Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This study introduces the concept of deviant behavior in a moderated-mediation framework of incentives and organizational justice perception. The proposed relationships in the theoretical framework were tested with a sample of 311 academics, using simple random sampling, via causal models and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that incentives might boost the apparent performance, but not necessarily the intended performance. The results confirm that employees’ affection for incentives has direct, indirect, and conditional indirect effects on their deviant behavior likelihood. The relationship between employee deviant behavior likelihood and affection for incentives was moderated by organizational justice perception and partially mediated by reward expectancy, thus having significant contributions toward the extant literature of deviant behavior and incentives. The findings have important implications for managers, academicians, and policy makers for mitigating adverse behavior in professional employees through proper use of incentives.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abe, M. (2007). Why companies in Japan are introducing performance-based treatment and reward systems-the background. Japan Labor Review,4(2), 7–36.
Adams, J. S. (1963). Toward an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,67(5), 422–436. CrossRef
Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology,2, 267–299. CrossRef
Aguinis, H., Joo, H., & Gottfredson, R. K. (2013). What monetary rewards can and cannot do: How to show employees the money. Business Horizons,56(2), 241–249. CrossRef
Aguinis, H., & O’Boyle, E. (2014). Star performers in twenty-first century organizations. Personnel Psychology,67(2), 313–350. CrossRef
Allcock, D., & Filatotchev, I. (2010). Executive incentive schemes in initial public offerings: The effects of multiple-agency conflicts and corporate governance. Journal of Management,36(3), 663–686. CrossRef
Ariely, D., Gneezy, U., Loewenstein, G., & Mazar, N. (2009). Large stakes and big mistakes. The Review of Economic Studies,76(2), 451–469. CrossRef
Atkinson, A., Burgess, S., Croxon, B., Gregg, P., Propper, C., Slater, H., et al. (2009). Evaluating the impact of performance-related pay for teachers in England. Labour Economics,16(3), 251–261. CrossRef
Bagozzi, R. P., & Kimmel, S. K. (1995). A comparison of leading theories for the prediction of goal directed behaviours. British Journal of Social Psychology,34(4), 437–461. CrossRef
Ballou, D. (2001). Pay for performance in public and private schools. Economics of Education Review,20(1), 51–61. CrossRef
Baruch, Y., & Hall, D. T. (2004). The academic career: A model for future careers in other sectors? Journal of Vocational Behavior,64(2), 241–262. CrossRef
Baruch, Y., & Holtom, B. C. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations,61(8), 1139–1160. CrossRef
Baruch, Y., & Vardi, Y. (2016). A fresh look at the dark side of contemporary careers: Toward a realistic discourse. British Journal of Management,27(2), 355–372. CrossRef
Beauregard, T. A. (2014). Fairness perceptions of work—life balance initiatives: Effects on counterproductive work behaviour. British Journal of Management,25(4), 772–789. CrossRef
Beer, M., Cannon, M. D., Baron, J. N., Dailey, P. R., Gerhart, B., Heneman, H. G., et al. (2004). Promise and peril in implementing pay-for-performance. Human Resource Management,43(1), 3–48. CrossRef
Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology,85(3), 349–360. CrossRef
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Blunch, N. J. (2010). Introduction to structural equation modelling using IBM SPSS and AMOS. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Ltd.
Bonner, S. E. (1999). Judgment and decision-making research in accounting. Accounting Horizons,13(4), 385–398. CrossRef
Bonner, S. E., Hastie, R., Sprinkle, G. B., & Young, S. M. (2000). A review of the effects of financial incentives on performance in laboratory tasks: Implications for management accounting. Journal of Management Accounting Research,13, 19–64. CrossRef
Bonner, S. E., & Sprinkle, G. B. (2002). The effects of monetary incentives on effort and task performance: Theories, evidence, and a framework for research. Accounting, Organizations and Society,27(4), 303–345. CrossRef
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. M. (1996). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin,120(2), 189–208. CrossRef
Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human Resource Management Review,22(1), 43–56. CrossRef
Burgess, S., Propper, C., Ratto, M. & Tominey, E. (2012). Incentives in the public sector: Evidence from a government agency. Technical Report, Discussion Paper series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit.
Case, J. (2001). When salaries aren’t secret. Harvard Business Review,79(5), 37–49.
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,140(4), 980–1008. CrossRef
Chen, J., Tang, T. L. P., & Tang, N. (2014). Temptation, monetary intelligence (love of money), and environmental context on unethical intentions and cheating. Journal of Business Ethics,123(2), 197–219. CrossRef
Cho, Y. J., & Perry, J. L. (2012). Intrinsic motivation and employee attitudes, role of man aerial trustworthiness, goal directedness, and extrinsic reward expectancy. Review of Public Personnel Administration,32(4), 382–406. CrossRef
Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,86(2), 278–321. CrossRef
Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology,86(3), 425–445. CrossRef
Creech, J. D. (2000). Linking higher education performance indicators to goals. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Cropanzano, R. (2001). Justice in the workplace: From theory to practice (Vol. 2, pp. 3–26). Hove: Psychology Press.
Currall, S. C., Towler, A. J., Judge, T. A., & Kohn, L. (2005). Pay satisfaction and organizational outcomes. Personnel Psychology,58(3), 613–640. CrossRef
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry,11(4), 227–268. CrossRef
Deckop, J. R., Mangel, R., & Cirka, C. C. (1999). Research notes. Getting more than you pay for: Organizational citizenship behaviour and pay-for-performance plans. Academy of Management Journal,42(4), 420–428. CrossRef
Eisenberger, R., Rhoades, L., & Cameron, J. (1999). Does pay for performance increase or decrease perceived self-determination and intrinsic motivation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,7(5), 1026–1040. CrossRef
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of Management Review,14(1), 57–74.
Elayan, F. A., Lau, J. S., & Meyer, T. O. (2003). Executive incentive compensation schemes and their impact on corporate performance: Evidence from New Zealand since compensation disclosure requirements became effective. Studies in Economics and Finance,21(1), 54–92. CrossRef
Emerson, R. M. (1981). Social exchange theory. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New York, NY: Basic Books Inc.
Fairchild, A. J., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2009). A general model for testing mediation and moderation effects. Prevention Science,10(2), 87–99. CrossRef
Fang, M., & Gerhart, B. S. (2012). Does pay for performance diminish intrinsic interest? International Journal of Human Resource Management,23(6), 1176–1196. CrossRef
Figlio, D. N., & Kenny, L. W. (2007). Individual teacher incentives and student performance. Journal of Public Economics,91(5), 901–914. CrossRef
Frey, B. S., Homberg, F., & Osterloh, M. (2013). Organizational control systems and pay-for-performance in the public service. Organization Studies,34(7), 949–972. CrossRef
Frey, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation crowding theory. Journal of Economic Surveys,15(5), 589–611. CrossRef
Furnham, A., & Argyle, M. (1998). The psychology of money. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior,26(4), 331–362. CrossRef
Gardner, D. G., Dyne, L., & Pierce, J. L. (2004). The effects of pay level on organization-based self-esteem and performance: A field study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,77(3), 307–322. CrossRef
Ghoshal, S., & Moran, P. (1996). Bad for practice: A critique of the transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Review,21(1), 13–47.
Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don’t) work to modify behavior. The Journal of Economic Perspectives,25(4), 191–209. CrossRef
Gold, J. I. (2003). Linking reward expectancy to behavior in the basal ganglia. Trends in Neurosciences,26(1), 12–14. CrossRef
Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (1992). Structure and process of diversification, compensation strategy, and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal,13(5), 381–397. CrossRef
Gomez-Mejia, L. R., & Balkin, D. B. (1992). Determinants of faculty pay: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Journal,35(5), 921–955. CrossRef
Grant, A. M. (2013). Rocking the boat but keeping it steady: The role of emotion regulation in employee voice. Academy of Management Journal,56(6), 1703–1723. CrossRef
Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management,16(2), 399–432. CrossRef
Greenberg, J. (1993). Stealing in the name of justice: Informational and interpersonal moderators of theft reactions to underpayment inequity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,54(1), 81–103. CrossRef
Greenberg, J., & Colquitt, J. A. (2005). The handbook of organizational justice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Greene, R. J. (2011). Rewarding performance: Guiding principles, custom strategies. New York, NY: Routledge.
Guzzo, R. A. (1979). Types of rewards, cognitions, and work motivation. Academy of Management Review,4(1), 75–86.
Hall, B. J., & Murphy, K. J. (2000). Optimal exercise prices for executive stock options. Technical Report, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hansen, M. (2009). How career concerns influence public workers’ effort: Evidence from the teacher labor market. Working Paper 40. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research.
Harder, J. W. (1992). Play for pay: Effects of inequity in a pay-for-performance context. Administrative Science Quarterly,37(2), 321–335. CrossRef
Hayes, A. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Methodology in the social sciences. New York: The Guildford Press.
Holbeche, L. (2005). The high performance organization. London: Routledge.
Ims, K. J., Pedersen, L. J. T., & Zsolnai, L. (2014). How economic incentives may destroy social, ecological and existential values: The case of executive compensation. Journal of Business Ethics,123(2), 353–360. CrossRef
Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement,20(1), 141–151. CrossRef
Kang, S. C., & Yanadori, Y. (2011). Adoption and coverage of performance-related pay during institutional change: An integration of institutional and agency theories. Journal of Management Studies,48(8), 1837–1865. CrossRef
Kelley, C., & Odden, A. (1995). Reinventing teacher compensation systems. In: Consortium for policy research in education (Vol. 6). Consortium for policy research in education.
Kessler, I., & Purcell, J. (1992). Performance related pay: Objectives and application. Human Resource Management Journal,2(3), 16–33. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kohn, A. (1993). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review,71(5), 54–63.
Kotowitz, Y. (1987). Moral hazard. In J. Eatwell, M. Milgate, & P. Newman (Eds.), The new Palgrave-a dictionary of economics (Vol. 3, pp. 451–549). London: Macmillan.
Kruglanski, A. W., Chernikova, M., & Schori-Eyal, N. (2014). From readiness to action: How motivation works. Polish Psychological Bulletin,45(3), 259–267. CrossRef
Kunz, A. H., & Pfaff, D. (2002). Agency theory, performance evaluation, and the hypothetical construct of intrinsic motivation. Accounting, Organizations and Society,27(3), 275–295. CrossRef
Kuvaas, B. (2006). Work performance, affective commitment, and work motivation: The roles of pay administration and pay level. Journal of Organizational Behavior,27(3), 365–385. CrossRef
Lai, E. R. (2011). Motivation: A literature review. Person Research’s Report. Available Online: http://www.pearsonassessments.com/research.
Lavy, V. (2007). Using performance-based pay to improve the quality of teachers. The Future of Children,17(1), 87–109. CrossRef
Lavy, V. (2009). Performance pay and teachers’ effort, productivity, and grading ethics. The American Economic Review,99(5), 1979–2021. CrossRef
Lawler, E. E. (2000). Rewarding excellence (Vol. 13). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E. (1995). Creating high performance organizations: Practices and results of employee involvement and total quality management in Fortune 1000 companies. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lawler, E. E., III, & Suttle, J. L. (1973). Expectancy theory and job behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,9(3), 482–503. CrossRef
Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review,90(5), 1346–1361. CrossRef
Li, N., Barrick, M. R., Zimmerman, R. D., & Chiaburu, D. S. (2014). Retaining the productive employee: The role of personality. The Academy of Management Annals,8(1), 347–395. CrossRef
Luna-Arocas, R., & Tang, T. L. P. (2015). Are you satisfied with your pay when you compare? It depends on your love of money, pay comparison standards, and culture. Journal of Business Ethics,128(2), 279–289. CrossRef
Manly, T. S., Leonard, L. N., & Riemenschneider, C. K. (2015). Academic integrity in the information age: Virtues of respect and responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics,127(3), 579–590. CrossRef
Milgrom, P. R., & Roberts, J. (1992). Economics, organization and management (Vol. 7). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Milkovich, G. (1996). Does performance-based pay really work: Conclusions based on the scientific research? Revista Sobre Relaciones Industriales Y Laborales (Parte II), 32.
Miller, R. D., & Cohen, N. H. (2005). The impact of productivity-based incentives on faculty salary-based compensation. Anesthesia and Analgesia,101(1), 195–199. CrossRef
Mills, J. C. H., Bratton, J., & Forshaw, C. (2006). Organizational behaviour in a global context. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Motowildo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance. Human Performance, 10(2), 71–83. CrossRef
Murphy, T. H., & Margulies, J. (2004). Performance appraisals. In Presentation, ABA Labor and Employment Law Section, Equal Employment Opportunity Committee, Mid-Winter Meeting.
Neubert, M. J., Wu, C., & Roberts, J. A. (2013). The influence of ethical leadership and regulatory focus on employee outcomes. Business Ethics Quarterly,23(2), 269–296. CrossRef
Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Park, H., & Blenkinsopp, J. (2011). The roles of transparency and trust in the relationship between corruption and citizen satisfaction. International Review of Administrative Sciences,77(2), 254–274. CrossRef
Perry, J. L., Engbers, T. A., & Jun, S. Y. (2009). Back to the future? Performance-related pay, empirical research, and the perils of persistence. Public Administration Review,69(1), 39–51. CrossRef
Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Pinder, W. C. C. (2011). Work motivation in organizational behavior (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology,88(5), 879–903. CrossRef
Pour Ezzat, A. A., & Somee, P. (2009). The study of personnel and customers’ perception of organizational justice. Iranian Journal of Management Studies,2(2), 97–113.
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research,42(1), 185–227. CrossRef
Prendergast, C. (1999). The provision of incentives in firms. Journal of Economic Literature,37(1), 7–63. CrossRef
Raith, M. (2008). Specific knowledge and performance measurement. The Rand Journal of Economics,39(4), 1059–1079. CrossRef
Redmond, E. (2013). Competency models at work: The value of perceived relevance and fair rewards for employee outcomes. Human Resource Management,52(5), 771–792. CrossRef
Reid, N. (2008). Quality assurance in higher education in pakistan-focus on the learner. In 2nd International Conference on Assessing Quality in Higher Education ICAQHE (Vol. 8, pp. 296–300).
Reuterberg, S., & Gustafsson, J. (1992). Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability: Testing measurement model assumptions. Educational and Psychological Measurement,52(4), 795–811. CrossRef
Roberts, J. (2004). The modern firm: Organizational design for performance and growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rousseau, D. M. (1997). Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. Annual Review of Psychology,48(1), 515–546. CrossRef
Sackett, P. R. (2002). The structure of counterproductive work behaviors: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(1–2), 5–11. CrossRef
Sardžoska, E. G., & Tang, T. L. P. (2015). Monetary intelligence: Money attitudes—unethical intentions, intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, and coping strategies across public and private sectors in Macedonia. Journal of Business Ethics,130(1), 93–115. CrossRef
Schaubroeck, J., Shaw, J. D., Duffy, M. K., & Mitra, A. (2008). An under-met and over- met expectancy’s model of employee reactions to merit raises. Journal of Applied Psychology,93(2), 424–434. CrossRef
Schöttner, A. (2008). Relational contracts, multitasking, and job design. Journal of Law Economics and Organization,24(1), 138–162. CrossRef
Schumacher, E. G., & Wasieleski, D. M. (2013). Institutionalizing ethical innovation in organizations: An integrated causal model of moral innovation decision processes. Journal of Business Ethics,113(1), 15–37. CrossRef
Schwartz, B. (2009). Incentives, choice, education and well-being. Oxford Review of Education,35(3), 391–403. CrossRef
Shao, R., Aquino, K., & Freeman, D. (2008). Beyond moral reasoning: A review of moral identity research and its implications for business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly,18(4), 513–540. CrossRef
Solmon, L. C., & Podgursky, M. (2000). The pros and cons of performance-based compensation. Wilmington: ERIC.
Springer, M. G., Ballou, D., Hamilton, L., Le, V. N., Lockwood, J., McCaffrey, D. F., et al. (2010). Teacher pay for performance: experimental evidence from the project on incentives in teaching (point). Nashville, TN: National center on performance incentives at Vanderbilt University.
Sprinkle, G. B. (2000). The effect of incentive contracts on learning and performance. The Accounting Review,75(3), 299–326. CrossRef
Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. L., & Shapiro, L. D. (2004). Introduction to special forum topic: The future work motivation theory. The Academy of Management Review,29(3), 379–387.
Stilwell, F. (2003). Higher education, commercial criteria and economic incentives. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management,25(1), 51–61. CrossRef
Susarla, A., Barua, A., & Whinston, A. B. (2003). Understanding the service component of application service provision: Empirical analysis of satisfaction with ASP services. MIS Quarterly,27(1), 91–123.
Sweeney, P. D., & McFarlin, D. B. (1997). Process and outcome: Gender differences in the assessment of justice. Journal of Organizational Behavior,18(1), 83–98. CrossRef
Thierry, H. (2002). Enhancing performance through pay and reward systems. In S. Sonnentag (Ed.), Psychological management of individual performance (pp. 325–347). Chichester: Wiley.
Thomas, R., Goddard, V., Reid, A., & Nicholson, D. (2013). Voices in practice: Will performance-related pay improve teaching and learning? Learning and Teaching Update, 62, 1–5. ISSN 1759-9474.
Trevino, L. K. (1992). Moral reasoning and business ethics: Implications for research, education, and management. Journal of Business Ethics,11(5–6), 445–459. CrossRef
Triandis, G. H. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder Co: Westview Press.
Turk, K. (2008). Performance appraisal and the compensation of academic staff in the University of Tartu. Baltic Journal of Management,3(1), 40–54. CrossRef
Usman, S. (2014). Governance and higher education in Pakistan: What roles do boards of governors play in ensuring the academic quality maintenance in public universities versus private universities in Pakistan? International Journal of Higher Education,3(2), 38–51. CrossRef
Vardi, Y., & Weitz, E. (2016). Misbehavior in organizations: A dynamic approach (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
Walker, R. L., & Florea, L. (2014). Easy-come-easy-go: Moral hazard in the context of return to education. Journal of Business Ethics,120(2), 201–217. CrossRef
Werner, S., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Determinants of perceived pay inequities: The effects of comparison other characteristics and pay-system communication1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,30(6), 1281–1309. CrossRef
Wieth, M. B., & Burns, B. D. (2014). Rewarding multitasking: Negative effects of an incentive on problem solving under divided attention. The Journal of Problem Solving,7(1), 61–67. CrossRef
Wildman, J. L., Bedwell, W. L., Salas, E., & Smith-Jentsch, K. A. (2011). Performance measurement at work: A multilevel perspective. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 303–341)., Building and developing the organization. APA handbooks in psychology Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Wright, P., Mukherji, A., & Kroll, M. J. (2001). A reexamination of agency theory assumptions: Extensions and extrapolations. The Journal of Socio-Economics,30(5), 413–429. CrossRef
Wyatt, M. (2013). Motivating teachers in the developing world: Insights from research with English language teachers in Oman. International Review of Education,59(2), 217–242. CrossRef
Young, G. J., Beckman, H., & Baker, E. (2012). Financial incentives, professional values and performance: A study of pay-for-performance in a professional organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior,33(7), 964–983. CrossRef
- Deviant Behavior in a Moderated-Mediation Framework of Incentives, Organizational Justice Perception, and Reward Expectancy
- Springer Netherlands
- Journal of Business Ethics
Print ISSN: 0167-4544
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-0697
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, So bewältigen Sie Stress im Fernstudium/© granata68 | stock.adobe.com | AdobeStock, „Immer mehr Mittelständler entdecken Crowdlending“/© Kapilendo