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Über dieses Buch

This open access book explores the most recent trends in the EU in terms of development, progress, and performance. Ten years after the 2008 economic crisis, and amidst a digital revolution that is intensifying the development race, the European Union, and especially Central and Eastern Europe, are ardently searching for their development priorities.

Against this background, by relying on a cross-national perspective, the authors reflect upon the developmental challenges of the moment, such as sustainable development, reducing inequality, ensuring social cohesion, and driving the digital revolution. They particularly focus on the relation between the less-developed Eastern part of the EU and its more developed Western counterpart, and discuss the consequences of this development gap in detail.

Lastly, the book presents a range of case studies from different areas of governance, such as economy and commerce, health services, education, migration and public opinion in order to investigate the trends most likely to impact the European Union's medium and long-term development.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Open Access

Correction to: Health Care and Migration: What Data Can Tell Us of the Hard-to-Measure Impact of Migrants on the European Health Systems

The chapter was inadvertently published with the incorrect author name and later the same has been updated as Guidi Caterina Francesca.
Guidi Caterina Francesca, Alessandro Petretto

Envisaging Development in the Contemporary Society: Theory and Public Debates

Frontmatter

Open Access

Introduction

Abstract
Following a repetitive pattern, the world gets closer then drifts away from the complex issue of development. Development as a process is a constant presence in our lives; nevertheless, the debate surrounding it—especially with regard to its intensity and quality—is more or less articulate. How did different theories and models guide development? Looking at this topic 30 years after the end of the Cold War allows us to identify three distinct periods. The first one ranges from the end of the Cold War to the brink of the 2008–2009 economic crisis, the second covers the next decade of slow recovery, while the third, the one we are currently experiencing, is the least studied and understood of all. Before detailing these time intervals, we need to stress a fundamental fact: during the whole timespan of 30 years, development took place within the more general context of globalization, a setting dramatically different than any other in history.
Paul Dobrescu

Open Access

Why Do Some Countries Develop and Others Not?

Abstract
This chapter discusses the reasons why countries develop or remain poor. It examines the many reasons advanced for this and provides fresh perspectives on historical experience and the academic literature. It looks both backward over the past 70 years and forward to consider new factors shaping the development of nations and the roles of businesses, governments and individuals everywhere.
Ian Goldin

Open Access

Measuring the Hard-to-Measure in Development: Dimensions, Measurement Challenges, and Responses

Abstract
Development is a multi-dimensional, imprecise concept. Initiatives that aim to improve development attempt to address entrenched economic and social issues, increasingly through multi-component programmes, involve diverse sets of stakeholders pursuing different, sometimes competing interests, and must adapt to shifting contexts. They operate under conditions of uncertainty and complexity. Each of these factors poses challenges for measurement validity and reliability.
Based on common challenges that arose through development initiatives across a range of contexts, this paper explores four hard-to-measure dimensions of development: abstract, multi-dimensional concepts, processes, and issues; challenging settings where there are unpredictable, sudden or frequent shifts in the environment; multiple, uncertain pathways of change; and multi-layer implementing structures such as cross-sector partnerships and regional/national/subnational initiatives. These dimensions pose specific difficulties related to what is measured and where, the assessment of how and why changes took place, and who or what is the unit of analysis. They affect the credibility of evidence, a foundational element of evidence-informed decision-making. In addition to technical, methodological aspects, relational and political factors also have implications for measurement, even if the issue area, setting, pathway of change, and implementing structure are not inherently difficult.
Anne L. Buffardi, Tiina Pasanen, Simon Hearn

Open Access

Get It Right This Time? Leaving the Periphery of the European Economic Development

Abstract
In 1990, the Central and East European countries started, at approximately the same level, the race to change their economic systems from communism to capitalism, which in turn was undergoing full-fledged mutations. Almost three decades later, the gap between Romania and other ex-communist, presently EU member states, is wider. Moreover, after joining the European Union, Romania did not surmount the inequalities, so in 2016 it was a paradoxical country, enjoying the highest rate of economic growth in the UE but, at the same time, ranking systematically low in welfare and development ratings. How can one explain such a meandering evolution? How is it that a country of significant natural resources and a development level like the others’ in the region, is behind three decades later? What can still be done, in the context of a globalized economy, undergoing higher and higher and unexpected pressure, where the big tend to become ever bigger? Decision makers might answer that the economy needed to be systemically changed to contain high value, ripple-effect activities. Yet this would involve structural investments in education and R&D and attracting funds for production capacities that do not rely only on cheap labour at a time when Romania is facing a constant demographic decline, a lack of domestic capital and a deterioration in the systems of education, research and transport.
Cristian Păun, Florina Pînzaru

Open Access

“Nous Choisissons L’Europe”: EU’s Economic Development and Current Challenges

Abstract
EU member states can no longer remain competitive in isolation given the current interdependencies at the international level. We analyse in this chapter the trade tendencies in the European Union, and we show the relatively large distance between Germany as the European top exporter and importer, and the following economies. We also analyse economic relations between member states that are designed to respond to non-EU challenges. We find that national member states engage in more collaborative and transnational development strategies for the coming years as a survival strategy in the current international context. Finally, we show how dependent the EU states have become on the single market by looking in depth at a case study of the United Kingdom’s trade relations.
Clara Volintiru, Gabriela Drăgan

Open Access

European Imbalances: The Sound and the Fury

Abstract
As in the novel by William Faulkner, the perspective which is chosen to tell a story or, here, to explain a broad crisis matters a lot. The European crisis is no exception. Different views can explain the growing imbalances in the Eurozone, from the fiscal view to the labour market view. In this chapter, I critically review these separate explanations and highlight the necessity to gather the pieces to understand the full story. So doing, I can discuss the recent reforms (aggregate fiscal stance, productivity boards), the current agenda of reforms (e.g. Eurozone budget) and alternative proposals to enhance Eurozone governance, integration, and future development.
Jérôme Creel

Open Access

Unable to Stop Inequality from Rising: Evidence from Romania

Abstract
The different perspectives on inequality and its evolution in the post-crisis period have emerged in recent years. The first was introduced by Piketty (Capital in the twenty-first century. Transl. Arthur Goldhammer. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2014), who emphasized cyclicity as an inherent feature of inequality. According to the author, inequality tends to increase or decrease according to the variations of the economy. In times of robust economic growth, the rate of return on capital (consisting of profits, dividends, interest, rents) and the labour force can both be satisfied to reasonable extents. When the rate of economic growth is low, wealth accumulates in favour of the capital instead of labour, thus increasing inequality. The second view on inequality is authored by Milanovic (Global inequality: A new approach for the age of globalisation. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2016), who focuses on the evolution of inequality in a global setting. He draws attention to the growing gaps between nations that pose a threat to international stability. Lastly, Graham (Happiness for all? Unequal hopes and lives in pursuit of the American dream. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2017) contrasts objective inequality to its subjective perceptions. There are cases in which factual inequality is high, but the existence of social mobility policies based on personal merit leads to acceptance and tolerance towards inequality. The most obvious example is “the American dream”, with all the hope it encompasses. According to Graham, during the last decade, tolerance to inequality has decreased, leading to a crisis of trust.
By relating to the three aforementioned ways of understanding inequality, and other prominent views in the literature, this paper investigates through quantitative methods the different faces of inequality within Romania, with an emphasis on regional disparities. Furthermore, we aim to find the country’s ranking in its geographic region (Central and Eastern Europe). A secondary focus of the study is on the Romanian citizens’ perceptions of inequality.
The findings suggest that, in its post-communist existence, Romania did experience economic growth but, unfortunately, little development, while inequalities became more severe.
Paul Dobrescu, Flavia Durach

Challenges and Opportunities for Development in the Post-Crisis Period

Frontmatter

Open Access

The East-West Divide in the European Union: A Development Divide Reframed as a Political One

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the return of the East-West divide in the European Union, a divide neither new nor superficial. Dating centuries back in history, the divide is fuelled by persistent differences in the level of development of the Old (Western) Member States, and the New (CEE) Member States. Given the major geopolitical shifts shaking the current world order (i.e., the transatlantic deficit), overcoming the East-West divide is crucial for the EU’s future. This chapter will underline the morphology of the East-West “development divide” by focusing on its socio-economic determinants. It seeks to show that CEE membership to the EU has left largely untouched development indicators such as the urban-rural ratio, level of capitalisation and savings, entrepreneurship and innovation, integration in global/European production, technology, R&D chains, minimum wages, social expenditures, poverty, deprivation, income inequality, unemployment, and mortality. The authors consider that a sober, critical evidence-based acknowledgement of the European Union’s failure to make significant contributions to closing this development divide is worth our attention, and that the temptation to “reframe” this development gap in political, cultural, or even civilizational terms has the potential to create the greatest vulnerability for the EU and the international liberal order in the next years.
Alina Bârgăoanu, Raluca Buturoiu, Flavia Durach

Open Access

New Frontiers in Sovereign Wealth Fund Capitalization

Abstract
In the debate over the creation of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs), the discussion is often focused on either oil-based (e.g. Norway, Qatar, Kuwait, etc.) or non-commodity-based SWFs (e.g. South Korea, China, Singapore, etc.). Yet we are seeing a new development in the sovereign wealth fund arena; more and more countries are seeding sovereign wealth funds by leveraging non-traditional financial sources and are increasingly motivated by domestic developmental (including infrastructural development) imperatives. Interestingly, this process is taking place in a global context of rising nationalist sentiments and backlash against trade and migration. This paper outlines recent developments in SWF creation—especially by countries that are neither endowed with oil wealth nor possess sizable export surpluses to create SWFs with a development mandate. While contextualizing this study in the broader SWF literature, the aim is to provide a comprehensive overview on how different funding sources could be leveraged to meet long-term financial and socio-development objectives. Thus, the overall objective is to map out existing work on non-traditional sources of SWF growth and draw attention to hitherto unnoticed sources of funding: remittances.
Juergen Braunstein, Asim Ali

Open Access

The Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on FDI Attractiveness: Romania, Slovakia and Greece in Comparison

Abstract
The main purpose of this contribution is to evaluate the key macroeconomic factors that may affect inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania, Slovakia, and Greece in the context of European integration. Economic complexity, which depicts the level of economic development, is also examined as a factor that may influence inward FDI. Moreover, the research concentrates on how each country’s trade balance is affected by FDI and how the process of European integration affects external trade. In conclusion, the process of European integration seems to be connected with a general downgrading of all countries as receivers of FDI. Moreover, the effect of FDI on their trade balances is rather vague.
Kalliopi Kasapi, Andriana Lampou, George Economakis, George Androulakis, Ioannis Zisimopoulos

Open Access

Health Care and Migration: What Data Can Tell Us of the Hard-to-Measure Impact of Migrants on the European Health Systems

Abstract
Nowadays migration is one of the key issues in the international as well as in the European political and public debate. It represents a key challenge for modern societies and, together with the adaptation of welfare, has been extensively investigated in social sciences. One of the most compelling challenges consists in the adaptation of health systems to migration’s new needs. The European Union (EU) presents among its member states (MS) highly differentiated situations in terms of healthcare provision models, contribution systems, and integration policies adopted towards foreigners. Compared to other countries with a longer migratory tradition, the differences in access and use of health systems by intra-EU migrants and migrants from third countries are still considerable within EU MS, and further diversified based on migrants’ legal status. Starting from the traditional types of healthcare systems, a more specific purpose will be to establish and measure a systematic relationship between the costs and performance of health systems, migratory care demand, and the migrants’ contribution to the European systems.
Guidi Caterina Francesca, Alessandro Petretto

Open Access

The Multiple Impact of Education Gaps in Romania

Abstract
This contribution discusses the potential consequences of education gaps in Romania in the frame of change in the last 25 years, a frame that includes European integration and the strategic goals set for Europe 2020. The theoretical background is mainly functional, conceiving that the education system is one of the core systems that provide the basis for a nation’s development. Using quantitative data from institutional sources, such as Eurostat and the UNESCO data bank, the present research identifies education gaps at several levels: between urban and rural areas, regions of development, social categories. The consequences of these gaps in the future will be dramatic because education outcomes have an impact on multiple sectors, such as employability, work force quality, quality of life in the long term, and the welfare of the entire society.
Diana-Maria Cismaru, Nicoleta Corbu

Open Access

Europeanization in the Making: Perceptions of the Economic Effects of European Integration in Romania

Abstract
Using data collected through a national omnibus survey conducted in September 2017, this contribution studies the Romanian public’s attitude towards the European Union. Our goal is to observe and explain patterns of EU support in Romania, a country that continues to keep its pro-European orientation despite little economic progress after European integration and the low salience of European issues in the Romanian public space. In this sense, we challenge one of the most frequent approaches towards EU support: the utilitarian theory, according to which citizens’ perceptions of CEE countries’ European integration are shaped by the economic benefits brought by integration. The study first analyses hard data on the economic effects of European integration and then it aims to assess Romanian citizens’ perceptions of the EU. The aim of the investigation is to identify shifts (if any) in Romanians’ attitudes towards the EU and factors that can explain citizens’ apparent unreserved trust in the EU. Our assumption is that the pro-European attitudes in a country where Europeanization is still “in the making” are shaped by the perceived desirability of European values and the disenchantment with the national governments’ performance.
Florența Toader, Loredana Radu
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