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Über dieses Buch

A broad range of state-of-the-art methods to determine properties of clusters are presented. The experimental setup and underlying physical concepts of these experiments are described.

Furthermore, existing theoretical models to explain the experimental observations are introduced and the possibility to deduce structural information from measurements of dielectric properties is discussed.

Additional case studies are presented in the book to emphasize the possibilities but also drawbacks of the methods.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

What are clusters and what are dielectric properties? What is the reason for studying dielectric properties of isolated clusters and what can be learned from these investigations? This short introduction gives some very basic answers to these questions in addition to motivating and outlining the rest of this book.
Sven Heiles, Rolf Schäfer

Chapter 2. Molecular Beam Electric Field Deflection: Experimental Considerations

Several experimental methods exist for studying the dielectric properties but essentially only electric beam deflection investigations are performed for clusters. In this chapter the experimental setup of such an electric beam deflection apparatus is presented. In detail the different parts (and possible modifications) of the setup like cluster generation, velocity measurement, deflection unit and mass spectrometry are discussed and the basic physics of how to infer dielectric properties from this experiment are explained.
Sven Heiles, Rolf Schäfer

Chapter 3. Molecular Beam Electric Field Deflection: Theoretical Description

After having explained the experimental realization of beam deflection experiments in Chap. 2 , this chapter will introduce various interpretation schemes of the experimental results. Depending on the experimental conditions and the studied system either the rigid rotor model or the floppy cluster assumption must be applied. For the rigid rotor model perturbation theory methods, classical and quantum chemical simulations are discussed and their performance is compared. The latter two methods require a model of the geometric structure of the cluster and the corresponding dielectric properties. Therefore, a very brief introduction of unbiased structure search routines and quantum chemical computations is given. For floppy or thermally activated clusters the simple Langevin-Debye model is introduced while a few more sophisticated methods are discussed at the end of the chapter.
Sven Heiles, Rolf Schäfer

Chapter 4. Case Studies

The incentive of this chapter is to demonstrate how electric deflection techniques can be utilized to understand the change of the dielectric properties of clusters in dependence of their size and composition. This is done with the help of several case studies including molecular cluster and complexes, metal and semiconductor clusters and core-shell clusters and nanoalloys. The case studies were carefully chosen in order to demonstrate the power/weaknesses of the different interpretation schemes, highlight the dependence of the dielectric properties on cluster systems, size and composition.
Sven Heiles, Rolf Schäfer

Chapter 5. Novel Experimental Tools

Despite the described improvements and outstanding opportunities of the electric field deflection method, several limitations exist. This chapter introduces a newly developed experimental method which can overcome some of these limitations. The light force and near field interferometry method rely on the deflection of clusters in a standing light wave. Several case studies for different experimental variations of these methods are presented and the working principle of these experiments is explained. In the second part of this chapter an experimental method is introduced that uses the dielectric properties of small molecules and clusters to influence the trajectories of neutral molecules. The basic principle of the so called Stark decelerator is discussed, the example of the OH radical is used to showcase the performance of this experiment and other applications are briefly described.
Sven Heiles, Rolf Schäfer

Chapter 6. Summary

In this final chapter the results of the previous chapters are summarized and the main results of this manuscript are highlighted. Additionally, possible future improvements of the beam deflection experiment and the therewith connected opportunities are described.
Sven Heiles, Rolf Schäfer

Backmatter

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