Cancer is thought to be mainly due to alterations in the cellular genome that affect the expression or function of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation. Present-day molecular cancer research aims at identifying the alterations responsible for the development of tumors, at characterizing the genes involved and at determining the consequences of the gene alterations for the control of cell growth and differentiation and for the process of carcinogenesis. Five major approaches have been used to identify genes that may place a role in carcinogenesis: 1) characterization of cellular sequences transduced to the genome of acutely transforming retroviruses, 2) transfection of tumor DNA into mouse NIH/3T3 cells and selection for transforming genes, 3) isolation of genes altered by insertion or viral sequences, 4) direct isolation of altered genes from tumor cells with a visible alteration, such as a translocation in their chromosomes, and 5) isolation of genes with sequence similarities to genes discovered by the other approaches. By these procedures, a large number of genes have been identified, but to date only a fraction of these have been implicated in the development of human tumors. Of these, the ras family has been the most thoroughly investigated.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Detection of ras Oncogenes Using PCR
Johannes L. Bos
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
- Chapter 18