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An overview of the development of a high-performance Mg–RE based alloy, HP2+, is presented, which has a good combination of die-castability and mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperatures. The original alloy, HP2, was a die-casing version of the sand-cast alloy SC1 developed for powertrain applications. However, HP2 tended to crack substantially, leading to unusable castings due to its high Nd content. It was found that the solidification path of Mg–RE alloys can be engineered to reduce the propensity to hot tearing by changing the mixture of RE elements towards La-rich, which leads to an increase in the amount of eutectic and a reduction of the solidification range. Precipitate-forming RE elements, such as Nd or Y, were optimized for HP2+ to meet the requirement for high temperature creep resistance. Whilst some challenges remain with the commercial application of HP2+, the learnings from the alloy design process can be applied to other alloy development programs.
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Easton, MA, SM Zhu, TB Abbott, M Dargusch, MT Murray, G Savage, N Hort and MA Gibson (2016). Evaluation of Magnesium Die-casting Alloys for Elevated Temperature Applications: Castability. Adv. Engng. Mater. 18(6): 953–962.
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Moreno, IP, TK Nandy, JW Jones, JE Allison and TM Pollock (2001). Microstructural Characterisation of a Die-Cast Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloy. Scripta Mater. 45: 1423–1429.
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Gibson, MA, CJ Bettles, SM Zhu, MA Easton and JF Nie (2009 of Conference). Microstructure and mechanical properties of a Mg-rare earth based alloy AM-SC1. Magnesium Technology 2009, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale PA: 243–248.
Kunst, M, A Fishersworring-Bunk, MA Gibson and GL Dunlop (2008 of Conference). Mechanical property evaluation of permanent-mould cast AM-SC1 Mg-alloy. SAE 2008 world congress, Detroit, USA: SAE technical paper 2008010375.
Bettles, CJ, MA Gibson and SM Zhu (2009). Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviour of an Elevated Temperature Mg-Rare Earth Based Alloy. Mater. Sci. Engng. A 505(1–2): 6–12.
Gibson, MA, CJ Bettles, MT Murray and GL Dunlop (2006). AM-HP2: A new magnesium high pressure die-casting alloy for automotive powertrain applications. Magnesium Technology 2006, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA: 327–332.
Easton, MA, S Gavras, MA Gibson, S Zhu, JF Nie and T Abbott (2016 of Conference). Hot tearing in Magnesium - Rare Earth Alloys. Magnesium Technology 2016, Nashville, TN, USA, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society): 123–128.
Easton, MA, MA Gibson, S Zhu and T Abbott (2014). An a priori hot tearing indicator applied to die-cast magnesium-rare earth alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 45A(8): 3586–3595.
Chia, TL, MA Easton, SM Zhu, MA Gibson, N Birbilis and JF Nie (2009). The effect of alloy composition on the microstructure and tensile properties of binary Mg-rare earth alloys. Intermetallics 17: 481–490.
Zhu, SM, MA Gibson, MA Easton and JF Nie (2010). The relationship between microstructure and creep resistance in die-cast magnesium-rare earth alloys. Scripta Mater. 63(7): 698–703.
Birbilis, N, MK Cavanaugh, AD Sudholz, S Zhu, MA Easton and MA Gibson (2011). A combined neural network and mechanistic approach for the prediction of corrosion rate and yield strength of magnesium-rare earth alloys. Corr. Sci. 53(1): 168–176.
Birbilis, N, MA Easton, AD Sudholz, SM Zhu and MA Gibson (2009). On the corrosion of binary magnesium-rare earth alloys. Corr. Sci. 51(3): 683–689.
Gröbner, J, A Kozlov, R Schmid-Fetzer, MA Easton, S Zhu, MA Gibson and JF Nie (2011). Thermodynamic analysis of as-cast and heat-treated microstructures of Mg–Ce–Nd alloys. Acta Mater. 59(2): 613–622.
Gröbner, J, M Hampl, R Schmid-Fetzer, MA Easton, S Zhu, MA Gibson and JF Nie (2012). Phase analysis of Mg-La-Nd and Mg-La-Ce alloys. Intermetallics 28: 92–101.
Schmid-Fetzer, R, J Gröbner, A Kozlov, M Hampl, MA Easton, S Zhu, MA Gibson and JF Nie (2013 of Conference). Thermodynamics of phase formation in Mg-La-Ce-Nd alloys. Magnesium Technology 2013, San Antonio, Texas, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society): 243–248.
Easton, MA, MA Gibson, D Qiu, SM Zhu, J Gröbner, R Schmid-Fetzer, JF Nie and MX Zhang (2012). The role of crystallography and thermodynamics on phase selection in binary magnesium–rare earth (Ce or Nd) alloys. Acta Mater. 60: 4420–4430.
Rokhlin, LL (2003). Magnesium alloys containing rare earth metals. New York, USA, Taylor & Francis.
Zhu, SM, MA Gibson, JF Nie, MA Easton and CJ Bettles (2009). On the Creep Resistance of HPDC Mg-RE based alloys. Mater. Sci. Forum 618–619: 453–458.
Strobel, K, MA Easton, V Tyagi, MT Murray, MA Gibson, G Savage and T Abbott (2010). Evaluation of the castability of high pressure die cast magnesium based alloys. Int. J. Cast Met. Res. 23(2): 81–91.
Gavras, S, S Zhu, JF Nie and MA Gibson (2016). On the microstructural factors affecting creep resistance of die-cast Mg–La-rare earth(Nd, Y. or Gd) alloys. Mater. Sci. Engng. A 675: 65–75.
Gavras, S, MA Easton, MA Gibson, S Zhu and JF Nie (2014). Microstructure and property evaluation of high-pressure die-cast Mg–La–rare earth (Nd, Y or Gd) alloys. J. Alloy. Compd. 597: 21–29.
Gibson, MA, MA Easton, V Tyagi, MT Murray and GL Dunlop (2008 of Conference). Further improvements in HPDC Mg alloys for powertrain applications. Magnesium Technology 2008, New Orleans, LA, The Metals, Minerals and Materials Society: 227–232.
Choudhuri, D, D Jaeger, MA Gibson and R Banerjee (2014). Role of Zn in enhancing the creep resistance of Mg–RE alloys. Scripta Mater. 86: 32–35.
Choudhuri, D, D Jaeger, S Srivilliputhur, MA Gibson and R Banerjee (2015 of Conference). Creep response of a Zn containing Mg-Nd-La alloy. Magnesium Technology 2015, John Wiley & Sons Inc., NJ, USA, 2015: 35–39.
Choudhuri, D, S Srivilliputhur, MA Gibson and R Banerjee (2017 of Conference). Bond environments in a creep resistant Mg-RE-Zn alloy. Magnesium Technology 2017, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland: 471–475.
Easton, MA, S Zhu, MA Gibson, T Abbott, HQ Ang, XB Chen, N Birbilis and G Savage (2017 of Conference). Performance Evaluation of High-Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys. Magnesium Technology 2017, San Diego, CA, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society: 123–129.
Zhang, B, S Gavras, AV Nagasekhar, C Caceres and MA Easton (2014). The Strength of the Spatially Interconnected Eutectic Network in HPDC Mg-La, Mg-Nd, and Mg-La-Nd Alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 45(10): 4386–4397.
- Development of Magnesium-Rare Earth Die-Casting Alloys
Mark A. Gibson
Colleen J. Bettles
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