When achieved, deterrence constitutes an exercise of power through the application of either Conditioned Power, in the form of Persuasion or Manipulation, or Condign Power in the form of psychological or otherwise non-physical violence (Galbraith 1983, p. 70; Wrong 1979, p. 4–5). Deterrence can be said to occur when an individual or entity chooses to change his, her, or their behavior based on information received from an external source that intentionally seeks to compel the particular behavioral change; that is, deterrence transpires when someone modifies their behavior either to do something that he or she otherwise would not have done, or vice versa – someone chooses not to do something that he or she otherwise would have done. The catalyst of this change in behavior comes from the delivery of information from an external source, the power holder, and its processing and subsequent action taken by the individual or entity, the power subject. There necessarily exists a power relationship between power holder and subject, which is characterized by the intentionality of the holder and his or her effectiveness upon the subject. The power holder must act deliberately and achieve the intended effect upon the subject for an exercise of power to manifest – these are universal attributes of power relations. Deterrence occurs when information plays the determinative role in the decision-making process of the power subject, and the power holder achieves his or her desired effect through the use of persuasion, manipulation, or psychological violence.
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