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Orchids have evolved a multitude of seemingly bizarre contrivances to get themselves pollinated. Indeed, Charles Darwin made painstakingly detailed studies of orchid reproduction processes, published in his 1862 book The Various Contrivances by Which Orchids Are Fertilized by Insects. This book was meant to provide further evidence in support of his revolutionary evolutionary theory, expounded in his great work On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection published 3 years earlier. Writing to publisher John Murray, Darwin said of the book, “I think this little volume will do good to the ‘Origin’, as it will show that I have worked hard at details.” Indeed he did, but his endeavors did not convince the theologically minded, as a review in the Literary Churchman concluded that the book was in essence saying, “Oh Lord, how manifold are Thy works!”
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Contrivances, 2 nd ed., p.202.
L.J. Nielsen and B.L. Møller, Scent emission profiles from Darwin’s orchid – Angraecum sesquipedale: Investigation of the aldoxime metabolism using clustering analysis , Phytochem. 120, 3–18, 2015. CrossRef
D.J. Martins and S.D. Johnson, Hawkmoth pollination of aerangoid orchids in Kenya, with special reference to nectar sugar concentration gradients in the floral spurs, Amer. J. Bot., 94, 650–659, 2007. CrossRef
Alfred Russel Wallace, Creation by Law, Quart. J. Sci. 471-488, 1867. This essay is a spirited defense of Darwin and the Theory of Evolution that is actually a review of the Duke of Argyll's book, The Reign of Law, that argues the Creationist position.
L.T. Wasserthal, The Pollinators of the Malagasy Star Orchids Angraecum sesquipedale, A. sororium and A. compactum and the evolution of extremely long spurs by pollinator shift, Plant Bio., 110, 343–359, 1997.
C. Micheneau et al., Orthoptera, a new order of pollinator, Ann. of Bot. 105: 355–364, 2010; S. Hugel et al., Glomeremus species from the Mascarene islands (Orthoptera, Gryllacrididae) with the description of the pollinator of an endemic orchid from the island of Réunion, Zootaxa, 2545, 58–68, 2010.
J. Jersková, et al., Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids, Biol. Rev., 219–235, 2006.
E. Newman et al., Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid, Proc. R. Soc. B, 279, 2309–2313, 2012; S.D. Johnson, Evidence for Batesian mimicry in a butterfly-pollinated orchid, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 53, 91–104, 1994.
N.A. Van Der Cingel, An Atlas of Orchid Pollination: European Orchids, CRC Press, 2001, p.113.
Ke-Wei Liu, Zhong-Jian Liu et al., Pollination: Self-fertilization strategy in an orchid, Nature 441, 945–946, 22 June 2006. CrossRef
Li-Jun Chen, Zhong-Jian Liu et al., The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid, Plos One, 7(5), pp 6, 2012.
Contrivances, 2 nd ed., p.56/57.
Bernd Heinrich, Bumblebee Economics, Harvard University Press, 2004, p.200.
- Deviant Sex
Joel L. Schiff
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen