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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Theory and Application of Diagrams, Diagrams 2012, held in Canaterbury, UK, in July 2012.

The 16 long papers, 6 short papers and 21 poster abstracts presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 83 submissions. The papers are organized in keynotes, tutorial, workshops, graduate student symposium and topical sections on psychological and cognitive issues, diagram layout, diagrams and data analysis, Venn and Euler diagrams, reasoning with diagrams, investigating aesthetics, applications of diagrams.




Life on the Line: Interacting with Temporal Event Sequence Representations

Sequences of events are part of people’s life, their travel, hospital visits, even web browsing experiences. Analysing collections of event sequences can be challenging even for skilled computer professionals. We will review a series of visualization techniques developed at the Human-Computer Interaction lab to handle temporal data.

Catherine Plaisant


Learning to Use the Openbox: A Framework for the Implementation of Heterogeneous Reasoning

In this tutorial we will present the Openbox, a framework for constructing

heterogeneous reasoning

systems. Heterogeneous reasoning is reasoning involving multiple representations. A common example is using a map (diagram) together with an address (sentence) to plan a route from one point to another. This kind of reasoning may involve diagrams of multiple types, diagrams and sentences, and/or multiple instances of the same diagram type. Reasoning with sentences, or with a single diagram are special cases of the general heterogeneous setting.

Dave Barker-Plummer, John Etchemendy, Michael Murray, Emma Pease, Nik Swoboda


3rd International Workshop on Euler Diagrams

Euler diagrams represent relationships between sets, including intersection, containment, and disjointness. These diagrams have become the foundations of various visual languages and have notably facilitated the modelling of, and logical reasoning about, complex systems. Over the years, they have been extensively used in areas such as biosciences, business, criminology and national security to intuitively visualize relationships and relative cardinalities of sets. This widespread adoption has allowed analysis of complex collections of data.

Peter Chapman, Luana Micallef

Technology Enhanced Diagrams Research Workshop

It is an understatement to say that technology has enabled methodological innovations in diagram and spatial reasoning research. New technologies offer opportunities for recording data through video screen recordings; spatial navigation in real and virtual realities, visual attention monitoring, diagram activity on graphics tablets, and recording body position and gestures via position sensors and accelerometers.Whilst the rich data that these techniques yield offer exciting potential for research innovation, researchers face new methodological challenges due to its sheer volume and the challenge of triangulating data from multi-sources.

Richard Cox, Jonathan San Diego

Accessible Graphics: Graphics for Vision Impaired People

Graphics are widely used in newspapers, text books, web pages, metro maps, instruction manuals etc. When appropriate they can provide significant cognitive benefits over text. Their use is set to increase as interactive information visualisation applications become more mainstream.

Cagatay Goncu, Kim Marriott

Graduate Student Symposium

Graduate Student Symposium of Diagrams 2012

The Graduate Student Symposium (GSS) was intended to provide student researchers the opportunity to present their research and interact with other students and researchers interested in different aspects of diagrammatic research. We were committed to encouraging participation from a diverse group of students and received submissions from students typically underrepresented in science and engineering, such as members of minority groups (9 submissions), women (7 submissions), and students from institutions not previously represented at the diagrams conference, were encouraged to participate.

Lisa A. Best

Psychological and Cognitive Issues

Automatically Recognizing Intended Messages in Grouped Bar Charts

Information graphics (bar charts, line graphs, grouped bar charts, etc.) often appear in popular media such as newspapers and magazines. In most cases, the information graphic is intended to convey a high-level message; this message plays a role in understanding the document but is seldom repeated in the document’s text. This paper presents our methodology for recognizing the intended message of a grouped bar chart. We discuss the types of messages communicated in grouped bar charts, the communicative signals that serve as evidence for the message, and the design and evaluation of our implemented system.

Richard Burns, Sandra Carberry, Stephanie Elzer, Daniel Chester

Representing Category and Continuum: Visualizing Thought

Abstract thought has roots in the spatial world. Abstractions are expressed in the ways things are arranged in the world as well as the ways people talk and gesture. Mappings to the page should be better when they are


, that is, when the abstract concept matches the spatial one. Congruent mappings can be revealed in people’s performance and preferences. Congruence is supported here for visual representations of continuum and category. Congruently mapping a continuous concept, frequency, to a continuous visual variable and mapping a categorical concept, class inclusion, to a categorical visual variable were preferred and led to better performance than the reverse mappings.

Barbara Tversky, James E. Corter, Lixiu Yu, David L. Mason, Jeffrey V. Nickerson

Elucidating the Mechanism of Spontaneous Diagram Use in Explanations: How Cognitive Processing of Text and Diagrammatic Representations Are Influenced by Individual and Task-Related Factors

Although diagrams are considered effective tools for communication, students have been reported as lacking sufficient spontaneity in using diagrams when explaining what they have learned. This study examined the possible mechanism that relates text to diagram production in the process of providing written explanations. It puts forward the hypothesis that the production of text and diagrammatic representations shares the same cognitive processing resources, the allocation of which is influenced by individual factors like language ability and task-related factors like imageability of what needs to be explained. This hypothesis was tested on Japanese university students who were administered a passage (two versions varying in imageability) to read and subsequently explain in English or Japanese. A significant correlation was found between diagram use and English language competence (measured by TOEIC scores) - but only among students asked to explain the passage with lower imageability, and in English, providing support for the hypothesis.

Emmanuel Manalo, Yuri Uesaka

Diagram Layout

Orthogonal Hyperedge Routing

Orthogonal connectors are used in drawings of many network diagrams, especially those representing electrical circuits. Such diagrams frequently include hyperedges—single edges that connect more than two endpoints. While many interactive diagram editors provide some form of automatic connector routing we are unaware of any that provide automatic routing for orthogonal hyperedge connectors. We give three algorithms for hyperedge routing in an interactive diagramming editor. The first supports

semi-automatic routing

in which a route given by the user is improved by local transformations while the other two support

fully-automatic routing

and are heuristics based on an algorithm used for connector routing in circuit layout.

Michael Wybrow, Kim Marriott, Peter J. Stuckey

Improved Layout for Data Flow Diagrams with Port Constraints

The automatic generation of graphical views for data flow models and the efficient development of such models require layout algorithms that are able to handle their specific requirements. Examples include constraints on the placement of ports as well as the proper handling of nested models. We present an algorithm for laying out data flow diagrams that improves earlier approaches by reducing the number of edge crossings and bend points. We validate the quality of our algorithm with a range of models drawn from Ptolemy, a popular modeling tool for the design of embedded systems.

Lars Kristian Klauske, Christoph Daniel Schulze, Miro Spönemann, Reinhard von Hanxleden

Aesthetic Layout of Wiring Diagrams

A wiring diagram plays an important role in electrical machine design. The layout of a wiring diagram must facilitate a designer’s understanding of the schematic as well as the real electrical machine. Even though wiring diagrams are undirected graphs, standard algorithms and libraries for graph drawing are not sufficient to achieve adequate diagrams that preserve the structure and further characteristics of the real machine. We argue that specialized algorithms are required to achieve adequate and aesthetic diagrams without compromising the characteristics of an electrical machine. In this paper, we describe a new algorithm for positioning diagram elements and a customized algorithm for connector routing for aesthetic wiring diagrams.

Christian Ernstbrunner, Josef Pichler

Diagrams and Data Analysis

Points, Lines and Arrows in Statistical Graphs

Widely used statistical graphs (such as line graphs and bar graphs) are usually accompanied by graphical entities other than the graph proper. Those graphical cues, such as point marks and arrows serve for communicative purposes by bringing certain aspects to the foreground over the others. The present study discusses the results of an experimental investigation, in which the participants produced sketches of graphical cues on different types of graphs, given sentential expressions of states and processes. The outcomes of the study have the potential for serving as guidelines for the development of software tools that produce graphical cues.

Cengiz Acartürk

Enriching Indented Pixel Tree Plots with Node-Oriented Quantitative, Categorical, Relational, and Time-Series Data

Indented Pixel Tree Plots are useful for an overview of large and deep hierarchical data. As a major benefit, these plots scale to pixel or even subpixel resolution, still clearly visualizing the hierarchical structures and substructures in a redundant-free representation. Consequently, there is display space available that may be used to show additional information such as enlarged or filtered subregions, details-on-demand, or control panels. In this paper, we demonstrate how this compact indented diagram can be enriched with additional data associated with both leaf and inner nodes of the hierarchy. To this end, we support quantitative, categorical, relational, and time-series data. By such a combination, exploration and analysis of visual patterns and anomalies on different levels of hierarchical granularity are possible in a static diagram. Furthermore, interactive features such as expanding/collapsing of subhierarchies, horizontal/vertical distortions, zooming in/out, or details-on-demand are integrated to allow the user to inspect the data from different viewpoints. The usefulness of the enriched diagrams is illustrated by applying them to file system data where single software constructs are hierarchically organized. Here, we focus on quantitative, categorical, and relational data attached to the nodes of the hierarchy. In a second case study, we demonstrate how evolving water level data of rivers in Germany can be represented by our plots.

Michael Burch, Michael Raschke, Miriam Greis, Daniel Weiskopf

Interpreting Effect Size Estimates through Graphic Analysis of Raw Data Distributions

Effect size estimates are altered by many factors, including, and perhaps most importantly, the shapes of compared distributions. There have been many long time advocates of the necessity of graphing raw data to truly understand analysis. Though they were and remain correct, there is little evidence in the published literature in psychology that their recommendations have been followed. This paper argues their case, but with the advantage of the recent emphasis on effect sizes promoted by, amongst others, the American Psychological Association publication guide. Unlike Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST), effect size estimates are not robust to distributional deviations from normality. As a consequence of effect size sensitivity to distributional distortions from normality, it is all the more important to understand the qualities of the distributions from which estimates are derived. In this paper, we consider and simulate cases where graphical analyses reveal distortion in effect size estimates, and in doing so highlight the value of graphing data to interpret effect size estimates.

Michael T. Bradley, Andrew Brand, A. Luke MacNeill

Psychological Evidence of Mental Segmentation in Table Reading

How we organize elements when reading a table was examined in a psychological experiment using a modified spatial-cuing paradigm. Table-like stimuli consisting of 16 square elements arranged in a four-by-four matrix form were used. Participants were instructed to discriminate whether the presented stimuli could be read as containing either one element or two elements in accordance with the induced reading direction. The results showed that when two elements were presented along with the induced direction, it was easier to read as such than when two elements were presented orthogonal to the induced direction. Although there was no contour line in the stimuli, participants were able to mentally segment and organize them into global units lying in the particular direction, which was instrumental to reading the tables efficiently.

Takeshi Sugio, Atsushi Shimojima, Yasuhiro Katagiri

Venn and Euler Diagrams

Proof-Theoretical Investigation of Venn Diagrams: A Logic Translation and Free Rides

In the literature on diagrammatic reasoning, Venn diagrams are abstractly formalized in terms of minimal regions. In view of the cognitive process to recognize Venn diagrams, we modify slightly the formalization by distinguishing conjunctive, negative, and disjunctive regions among possible regions in Venn diagrams. Then we study a logic translation of the Venn diagrammatic system with the aim of investigating how our inference rules are rendered to resolution calculus. We further investigate the free ride property of the Venn diagrammatic system. Free ride is one of the most basic properties of diagrammatic systems and it is mainly discussed in cognitive science literature as an account of the inferential efficacy of diagrams. The soundness of our translation shows that a free ride occurs between the Venn diagrammatic system and resolution calculus. Furthermore, our translation provides a more in-depth analysis of the free ride. In particular, we calculate how many pieces of information are obtained in the manipulation of Venn diagrams.

Ryo Takemura

Euler Diagram Encodings

Euler Diagrams are a well-known visualisation of set-based relationships, used in many application areas and at the basis of more complex notations. We propose a


code for concrete Euler Diagrams, which enables efficient storage (vs. storage of concrete diagrams), and transformations preserving concrete-level structure, hence the viewer’s mental map. We provide the theoretical underpinnings of the encoding, examples and deductions, and an indication of their utility. For use in an interactive setting, we provide algorithms to update the code upon curve addition and removal. Independently, we show that the code identifies minimal regions, enabling the computation of the abstract zone set.

Paolo Bottoni, Gennaro Costagliola, Andrew Fish

Reasoning with Diagrams

Speedith: A Diagrammatic Reasoner for Spider Diagrams

In this paper, we introduce Speedith which is a diagrammatic theorem prover for the language of spider diagrams. Spider diagrams are a well-known logic for which there is a sound and complete set of inference rules. Speedith provides a way to input diagrams, transform them via the diagrammatic inference rules, and prove diagrammatic theorems. It is designed as a program that plugs into existing general purpose theorem provers. This allows for seamless formal verification of diagrammatic proof steps within established proof assistants such as Isabelle. We describe the general structure of Speedith, the diagrammatic language, the automatic mechanism that draws the diagrams when inference rules are applied on them, and how formal diagrammatic proofs are constructed.

Matej Urbas, Mateja Jamnik, Gem Stapleton, Jean Flower

Algebra Diagrams: A HANDi Introduction

A diagrammatic notation for algebra is presented - Hierarchical Algebra Network Diagrams, HANDi. The notation uses a 2D network notation with systematically designed icons to explicitly and coherently encode the fundamental concepts of algebra. The structure of the diagrams is described and the rules for making derivations are presented. The key design features of HANDi are discussed and compared with the conventional formula notation in order demonstrate that the new notation is a more logical codification of introductory algebra.

Peter C. -H. Cheng

Boolean Differences between Two Hexagonal Extensions of the Logical Square of Oppositions

The classical Aristotelian Square characterizes four formulae in terms of four relations of Opposition: contradiction, contrariety, subcontrariety, and subalternation. This square has been extended into a hexagon by two different strategies of inserting intermediate formulae: (1) the horizontal SB-insertion of Sesmat-Blanché and (2) the vertical SC-insertion of Sherwood-Czeżowski. The resulting visual constellations of opposition relations are radically different, however. The central claim of this paper is that these differences are due to the fact that the SB hexagon is closed under the Boolean operations of meet, join and complement, whereas the SC hexagon is not. Therefore we define the Boolean closure of the SC hexagon by characterizing the remaining 8 (non-trivial) formulae, and demonstrate how the resulting 14 formulae generate 6 SB hexagons. These can be embedded into a much richer 3D Aristotelian structure, namely a rhombic dodecahedron, which also underlies the modal system S5 and the propositional connectives.

Hans Smessaert

Investigating Aesthetics

An Exploration of Visual Complexity

Inspired by the contrast between ‘classical’ and ‘expressive’ visual aesthetic design, this paper explores the ‘visual complexity’ of images. We wished to investigate whether the visual complexity of an image could be quantified so that it matched participants’ view of complexity. An empirical study was conducted to collect data on the human view of the complexity of a set of images. The results were then related to a set of computational metrics applied to these images, so as to identify which objective metrics best encapsulate the human subjective opinion. We conclude that the subjective notion of ‘complexity’ is consistent both to an individual and to a group, but that it does not easily relate to the most obvious computational metrics.

Helen C. Purchase, Euan Freeman, John Hamer

Diagram Ecologies - Diagrams as Science and Game Board

This paper will examine two ‘ecologies of thought’, which encompass architectural theory, history, pedagogy, and practice.

A lineage of ‘scientific’ diagramming originates from scientific management and the Bauhaus-inspired curriculum introduced to Harvard by Walter Gropius; it incorporates diagrams into a problem-solving methodology, and is exemplified by the ‘bubble diagram’. This scientific emphasis is extended by Christopher Alexander’s urban analysis introducing mathematical set theory. In general, the scientific diagram emphasizes hierarchies and logical relations; it eschews visual resemblance to the subject of its analysis.

The second, post-war, trajectory privileges the semantic and syntactic potential of the diagram, and shifts emphasis from “solving a problem” to “learning a language”; it may be best understood through the ‘Nine Square Grid’ design exercise introduced by John Hejduk, resonating with positions articulated by Colin Rowe, Rudolf Wittkower, and Rudolf Arnheim.

The rendezvous of both trajectories with the digital screen sparks a new typology, diagrammatic controls.

Christoph Lueder

Dynamic Diagrams: A Composition Alternative

A major problem that learners face in comprehending animated diagrams is in decomposing the presented information into a form that furnishes appropriate raw material for building high quality mental models. This paper proposes an alternative to existing design approaches that shifts the prime focus from the nature of the external representation to the internal composition activity learners engage in during mental model construction.

Richard Lowe, Jean-Michel Boucheix

Applications of Diagrams

Diagrammatically-Driven Formal Verification of Web-Services Composition

This paper describes a diagrammatic approach to the formal verification of web-services composition. We present a set of graphical composition rules that map to proof steps in Classical Linear Logic (CLL) and can be used to drive the proof assistant HOL Light purely through interactive, diagrammatic reasoning. The end result is a verified, workflow-like diagram that provides a visual account of the composition process and of the information flow between the services making up the composite service. Our approach thus removes the need to interact directly with HOL Light and provides a mean of visualising and carrying out the whole verification process at an intuitive, yet fully rigorous, level.

Petros Papapanagiotou, Jacques Fleuriot, Sean Wilson

The Diagram of Flow: Its Departure from Software Engineering and Its Return

The first diagrammatic notation used in software engineering represented the concept of flow. This paper considers the factors that affected the apparent departure of the flowchart from software engineering practice during the 1970s and 1980s and its subsequent return in the 1990s. A new emphasis on hierarchy (as level of abstraction) and on data structure meant that the general concept of flow was completely superseded, only to re-emerge later as a new duality of control flow and data flow. This reappearance took a variety of forms with varying semantics until its stabilisation in the latest version of the Unified Modeling Language. Flow is there re-instated as a fundamental concept in software engineering although its importance, and that of the activity diagram used to represent it, diminished as a consequence of its becoming just one among a wider set of paradigms for software systems development, each associated with its own diagrams.

S. J. Morris, O. C. Z. Gotel

DDA\Repository: An Associative, Dynamic and Incremental Repository of Design Diagrams

This paper describes implementation of an online prototype that, on the one hand, offers interactive diagramming support to externalize thinking about design compositions and, on the other hand, acts also as an incremental repository of diagrams that can be dynamically interrogated to find other proximate compositional thinking and ideas related to a particular position. The prototype helps both notate design thinking and draw out associations between separately notated design compositions.

Bharat Dave, Gwyllim Jahn

Structure, Space and Time: Some Ways That Diagrams Affect Inferences in a Planning Task

An efficient way to notify a set of people is to use a calling tree, where one person calls a few people who call others until everyone has been notified. Calling trees are typical of a large class of planning tasks that entail considering both the structure of agents and tasks in time. Participants were asked to choose the optimal diagram for a calling tree problem, and to compute the time needed to call everyone. Participants computed more accurately when the tree diagrams were scaled to represent elapsed time as well as the connection structure of the callers. In addition to efficiency, both gestalt factors and social equity considerations biased selection of the best diagram.

David L. Mason, James E. Corter, Barbara Tversky, Jeffrey V. Nickerson


What Can Concept Diagrams Say?

Logics that extend the syntax of Euler diagrams include Venn-II, Euler/Venn, spider diagrams and constraint diagrams, which are first-order. We show that concept diagrams can quantify over sets and binary relations, so they are second-order. Thus, concept diagrams are highly expressive compared with other diagrammatic logics.

Gem Stapleton, John Howse, Peter Chapman, Ian Oliver, Aidan Delaney

CDEG: Computerized Diagrammatic Euclidean Geometry 2.0

This paper briefly describes


2.0, a computerized formal system for giving diagrammatic proofs in Euclidean geometry.

Nathaniel Miller

Design and Implementation of Multi-camera Systems Distributed over a Spherical Geometry

The current trend in constructing high-end computing systems consists of parallelizing large numbers of processors. A similar trend is observed in digital imaging where multiple camera inputs are utilized to obtain multiple images of a scene and thus enhance the performance envelope of the image capture. A methodology based on Voronoi diagrams is presented for coverage analysis of multi-camera systems mounted on spherical geometry. Interconnected network of camera concept is introduced for the purpose of the application development of multi-camera systems.

Hossein Afshari, Kerem Seyid, Alexandre Schmid, Yusuf Leblebici

Algebraic Aspects of Duality Diagrams

Duality phenomena are widespread in logic and language; their behavior is visualized using square diagrams. This paper shows how our recent algebraic account of duality can be fruitfully used to study these diagrams. A duality cube is constructed, and it is shown that 14 duality squares can be embedded into this cube (two of which were hitherto unknown). This number is also an upper bound.

Lorenz Demey

The Use of Diagrams in Science

An Examination of Trends in Articles Published in Science between 1880 and 2010

Scientists use inscriptions, such as tables, graphs, and illustrations to provide readers with a visual representation of data. A sample of articles from the journal,


was collected and a random selection of eight articles was drawn from each decade from inception to the present decade (2008 - 2010). Overall, we found different trends in the use of graphs, tables, and non-graph illustrations.

Lillian P. Fanjoy, A. Luke MacNeill, Lisa A. Best

A User Study on Curved Edges in Graph Visualisation

It seems that straight lines seldom occur in natural objects and that humans actually prefer curved lines [1]. Thus it may not seem surprising that in aesthetics, curved lines are often to be preferred over straight ones, as found for example in Hogarth’s serpentine Line of Beauty [2]. More recently a number of “confluent drawings” [3] and “edge bundling” [4] methods have been proposed to reduce edge clutter by using curved edges. Inspired by the work of Mark Lombardi, there is also theoretical work [5] that uses curved edges to optimises

angular resolution

, i.e., keep the angles between adjacent edge uniform.

Kai Xu, Chris Rooney, Peter Passmore, Dong-Han Ham

Truth Diagrams: An Overview

Truth Diagrams

, TDs, are a new diagrammatic notation for propositional logic. TDs provide: (1) representations of logical states of affairs and relations; (2) operators on such relations; (3) a test of the validity of derivations. A proof of one of de Morgan’s laws is given as an illustration of TDs.

Peter C. -H. Cheng

Are Teachers Aware of Students’ Lack of Spontaneity in Diagram Use? Suggestions from a Mathematical Model-Based Analysis of Teachers’ Predictions

Although many studies have shown that diagrams are effective tools for problem solving, research evidence shows that students do not always use diagrams effectively. One of the most serious problems is their lack of spontaneity in diagram use. However, no previous studies have examined whether teachers are adequately aware of this problem. In this investigation, data were gathered on students’ mathematics performance (including their spontaneous use of diagrams) and teachers’ predictions of the students’ performance. Using a mathematical model (Uesaka & Nakagawa, 2010) to analyze the data, it was found that the parameter representing the accuracy of teachers’ prediction was lower for their assessment of spontaneous diagram use compared to other mathematical tasks. This suggests that spontaneity in diagram use is an overlooked aspect in teachers’ view of student performance.

Yuri Uesaka, Emmanuel Manalo, Masanori Nakagawa

Modelling Delivery Information Flow: A Comparative Analysis of DSMs, DFDs and ICDs

Following an initial review and evaluation of current techniques for modelling delivery information flow in microsystems technology (MST) companies, this article analyses the ‘information channel diagram’ (ICD) approach – as a diagrammatical technique for modelling information flow through an empirical study that compares the ICD with existing information flow models used by MST companies.

Christopher Durugbo, Ashutosh Tiwari, Jeffrey R. Alcock

Completeness Proofs for Diagrammatic Logics

We identify commonality in the completeness proof strategies for Euler-based logics and show how, as expressiveness increases, the strategy readily extends. We identify a fragment of concept diagrams, an expressive Euler-based notation, and demonstrate that the completeness proof strategy does not extend to this fragment.

Jim Burton, Gem Stapleton, John Howse

Modelling Information Flow: Improving Diagrammatic Visualisations

In this paper, the needs and modelling considerations of diagrammatic representations of information flow are assessed. It presents the main recommendations of 18 engineers, scientists, and managers during case studies involving 3 semiconductor companies. The study shows that effective modelling processes and primitives require the effective use of colour coding within diagrams, identification of dichotomies for information classification, simplification of information content and communication, and the case-by-case use of tool during modelling. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for research and practice.

Christopher Durugbo

A Graph Calculus for Proving Intuitionistic Relation Algebraic Equations

In this work, we present a diagrammatic system in which diagrams based on graphs represent binary relations and reasoning on binary relations is performed by transformations on diagrams. We proved that if a diagram



can be transformed into a diagram



using the rules of our system, under a set Σ of hypotheses, then it is intuitionistically true that the relation defined by diagram



is a sub-relation of the one defined by diagram



, under the hypotheses in Σ.

Renata de Freitas, Petrucio Viana

Genetic Algorithm for Line Labeling of Diagrams Having Drawing Cues

Drawings are an integral part of the design process, helping designers communicate abstract concepts to others. In this paper we propose a genetic algorithm that successfully exploits cues present in drawings in a line labeling algorithm for sketches.

Alexandra Bonnici, Kenneth Camilleri

A Logical Investigation on Global Reading of Diagrams

We call the extraction of higher-level information from diagrams “global reading,” and investigate it from the viewpoint of logic.

Ryo Takemura, Atsushi Shimojima, Yasuhiro Katagiri

Pictures Are Visually Processed; Symbols Are also Recognized

What makes a representation pictorial?

I respond to this question as a small step toward a perceptual-cognitive understanding of graphic representation properties that play important roles in the usability of information systems. Here, I focus to capabilities that play a role in whether material objects are visually processed or recognized as pictorial or symbolized representations. I distinguish pictorial and symbolized information in terms of how each makes use of “less-learned”

perceptual emulation

capabilities that evolved to enable reaction to real-time environmental changes, and


capabilities to


features in order to

predict and plan (“simulate”)

future changes from

memory traces

of past percepts.

Pictorial information

makes use of these capabilities to cause perceptual emulation of environmental surfaces that are not part of the marked surface and are referred to here as


Symbolized (visual) information

is conceived here as visual information from a visual representation, that, through learning and recognition, causes retrieval of memory traces that serve as resources for the construction of mental simulations beyond (or other than) what is pictured. By locating information and representation at the intersection of perceiver and environment, a preliminary model to address the perplexing problem of distinguishing pictorial from symbolized representations is introduced.

Peter W. Coppin

How Do Viewers Spontaneously Segment Animated Diagrams of Mechanical and Biological Subject Matter?

A challenges for learning from animated diagrams is to first parse the continuous flow of information into discrete event units. Inadequacies in this parsing process can prejudice the quality of the mental model constructed from the depiction. One approach that has been proposed for ameliorating such problems is for the designer to pre-segment the animation. However, the pre-segmentation techniques used tend to be either intuitive or based on an expert’s understanding of the subject matter. Neither of these approaches takes proper account of the psychological processing that must occur for an external animation to be properly internalized. This poster reports a study of the processes that learners spontaneously use when asked to segment whole animations into events. It compared segmentation of two contrasting diagram types, one representing a mechanical system and the other a biological system. The number of events identified was low relative to the number that were actually present. There were deficiencies in participants’ placement of event boundaries and in their characterization of inter-event relationships. Identification of events in the mechanical system proceeded from micro to macro, this order was reversed with the biological system.

Jean-Michel Boucheix, Richard Lowe

Which Diagrams and When?

Health Workers’ Choice and Usage of Different Diagram Types for Service Improvement

Diagrammatic representations, such as process mapping and care pathways, have been often used for service evaluation and improvement in healthcare. While a broad range of diagrammatic representations exist, their application in healthcare has been very limited. There is a lack of understanding about how and which diagrams could be usable and useful to health workers. In this study, ten mental health workers were asked to discuss positive and negative issues around their service delivery using one or two diagrams of their choice out of seven different diagrams representing their service: care pathway diagram; organisation diagram; communication diagram; service blueprint; patient state transition diagram; free form diagram; geographic map. Their interactions with diagrams were video-taped for analysis. The patient state transition diagram was the most popular choice in spite of relatively low previous familiarity. The overall findings provided insight into a better use of diagrams in healthcare.

Gyuchan Thomas Jun, Cecily Morrison, Christopher O’Loughlin, P. John Clarkson

Eye Movement Patterns in Solving Scientific Graph Problems

Eye movement patterns of science- and non-science students in solving scientific graph problems were compared. Experts (science-students) tended to spend more time, compared to novices, to comprehend the questions during the first run / inspection. Concerning the main graph region, both the True and False subregions (corresponding to correct and wrong answer choices, respectively) were inspected carefully during the first run. Significant differences were observed in the second run, in which the False region was fixated longer when participants made wrong responses.

Miao-Hsuan Yen, Chieh-Ning Lee, Yu-Chun Yang

Formalising Simple Codecharts

Codecharts are a formal diagrammatic language for specifying the structure of object-oriented design patterns, frameworks, and programs. Codecharts are attractive for applications in both forward (e.g. design verification) and reverse engineering (e.g. program visualization). Although the definition of Codecharts has been adequate for these applications, there is a need to develop the language further in more precise terms. This paper outlines our work in refining the definition of Codecharts. We informally describe the concrete syntax and semantics of Codecharts, and provide a new formal abstract syntax. We conclude with a brief discussion on future work.

Jon Nicholson, Aidan Delaney

Notes about the London Underground Map as an Iconic Artifact

The icon is defined as a sign whose manipulation reveals, by direct observation of its intrinsic property, some information on its object. The London Underground Map is an example of an artifact used to represent part-part/part-whole relations of the largest underground systems of the world. It provides a powerful semiotic niche built for extraction and manipulation of relations. This paper explores the design of the London Underground Map through the notion of iconic artifact.

Breno Bitarello, Pedro Atã, João Queiroz

The Efficacy of Diagrams in Syllogistic Reasoning: A Case of Linear Diagrams

We study the efficacy of external diagrams in syllogistic reasoning, focusing on the effectiveness of a linear variant of Euler diagrams. We tested subjects’ performances in syllogistic reasoning tasks where linear diagrams were externally supplied. The results indicated that the linear diagrams work as effectively as Euler diagrams. It is argued that the relational information such as inclusion and exclusion is crucial for understanding the efficacy of diagrams in syllogistic reasoning.

Yuri Sato, Koji Mineshima


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