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Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability.

The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata.

The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant control.

The authors have extensive teaching experience with graduate and PhD students, as well as with industrial experts. Parts of this book have been used in courses for this audience. The authors give a comprehensive introduction to the main ideas of diagnosis and fault-tolerant control and present some of their most recent research achievements obtained together with their research groups in a close cooperatio

n with European research projects.

The third edition resulted from a major re-structuring and re-writing of the former edition, which has been used for a decade by numerous research groups. New material includes distributed diagnosis of continuous and discrete-event systems, methods for reconfigurability analysis, and extensions of the structural methods towards fault-tolerant control. The bibliographical notes at the end of all chapters have been up-dated. The chapters

end with exercises to be used in lectures.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control

Abstract
This chapter introduces the aims, notions, concepts and ideas of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control and outlines the contents of the book.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 2. Examples

Abstract
This chapter illustrates the main problems of diagnosis and fault-tolerant control by means of three examples, which will be used later in the text.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Analysis Based on Components and System Structure

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. Models of Dynamical Systems

Abstract
Dynamical systems can be modelled from different viewpoints. This chapter summarises the main notions. Each of the succeeding chapters uses one of these models for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 4. Analysis Based on Components and Architecture

Abstract
This chapter presents methods for modelling and analysing the component architecture of a system. It deals with the information that can be deduced from components and the way in which the components are connected. Simple and aggregated components are described in terms of their generic properties, which include the service offered by a component in different modes of operations and the conditions under which component faults occur. Properties of selected simple components are discussed and their aggregation into generic components at a higher level is illustrated. Formal methods for describing generic components are introduced. Algebraic and graph-theoretic methods are employed to analyse the propagation of faults through the faulty system.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 5. Structural Analysis

Abstract
This chapter uses the structure graph to describe the direct interactions among the signals within a dynamical system. This graph allows to analyse the redundancies within a system, which can be exploited for fault diagnosis and control reconfiguration. A dynamical model is interpreted as a set of constraints, which leads to a bipartite graph representing the system structure. Faults indicate violations of the constraints. The analysis shows how component faults can be found by defining and utilising analytic redundancy relations.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Continuous-Variable Systems

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Fault Diagnosis of Deterministic Systems

Abstract
This chapter provides solutions to the fault detection, isolation and estimation problems for systems described by deterministic continuous-variable models. The chapter considers faults that can be modelled as additive signals acting on the process. The methods presented lead to a diagnostic system which is separated in two parts: a residual generation module and a residual evaluation module.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 7. Fault Diagnosis of Stochastic Systems

Abstract
Solutions to the fault detection, estimation and isolation problems are presented when the model of the supervised system is a linear stochastic continuous-variable system. Faults are modelled as additive signals. The resulting diagnosis system is separated in two parts: a residual generator based on Kalman filters, and a decision system based on stochastic change detection/isolation algorithms. The link between these two parts is the object of particular attention.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 8. Reconfigurability Analysis

Abstract
Fault-tolerant control brings together several theoretic frameworks that are needed to treat the different problems it involves. This chapter addresses these problems from a global perspective that includes the specification and the development of control solutions, as well as the implementation and the evaluation of these solutions. Among many possible control problems, this chapter uses linear quadratic control theory to illustrate the above-mentioned problems, under the two possible fault-tolerance strategies, namely fault accommodation, where the controller parameters are adapted to the parameters of the faulty plant, and system reconfiguration, where the subset of system components in operation is changed (and so is of course the control law). A variety of other control approaches will be developed in the next chapter.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 9. Fault Accommodation and Reconfiguration Methods

Abstract
This chapter gives an overview of methods for re-adjusting the controller to faulty plants. Small faults can be tackled by fault accommodation, where the controller parameters are adapted to the parameters of the faulty plant. When accommodation cannot be used like in the case of an actuator or sensor breakdown, the control loop has to be reconfigured and a new control law designed.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 10. Distributed Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control

Abstract
Distributed systems are formed by the interconnection of several subsystems or autonomous agents. Each entity is equipped with a local computing device that runs the whole or a part of the diagnosis and fault-tolerant control algorithms. This chapter explains the specific features of such systems and provides tools for the design and the coordination of distributed algorithms that achieve the overall diagnosis and control specifications, under given communication structures and local computing power limitations.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Discrete-Event Systems

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Fault Diagnosis of Discrete-Event Systems

Abstract
This chapter diagnostic methods for discrete-event systems that are described by deterministic, nondeterministic or stochastic automata. Based on the solution to the state observation problem for discrete systems, the fault diagnostic problem is solved for all model classes by observing the unknown state of the model of the faulty systems and, hence, by deciding which model is currently consistent with the system behaviour.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Chapter 12. Diagnosis of I/O Automata Networks

Abstract
This chapter is devoted to complex discrete-event systems that are represented by input–output automata networks. A method for decentralised diagnosis is developed where the diagnostic units have only access to the model and the measurement sequences of a subsystem. It guarantees that the diagnostic result is complete in spite of the lack of information about the subsystem interactions. Completeness means that the set of faults found by the diagnostic units include all fault candidates. Sufficient conditions for the autonomy of subsystems and for the kind of asynchronous state transitions are derived for which the result of decentralised diagnosis coincides with the result of centralised diagnosis.
Mogens Blanke, Michel Kinnaert, Jan Lunze, Marcel Staroswiecki

Backmatter

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