications, suddenly becomes accessible on mobile devices and blends into personal knowledge management applications. This increasing pervasiveness of information systems in work and private contexts demands, we argue, more situational adaptability of functionality and content.
Jörg Beringer, Markus Latzina

Chapter 4. Patterns of Work: A Pragmatic Approach

Abstract
As was suggested in Chap. 1, we need to ‘… accumulate and synthesize knowledge about such social domains from case studies to be able to anticipate the use and behavioral impact of new designs’. In turn, Beringer suggests, we need to go about, ‘extracting key findings and summarizing key insights [so that] they can become a reusable set of foundational insights about target domains’. How we might do this, however, is a somewhat intractable problem. The past 20 years and more has, without question, seen a significant shift in the way in which data relating to design problems is collected and analysed. One of the most significant aspects of this has been the ‘turn to the social’ often associated with the deployment of ethnographic practices for design-related purposes.
K. Kashimura, Y. Hara, N. Ikeya, David Randall

The Challenge of Change

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Situated Computing

Abstract
Some members of EUSSET (European Society for Socially Embedded Technologies), the European professional association dedicated to the development of technological tools and infrastructures that incorporate a human-centred design perspective, presented at one of the workshops accompanying the development of the new R&D programme of the European Union, Horizon, a position paper (Bannon L, Bjørn P, De Michelis G, Paternó F, Randall D, Schmidt K, Wagner I, Wulf V. Building a socially embedded future Internet. Paper presented at 2nd FIA research roadmap workshop – looking to the horizon, future Internet assembly research roadmap for horizon 2020, 2012) where situated computing is proposed as a new paradigm engaged with design and development of technologies from a perspective of evolving social practices.
Giorgio De Michelis

Chapter 6. Meta-design: Transforming and Enriching the Design and Use of Socio-technical Systems

Abstract
The meta-design of socio-technical systems (STSs) is an approach which complies with the need of integrating two different types of structures and processes: technical systems which are engineered to provide anticipatable and reliable interactions between users and systems and social systems which are contingent in their interactions and a subject of evolution. Meta-design is focused on objectives, techniques, and processes to allow users to act as designers. In doing so, it does not provide fixed solutions but a framework within which all stakeholders (designers and users) can contribute to the development of technical functionality and the evolution of the social side such as organizational change, knowledge construction, and continuous learning.
This paper describes the possibilities of transforming and enriching the design and use of STSs grounded in the conceptual framework of meta-design. It explores cultures of participation, seeding, evolutionary growth and reseeding, and underdesign as specific components of the framework. Two specific examples of meta-designed STSs illustrate the conceptual framework, and findings derived from the assessment of these developments in practice are briefly discussed. Based on the combination of conceptual and methodological consideration, initial guidelines for the meta-design of STSs are derived.
Gerhard Fischer, Thomas Herrmann

Chapter 7. Practice-Based Computing: Empirically Grounded Conceptualizations Derived from Design Case Studies

Abstract
The introduction of IT has changed the way we live in many ways. Historically, it can even be argued that socially embedded applications of information technology challenge and change practices to an extent rarely seen before with any other type of technological artifacts. If these IT artifacts have strong and recurrent impacts on people’s lives, we need to reconsider design practice artifacts which allow for anticipating use practices and bring together inspirational creativity with evaluative methods.
Volker Wulf, Claudia Müller, Volkmar Pipek, David Randall, Markus Rohde, Gunnar Stevens

Chapter 8. A View of Causation for CSCW: Manipulation and Control in the Material Field of Work

Abstract
In this chapter, we attempt to achieve a better understanding of how cooperative work is partly accomplished by virtue of the actors’ manipulation and control of causal relationships central to their material field of work. Previous CSCW studies have not focused extensively on causation in cooperative work (e.g. see Schmidt and Bannon 2013). Consequently, it is a challenge to find a conception of causation appropriate for the study of cooperative work. This chapter addresses this challenge.
Lars R. Christensen, Olav W. Bertelsen

Chapter 9. Analysing and Supporting Cooperative Practices: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Abstract
In this chapter we present an approach that aims at the development of a research program that entails a theoretical-empirical and a technological dimension simultaneously. The objective is both to contribute to the understanding of the socio-cognitive phenomena that underpin cooperation and collaboration in context and to contribute to the sustainable development of society by designing services that fulfil societal needs in a selected set of domains (e.g. risk and crisis management, social support for the disabled and the elderly, ecological sustainability and energy savings). One of the distinctive points of our approach is that it involves a set of researchers coming from different disciplines and working in a single team on the same empirical-theoretical and technological objects: mediated communication, cooperative practices and cooperative technologies. This approach has different but complementary faces: the naturalistic analysis of cooperative practices in different contexts, the design of services to support cooperative practices and the design of technological models, architectures and platforms that provide an infrastructure to support the cooperative services.
Myriam Lewkowicz, Pascal Salembier

Design Issues

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Interaction Design at Itsme

Abstract
After a 1 year long preparation, at April 1st 2008, we had the kickoff meeting of itsme, a project with the ambition of designing and building an innovative front end of Linux for workstations (De Michelis et al. 2009). The idea behind our project was to go beyond the desktop metaphor shaping all existing operating systems for workstations (Windows, MAC OS, Linux versions like Ubuntu, etc.) to create a new system able to support the context awareness of its users.
Giorgio De Michelis

Chapter 11. Building Socially Embedded Technologies: Implications About Design

Abstract
The main claim of this chapter is that, in order to bridge the gap between what users need and what is given to them as a solution to those needs, the concept of design has to be substantially challenged and its role in IT development reformulated. To this aim, we submit that an old mythology of design, which is based on the separation between conceptual design and situated use, and consequently on the modeling activity that entails and enacts this separation, should be abandoned in favor of a new mythology. We advocate this new mythology to be grounded on both the notion of performativity, from the conceptual perspective, and on the notion of bricoleur from the more practical perspective. Reviewing and discussing the main tenets of this mythology has brought us to introducing a lean method for the development of socially embedded technologies and to the preliminary proposal of a “logic of bricolage” that specific environments should enact to empower end users in the process of continuous development of their own digital tools. The proposed layered conceptual architecture, as well as the notions that support its conception, have still to prove their practical value in a reasonable range of settings, especially where legacy systems do exist and cannot be “obliterated”. However our hope is that the EUSSET forum will host many similar discourses and give them some sort of legitimacy to inform future common initiatives of research, education, and IT professional practice in the near future.
Federico Cabitza, Carla Simone

Chapter 12. Exploring Challenging Environments: Contextual Research in the Car and the Factory Through an HCI Lens

Abstract
Nontraditional environments offer a variety of methodological challenges when exploring cooperation under very specific contextual conditions. We understand contexts as challenging when they exhibit very specific/unique characteristics that need to be explored beyond traditional and already better-understood working/office settings. Moreover, these challenging environments are contexts in which human-human interaction mediated by computing systems and human-machine collaboration is hard to observe. In this paper, we focus on two challenging environments: the highly context-dependent automotive environment and the complex context of a semiconductor factory. Both contexts offer potential in a variety of ways for novel computer-supported cooperative work research, such as driver/codriver cooperation and operator-robot cooperation. In this book chapter, two exemplary contexts “car” and “factory” will be characterized in terms of (1) research challenges posed by the context, (2) performed exploratory studies, and (3) methodological implications for the two exemplary contexts, as well as for CSCW and HCI research practices in general.
Astrid Weiss, Alexander Meschtscherjakov, Roland Buchner, Ewald Strasser, Patricia M. Kluckner, Sebastian Osswald, Nicole Mirnig, David Wilfinger, Nicole Perterer, Petra Sundstroem, Arno Laminger, Manfred Tscheligi

Chapter 13. Design for Agency, Adaptivity and Reciprocity: Reimagining AAL and Telecare Agendas

Abstract
It goes without saying that the developed world is facing significant challenges in dealing with the increasing demands of an ageing population, especially around health and care. It is also easy to understand why technology is seen as a key enabler for meeting this challenge. Application areas such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) and telecare are receiving increasing governmental, industry and research attention, taking advantage of maturing and increasingly ubiquitous wireless, mobile and sensor-based technologies. However, to date, many of these advances have been largely driven by technology-utopian visions without real understanding for how such technologies come to be situated in everyday life and healthcare practice and what their potential is for enhancing new ways of living into older age. Further, there is limited evidence of their effectiveness to date, and the problems with adoption from the patients’ perspectives suggest it is timely to reflect on these experiences and reimagine new ways of approaching AAL/telecare from a broader socio-technical perspective. To this end, we propose AAL/telecare as modular infrastructures for the home that can be adapted and repurposed, starting with personal ‘quality of life’ and social needs (supporting peer care) and progressing to monitoring, physical and medical needs (supporting formal care) as relevant for a person and as needs evolve. This extends the adoption path to supporting healthy ageing, taking notions of agency, adaptivity and social reciprocity as core principles. We illustrate this with some examples and identify some of the associated technical and methodological challenges.
Geraldine Fitzpatrick, Alina Huldtgren, Lone Malmborg, Dave Harley, Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

Social and Organisational Complexity

Frontmatter

Chapter 14. Studying Technologies in Practice: “Bounding Practices” When Investigating Socially Embedded Technologies

Abstract
The idea of socially embedded technologies (SET) constitutes a new approach into ICT research, one which has emerged from the European communities of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). SET is based upon the fundamental assumption that we need new ways to conceptualize research on design, which takes into account peoples’ social practices without limiting the human interaction to an individual computer-user relation. People and practices are much more than their relationship with a technology, and thus the concept of “user” is problematic. We see ourselves as researchers who embrace the new agendas of SET, and in this chapter we will then explain approach and suggest ways for thinking differently about design. When studying technologies in practice, we ground our work within the CSCW tradition for workplace studies (Luff P, Hindmarch J et al (eds) Workplace studies: recovering work practice and informing system design. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000; Randall D, Harper R et al, Fieldwork for design: theory and practice. Springer, London, 2007). In recent years, we have conducted research in the healthcare arena, studying patient tracking and triage systems in emergency departments (Bjørn P, Balka E, Health care categories have politics too: unpacking the managerial agendas of electronic triage systems. In: ECSCW 2007: proceedings of the tenth European conference on computer supported cooperative work. Springer, Limerick, 2007; Bjørn P, Burgoyne S et al, Eur J Inf Syst 18: 428–441, 2009; Bjørn P, Hertzum M, Comput Supported Coop Work (CSCW): Int J 20(1): 93), investigating the introduction of electronic medical records in primary and acute care settings (Boulus N, Managing the gradual transition from paper to electronic patient records (EPR). Master, University of Oslo, 2004; Boulus N, Sociotechnical changes brought about by electronic medical record. In: American conference on information systems, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2009; Boulus N, A journey into the hidden lives of electronic medical records (EMRs): Action research in the making. School of Communication, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, 2010; Boulus N, Bjørn P, Constructing technology-in-use practices: EPR-adaptation in Canada and Norway. In: Third international conference information technology in health care: socio-technical approaches. IOS Press, Sidney, 2007; Boulus N, Bjørn P, Int J Med Inform 79(6): 97–108, 2008), as well as studying the practices of monitoring patients with heart failure in a tele-monitoring setup (Andersen T, Bjørn P, et al, Int J Med Inform 80(8): e112, 2010). We believe the healthcare arena to be a perspicuous setting for studying technology as socially embedded since it covers heterogeneous work practices, varying technical competencies and complex organizational arrangements. We have conducted both single-site and comparative studies (Boulus N, Bjørn P, Constructing technology-in-use practices: EPR-adaptation in Canada and Norway. In: Third international conference information technology in health care: socio-technical approaches. IOS Press, Sidney, 2007; Balka E. Bjørn P, et al, Steps towards a typology for health informatics. In: Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). ACM, San Diego, 2008), and all of this work took place in Canada, Norway, or Denmark. In each of these studies, we applied ethnographic methods to examine the collaborative and complex practices of the particular site, with the aim of developing theoretical concepts useful for describing and articulating practices while informing the design of technologies that support the local and situated practices (Schmidt K, The critical role of workplace studies in CSCW. In: Heath C, Hindmarsh J, Luff P (eds), Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and informing design. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998). More recently, we have started to reflect on what these types of engagements mean for research and for practice, with the aim of continuously sharpening our research practices (Bjørn P, Boulus N, Action Res J 9(3): 282–302, 2011; Boulus-Rødje N, Action research as a network: collective production of roles and interventions. In: proceedings of the 20th European conference on information systems (ECIS). ESADE, Barcelona, 2012; Boulus-Rødje submitted).
Pernille Bjørn, Nina Boulus-Rødje

Chapter 15. Designing for Lived Health: A Practice-Based Approach for Person-Centered Health Information Technologies

Abstract
Health is almost always a deeply personal issue. As individuals, people struggle to maintain and enhance their health within their own “messiness”—their values, practices, and beliefs.
Elizabeth Kaziunas, Mark S. Ackerman

Chapter 16. Organisational IT Managed from the Shop Floor: Developing Participatory Design on the Organisational Arena

Abstract
Modern organisations need to be able to adjust to changes in the environment, changes which are ever more rapid, and in doing so capitalise on the creativity and innovations of their employees. As suggested by Boulus-Rødje and Bjørn (Chap. 14), information technology (IT) applications today are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organisations. This places requirements on the IT infrastructure. As the work practices within an organisation change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve.
Johan Bolmsten, Yvonne Dittrich

Chapter 17. Concluding Remarks: New Pathways

Abstract
It is perhaps stating the blindingly obvious when we say that technologically, organisationally, and socially, we are experiencing rapid change. Whether, however, our analytic approaches have kept up is an open question. In these concluding remarks, we examine the changing face of social, organisational, and work practice as a dynamic sociotechnical phenomenon and present an argument for a modest and productive approach to generalisation which will allow us to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, case studies which can be narrowly focused and short-term and, on the other, decisions about the appropriate level of generality which might allow us to transfer insights and be a basis for technological design. We use the word ‘modest’ advisedly here for some part of what we have to say will be avowedly polemic. Many of the problems we discuss are not new. Issues around participation, the politics of design, the role of the reflexive researcher, and so on have been discussed ad nauseam. Our main contention, however, is that we have yet to provide a systematic alternative to more conventional approaches to the investigation and design relationship. We see this to be the focus of an emerging discourse on socially embedded technologies. In the following, we will elaborate on such a research agenda, developing it out of a critical evaluation of the state of the art in the CSCW discourse.
Volker Wulf, Kjeld Schmidt, David Randall
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