Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Blown powder deposition is an additive manufacturing procedure and has the ability to fabricate complicated and intricate geometries with excellent material properties. Reliable fabrication of complicated shapes and geometries necessitates precise control over the fabrication process. In order to do so, process monitoring tools capable of visualizing various phenomena that occur during the deposition process are needed. Knowledge of process dynamics is critical in optimizing and developing robust and effective deposition procedures.
The work presented in the current chapter involves the incorporation of an Infra-Red (IR) camera as a vision-based monitoring tool for blown powder deposition process. The data processing methodology necessary for analyzing IR data is also presented. In this chapter, the thermal history of the process was captured under different powder feed settings. These deposition processes were performed under the control of vision-based closed loop control systems. Using the IR camera, the influence of the control systems was captured as the thermal history of the deposits. This data was analyzed for tracking changes in the area of the material near solidus temperature.
The later section of the chapter focuses on further dissecting thermographic data to identify the material above the solidus temperature. Image processing techniques related to edge detection were used to identify these regions. The IR camera data was also used to track the regions of interest through the deposition and make other characteristic observations pertaining to phase change in relation to thin wall geometry.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Murr, L. E., Gaytan, S. M., Medina, F., et al. (2010). Next-generation biomedical implants using additive manufacturing of complex, cellular and functional mesh arrays. Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, 368, 1999–2032. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0010. CrossRef
Vishnu Prashant Reddy, K., Meera Mirzana, I., & Koti Reddy, A. (2018). Application of additive manufacturing technology to an aerospace component for better trade-off’s. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5, 3895–3902. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATPR.2017.11.644. CrossRef
Busachi, A., Erkoyuncu, J., Colegrove, P., et al. (2017). A review of additive manufacturing technology and cost estimation techniques for the defence sector. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 19, 117–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CIRPJ.2017.07.001. CrossRef
Kumar Dama, K., Kumar Malyala, S., Suresh Babu, V., et al. (2017). Development of automotive FlexBody chassis structure in conceptual design phase using additive manufacturing. Materials Today: Proceedings, 4, 9919–9923. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATPR.2017.06.294. CrossRef
Delgado Camacho, D., Clayton, P., O’Brien, W. J., et al. (2018). Applications of additive manufacturing in the construction industry—A forward-looking review. Automation in Construction, 89, 110–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AUTCON.2017.12.031. CrossRef
Oter, Z. C., Coskun, M., Akca, Y., et al. (2019). Benefits of laser beam based additive manufacturing in die production. Optik (Stuttgart), 176, 175–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJLEO.2018.09.079. CrossRef
Ford, S., & Despeisse, M. (2016). Additive manufacturing and sustainability: An exploratory study of the advantages and challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 1573–1587. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2016.04.150. CrossRef
(10AD) Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies BT—Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies.
Lewis, G. K., & Schlienger, E. (2000). Practical considerations and capabilities for laser assisted direct metal deposition. Materials and Design, 21, 417–423. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(99)00078-3. CrossRef
Shamsaei, N., Yadollahi, A., Bian, L., & Thompson, S. M. (2015). An overview of direct laser deposition for additive manufacturing; Part II: Mechanical behavior, process parameter optimization and control. Additive Manufacturing, 8, 12–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2015.07.002. CrossRef
Dinda, G. P., Dasgupta, A. K., & Mazumder, J. (2009). Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: Microstructural evolution and thermal stability. Materials Science and Engineering A, 509, 98–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MSEA.2009.01.009. CrossRef
Mazumder, J., Dutta, D., Kikuchi, N., & Ghosh, A. (2000). Closed loop direct metal deposition: Art to part. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 34, 397–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0143-8166(00)00072-5. CrossRef
Peyre, P., Aubry, P., Fabbro, R., et al. (2008). Analytical and numerical modelling of the direct metal deposition laser process. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41, 025403. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/41/2/025403. CrossRef
Javaid, M., & Haleem, A. (2017). Additive manufacturing applications in medical cases: A literature based review. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 54(4), 411–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AJME.2017.09.003. CrossRef
Sahoo, S., & Chou, K. (2016). Phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution of Ti–6Al–4V in electron beam additive manufacturing process. Additive Manufacturing, 9, 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ADDMA.2015.12.005. CrossRef
Amine, T., Newkirk, J. W., & Liou, F. (2014). An investigation of the effect of direct metal deposition parameters on the characteristics of the deposited layers. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 3, 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CSITE.2014.02.002. CrossRef
Zheng, B., Zhou, Y., Smugeresky, J. E., et al. (2008). Thermal behavior and microstructure evolution during laser deposition with laser-engineered net shaping: Part II. Experimental investigation and discussion. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 39, 2237–2245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-008-9566-6. CrossRef
Zheng, B., Zhou, Y., Smugeresky, J. E., et al. (2008). Thermal behavior and microstructural evolution during laser deposition with laser-engineered net shaping: Part I. Numerical calculations. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 39, 2228–2236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-008-9557-7. CrossRef
Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Tan, L., & Li, S. (2013). Coaxial monitoring of the fibre laser lap welding of Zn-coated steel sheets using an auxiliary illuminant. Optics and Laser Technology, 50, 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2013.03.001. CrossRef
Huang, R.-S., Liu, L.-M., & Song, G. (2007). Infrared temperature measurement and interference analysis of magnesium alloys in hybrid laser-TIG welding process. Materials Science and Engineering A, 447, 239–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MSEA.2006.10.069. CrossRef
Li, L. (2002). A comparative study of ultrasound emission characteristics in laser processing. Applied Surface Science, 186, 604–610. CrossRef
Gao, J., Qin, G., Yang, J., et al. (2011). Image processing of weld pool and keyhole in Nd:YAG laser welding of stainless steel based on visual sensing. Transactions of the Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 21, 423–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(11)60731-0. CrossRef
Saeed, G., & Zhang, Y. M. (2007). Weld pool surface depth measurement using a calibrated camera and structured light. Measurement Science and Technology, 18, 2570–2578. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/18/8/033. CrossRef
Luo, M., & Shin, Y. C. (2015). Vision-based weld pool boundary extraction and width measurement during keyhole fiber laser welding. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 64, 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.OPTLASENG.2014.07.004. CrossRef
Pan, Y. (2013). Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process. Missouri University of Science and Technology.
Garcia-Cruz, X. M., Sergiyenko, O. Y., Tyrsa, V., et al. (2014). Optimization of 3D laser scanning speed by use of combined variable step. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 54, 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.OPTLASENG.2013.08.011. CrossRef
Donadello, S., Motta, M., Demir, A. G., & Previtali, B. (2018). Coaxial laser triangulation for height monitoring in laser metal deposition. Procedia CIRP, 74, 144–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PROCIR.2018.08.066. CrossRef
Donadello, S., Motta, M., Demir, A. G., & Previtali, B. (2019). Monitoring of laser metal deposition height by means of coaxial laser triangulation. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 112, 136–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.OPTLASENG.2018.09.012. CrossRef
Lewandowski, J. J., & Seifi, M. (2016). Metal additive manufacturing: A review of mechanical properties. Annual Review of Materials Research, 46, 151–186. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-matsci-070115-032024. CrossRef
Carroll, B. E., Palmer, T. A., & Beese, A. M. (2015). Anisotropic tensile behavior of Ti–6Al–4V components fabricated with directed energy deposition additive manufacturing. Acta Materialia, 87, 309–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ACTAMAT.2014.12.054. CrossRef
Karnati, S. (2015). Thermographic investigation of laser metal deposition. Missouri University of Science and Technology.
- Detection and Tracking of Melt Pool in Blown Powder Deposition Through Image Processing of Infrared Camera Data
Frank F. Liou
- Chapter 22