Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

While the deterrence of cyber attacks is one of the most important issues facing the United States and other nations, the application of deterrence theory to the cyber realm is problematic. This study introduces cyber warfare and reviews the challenges associated with deterring cyber attacks, offering key recommendations to aid the deterrence of major cyber attacks.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Cyberspace, Cyber Warfare, and Deterrence

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

This chapter explains the central question, central argument, limitations, and significance of the book. The major question addressed is: in light of the challenges of applying deterrence theory to cyber warfare, how can the United States and its allies successfully deter major cyber attacks? While deterrence theory faces major challenges when applied to cyber warfare due to the unique aspect of cyber technology, there are three specific efforts that can help mitigate this challenge, which we explore in this study. First, cultivating beneficial norms for strategic stability; second, continuing efforts in the area of improving cyber forensics and defenses, including regarding lower evidentiary standards for attributing cyber attacks and addressing harboring “independent” attackers; and finally, developing and communicating a clear declaratory policy and credible options for deterrence-in-kind so as to make escalation unavoidable and costly.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

2. Cyberspace and Cyber Warfare

This chapter introduces the core concepts of cyberspace and cyber warfare in detail and serves as a primer for later discussions of the application of deterrence theory to cyberspace and potential mitigating solutions. It defines cyberspace, cyberspace operations, Computer Network Exploitation (CNE), and Computer Network Attack (CNA). It also introduces a variety of characteristics that are unique or particularly pronounced when it comes to cyber weapons, as well as discussing some recent attacks.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

3. Deterrence Theory and the Challenge of Applying It to Cyber Warfare

This chapter explains the core ideas of deterrence theory, specifically that it is largely associated with nuclear policy. During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union adopted a survivable nuclear force to present a ‘credible’ deterrent that maintained the ‘uncertainty’ inherent in strategic stability as understood through the accepted theories of major theorists like Bernard Brodie, Herman Kahn, and Thomas Schelling. This chapter evaluates the limits and challenges associated with the application of deterrence theory to cyber warfare and argues that while there are major insights from deterrence theory for cyber warfare, there are also major problems introduced by the unique aspect of cyber technology that causes significant problems for deterrence. These are, first, uncertainty associated with awareness and attribution of an attack; and second, the uncertain effects of such an attack.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

Improving Deterrence of Cyber Attacks

Frontmatter

4. Cultivating Beneficial Norms for Strategic Stability

We outline our non-material solution as part of a tailored approach to address the implications of the uncertainty associated with applying deterrence to cyber warfare. Specifically, we argue that the United States and its allies should seek to cultivate beneficial norms for cyber warfare, including norms that, first, constrain strategic cyber attacks, second, lower evidentiary standards for attributing cyber attacks, and, third, prohibit harboring ‘independent’ cyber attackers. We also review norm evolution theory and suggest specific actions that can be taken to cultivate these various norms that would bolster cyber deterrence.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

5. Continuing Efforts to Improve Cyber Forensics and Bolster Defenses

This chapter recommends continuing efforts to improve cyber forensics and bolster defenses, which collectively contribute to a tailored approach to address the implications of the uncertainty associated with applying deterrence to cyber warfare. The United States and its allies can most directly address the unique uncertainty challenges associated with cyber warfare by improving cyber forensics, learning from the development of forensic capabilities for other types of unconventional instruments of war — nuclear and biological weapons. We also recommend continuing efforts to invest in deterrence by denial through robust cyber defenses, which reduce the benefit of hostile adversary action by mitigating the effectiveness of its cyber attacks.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

6. Developing a Declaratory Policy and Offensive Cyber Weapons

This chapter deals with developing and communicating a clear declaratory policy and credible options for deterrence-in-kind so as to make escalation unavoidable and costly. Specifically, we discuss developing and communicating a clear declaratory policy and credible options for deterrence-in-kind so as to make escalation unavoidable and costly, which will further help enhance the deterrence of major cyber attacks.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

7. Conclusions

This chapter summarizes the study’s findings that the application of deterrence theory to the cyber realm is problematic. It reiterates the recommended efforts in three specific areas to aid the deterrence of major cyber attacks — both in the non-material and balance of power realms: first, cultivating beneficial norms for strategic stability; second, continuing efforts in the area of improving cyber forensics and defenses, including regarding lower evidentiary standards for attributing cyber attacks and addressing harboring ‘independent’ attackers; and finally, developing and communicating a clear declaratory policy and credible options for deterrence-in-kind so as to make escalation unavoidable and costly.

Brian M. Mazanec, Bradley A. Thayer

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

Stellmach & BröckersBBL | Bernsau BrockdorffMaturus Finance GmbHPlutahww hermann wienberg wilhelm

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.

Whitepaper

- ANZEIGE -

Künstliche Intelligenz und der Faktor Arbeit - Implikationen für Unternehmen und Wirtschaftspolitik

Künstliche Intelligenz und ihre Auswirkung auf den Faktor Arbeit ist zum Modethema in der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Politikberatung avanciert. Studien, die alarmistisch die baldige Verdrängung eines Großteils konventioneller Jobprofile beschwören, leiden jedoch unter fragwürdiger Datenqualität und Methodik. Die Unternehmensperspektive zeigt, dass der Wandel der Arbeitswelt durch künstliche Intelligenz weitaus langsamer und weniger disruptiv ablaufen wird. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

Bildnachweise