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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the work of the RILEM Technical Committee 276-DFC: Digital fabrication with cement-based materials. The most important outcomes of the technical committee are presented. First, a unified process classification for digital fabrication with concrete is proposed, discussed and illustrated. Then, a state of the art of the testing methods (both at a material and structural level and in the fresh and hardened state) is provided. The gathered knowledge is expected to form the foundation of some quality control procedures for fresh properties along with hardened properties and service life performance. The book will benefit academics, practitioners, industry and standardization committees interested in digital fabrication with cement-based materials.



Chapter 1. Digital Fabrication with Cement-Based Materials—The Rilem D.F.C. Technical Committee History, Strategy and Achievements

In the last decade, the potential of 3D printing (and more generally of digital manufacturing) in the construction industry has been widely reported in the media. In 2017, CNN website posed the question “Will the world next megacity drip out of a 3D printer?”.
Nicolas Roussel, Dirk Lowke, Richard Buswel

Chapter 2. Digital Fabrication with Cement-Based Materials: Process Classification and Case Studies

The need for methods for forming concrete has existed for as long as concrete has been used in constructing the built environment. Creating flat, rectilinear formers have traditionally been the cost and time efficient default for the majority of applications. The desire for greater design freedom and the drive to automate construction manufacturing is providing a platform for the continued development of a family of processes called Digital Fabrication with Concrete (DFC) technologies. DFC technologies are many and varied. Much of the material science theory is common, but the process steps vary significantly between methods, creating challenges as we look towards performance comparison and standardisation. Presented here is a framework to help identify and describe process differences and a showcase of DFC application case studies that explain the processes behind a sub-set of the technologies available.
R. A. Buswell, F. P. Bos, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, N. Hack, Harald Kloft, Dirk Lowke, Niklas Freund, Asko Fromm, E. Dini, Timothy Wangler, E. Lloret-Fritschi, Roel Schipper, Viktor Mechtcherine, Arnaud Perrot, K. Vasilic, Nicolas Roussel

Chapter 3. Digital Fabrication with Cement-Based Materials: Underlying Physics

The comprehending of the processes’ physics is a prerequisite for the purposeful design and optimization of digital fabrication systems, as well as their efficient and robust process control. This chapter presents an overview of the underlying physics relevant to an understanding of the processing of cement-based materials during various production steps of digital fabrication. In this, the main focus was on various approaches of Additive Manufacturing, but selected aspects of formative processes were addressed as well. For some processes, analytical formulas based on the relevant physics have already enabled reasonable predictions with respect to material flow behaviour, buildability, and other relevant features. Nevertheless, further research efforts are required to develop reliable tools for the quantitative analysis of the entire process chains. To accomplish this, experimental efforts for the characterization of material properties need to be accompanied by comprehensive numerical simulation. The presented work results from collaborative research carried out by the authors in the framework of the RILEM Technical Committee 276 “Digital fabrication with cement-based materials”.
Viktor Mechtcherine, S. Fataei, F. P. Bos, R. A. Buswell, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, E. Keita, H. W. Krauss, Dirk Lowke, Arnaud Perrot, Venkatesh Naidu Nerella, Nicolas Roussel, Mohammed Sonebi, Timothy Wangler, Daniel Weger, Rob Wolfs

Chapter 4. Printable Cement-Based Materials: Fresh Properties Measurements and Control

Digital fabrication with cementitious materials is a rapidly growing field of research in which the evolution of strength during the various processes, such as 3D printing, is the key controlling parameter. The strength evolves over multiple orders of magnitude during the process, and thus, it is essential to properly characterize the strength evolution in order to guarantee process success. This chapter summarizes the state of the art in these characterization methods for digital fabrication with fresh cementitious materials, reviewing well-known and more recently developed methods.
Timothy Wangler, Robert J. Flatt, Nicolas Roussel, Arnaud Perrot, Mohammed Sonebi, Rob Wolfs, Freek Bos, Dirk Lowke, Niklas Freund, Dietmar Stephan, Ursula Pott, Lex Reiter, Steffen Grünewald, Wilson Ricardo Leal da Silva, Geert De Schutter

Chapter 5. Properties and Testing of Printed Cement-Based Materials in Hardened State

3D printing is offering a totally new construction method, but an in-depth understanding of the consequences of the different production conditions compared to traditional formwork-based casting operations is required. Bulk material properties (intrinsic strength and durability) will follow the same fundamental material laws. However, in printed structures, the role of the interfaces will become increasingly important as they affect the mechanical performance, transport properties and durability behaviour. Additionally, the anisotropic nature of 3D printed structures implies that there are new opportunities to develop new methods of analysis. The aim of this chapter is to focus on the current practices for performance testing and to give an overview of the parameters which affect the hardened properties of a printed cementitious material.
Jolien Van Der Putten, Venkatesh Naidu Nerella, Viktor Mechtcherine, Mélody D’Hondt, Mohammed Sonebi, Daniel Weger, Zhendi Wang, Constantino Menna, Nicolas Roussel, Dirk Lowke, Kim Van Tittelboom, Geert De Schutter

Chapter 6. Structural Design and Testing of Digitally Manufactured Concrete Structures

The form freedom enabled by digital fabrication with concrete technologies provides advantages for a wide range of concrete based objects, from architectural to structural elements. The current chapter focuses on the specifics of structural design and engineering of DFC with emphasis on those technologies based on Additive Manufacturing with extrusion. Since it is a new and innovative way to build, a clear common approach to structural engineering has not yet been developed. As a result, this chapter aims to introduce the specific challenges of structural design and engineering with the additive manufacturing technology, providing an overview of structural typologies that have been developed (especially concerning the reinforcement strategies, including fibre reinforcement). Furthermore, the structural principles adopted in DFC and the codified approaches used in conventional reinforced concrete is compared, and putative structural testing procedures and validation methods for DFC are reported.
Domenico Asprone, Costantino Menna, Freek Bos, Jaime Mata-Falcón, Liberato Ferrara, Ferdinando Auricchio, Ezio Cadoni, Vítor M. C. F. Cunha, Laura Esposito, Asko Fromm, Steffen Grünewald, Harald Kloft, Viktor Mechtcherine, Venkatesh Naidu Nerella, Roel Schipper
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