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Über dieses Buch

This two-volume-set (CCIS 188 and CCIS 189) constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Information Processing and Communications, ICDIPC 2011, held in Ostrava, Czech Republic, in July 2011. The 91 revised full papers of both volumes presented together with 4 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 235 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on network security; Web applications; data mining; neural networks; distributed and parallel processing; biometrics technologies; e-learning; information ethics; image processing; information and data management; software engineering; data compression; networks; computer security; hardware and systems; multimedia; ad hoc network; artificial intelligence; signal processing; cloud computing; forensics; security; software and systems; mobile networking; and some miscellaneous topics in digital information and communications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Software Engineering

Comparison of System Dynamics and BPM for Software Process Simulation

Modeling and simulation of a software process is one way a company can decide which software process and/or its adjustment is the best solution for its current project. Since there are many different approaches to modeling and simulation and all of them have pros and cons, the very first task is the selection of the appropriate and useful model and simulation approach for the current domain and selected conditions. In this paper we focus on applying a discrete event based modeling and simulation approach and system dynamics modeling and simulation approach to the real case study of the software process. The issue is the comparison of the approaches that should answer the questions: what type of information can we get from the simulation results and how can we use it for decisions about the software process.

Jan Kožusznik, Svatopluk Štolfa, David Ježek, Štěpán Kuchař

Knowledge Based Approach to Software Development Process Modeling

Modeling a software process is one way a can company decide which software process and/or its adjustment is the best solution for the current project. Modeling is the way the process is presented or simulated. Since there are many different approaches to modeling and all of them have pros and cons, the very first task is the selection of an appropriate and useful modeling approach for the current goal and selected conditions. In this paper, we propose an approach based on ontologies.

Jan Kožusznik, Svatopluk Štolfa

User Interfaces and Usability Issues Form Mobile Applications

The possibilities of using GUI in environment of the mobile communication technologies are dicussed in the present article regarding the capabilities of mobile operating system Android, Windows Phone 7 and iOS. The mobile platform controls are comparted to the applications programming possibilities in one programming language and to the development environment with the possibility of deploying applications to the multiple operating systems. Our results are summarized in the conclusion.

Jakub Larysz, Martin Němec, Radoslav Fasuga

Capturing Supermarket Shopper Behavior Using SmartBasket

Retail stores make marketing decisions using customer demographic and sales data to determine which customer and product group combination best contributes increased profit. Customer profile and sales data are of great help but they alone do not portray the whole picture. Tracking the location of a customer in a store and analyzing the customer shopping path and marrying the result to customer profile and sales data is of high interest for marketing for the purpose of streamlining store operations, maintaining customer royalty and increasing sales. In this paper, we propose a system for supermarkets that tracks the path of a shopping cart associated with a customer profile to understand the customer shopping behavior. The proposed system uses IR LED plates installed on the carts which are monitored by small and inexpensive in-shelf networked IP cameras. The shopping carts are equipped with a low cost input device that has a monitor to gather customer profile information. The system is integrated with the supermarket’s web site to customize the overall shopping experience. The data collected is mined to find out the relationships among product placement, customer profile and product purchase decisions. The system is designed to monitor real time movements of the shopping cart.

Ufuk Celikkan, Gizem Somun, Ulas Kutuk, Irem Gamzeli, Elif Dicle Cinar, Irem Atici

An Approach for Securing and Validating Business Processes Based on a Defined Enterprise Security Ontology Criteria

The security ontology criteria are a vital de-facto in Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) which guarantees a secure orchestration of the organizational services to face the new security aspects. Quality of Service (QoS) is a set of standards and algorithms used to measure the performance of a service by monitoring quality affecting factors. In this paper we secure and validate the business processes by introducing a framework and a security tag. The security tag is used to represent certain infrastructure quality of service criteria within business processes of an enterprise. This is achieved by correlating the infrastructure security components performance and business process through an enterprise infrastructure-based security token presented in the BPEL file in newly introduced attributes. The framework then applies its developed algorithm to validate the enterprise security ontology criteria by using the provided enterprise WSS security and the calculated intervals for the (QoS) throughput coefficients of the enterprise infrastructure security components and outputs consistency value indicators for both the WSS and the token value provided in the BPEL. We tested the framework functionality through a real case study of a rich and secure banking environment.

Ahmed A. Hussein, Ahmed Ghoneim, Reiner R. Dumke

A Dynamic Reconfigurable-Based Approach for Connectivity Mismatches of Web Services

Web services are the main stones of building and developing internal organization business workflow. If the connectivity of these web services is not well defined, companies that rely on them may face many problems especially when integration and composition are needed. Companies need a well-defined harmonic structure of the web service connectivity within their workflow. The most challenge of these companies is to keep their workflow structure harmonic by handling unexpected changes or new policies. In this paper, we face this problem by proposing a framework with supporting some dedicated dynamic reconfigurable algorithms to generate and develop an automatically efficient adaptor. This adapter is designed to work in the case of the behavioral and graph mismatches within the web services connectivity for business workflow. The proposed framework composes of two main engines namely pre-mismatch and post-mismatch detectors to detect the existing mismatches in both of the generated and the reconfigurable workflows with considering the possibility of existing mismatches within some composite web services. A real case study obtained from PayPal system is used to illustrate the proposed framework functionalities.

Samir Elmougy, Ahmed Ghoneim

Data Compression

Reducing Alphabet Using Genetic Algorithms

In the past, several approaches for data compression were developed. The base approach use characters as basic compression unit, but syllable-based and word based approaches were also developed. These approaches define strict borders between basic units. These borders are valid only for tested collections. Moreover, there may be words, which are not syllables, but it is useful to use them even in syllable based approach or in character based approach. Of course, testing of all possibilities is not realizable in finite time. Therefor, a optimization technique may be used as possible solution. This paper describes first steps in the way to optimal compression alphabet - designing the basic algorithms for alphabet reduction using genetic algorithms.

Jan Platos, Pavel Kromer

Networks

On the Quality of Service Optimization for WiMAX Networks Using Multi-hop Relay Stations

Network quality of services and the limitation of network installation budget are important concerns in the widespread deployment of mobile WiMAX access networks. This paper presents a novel quality of service optimization model for WiMAX networks utilizing multi-hop relay stations with special considerations of network budget limitation. The proposed model aims to optimize the network quality of services in term of the user access data rate guarantee and the radio service coverage to serve potential user traffic demand in the target service area by determining optimal locations to install base stations and relay stations in the multi-hop manner. The numerical results and analysis show that the proposed model can improve the user access data rate and enhance the network service coverage compared with other existing techniques.

Chutima Prommak, Chitapong Wechtaison

An Application of Game Theory for the Selection of Traffic Routing Method in Interconnected NGN

In this paper, the impact of various dynamic traffic routing methods on different performances of interconnected telecommunications network with the application of bill-and-keep interconnection charging is presented. For the purpose of our research, we developed the software for Routing and Interconnection Simulation (RIS). We conducted two-stage analysis. First stage is concerning the shortest path routing, the three-hop routing, the random path routing and the last successful path routing, and their influence on certain network performance parameters. In second stage the coordination game theory model is proposed in order to determine the one routing method that provides the best results for all operators in terms of costs per link.

A. Kostić-Ljubisavljević, V. Radonjić, S. Mladenović, V. Aćimović-Raspopović

Computer Security

Unpredictable Random Number Generator Based on Hardware Performance Counters

Originally intended for design evaluation and performance analysis, hardware performance counters (HPCs) enable the monitoring of hardware events, yet are noisy by their very nature. The causes of variations in the counter values are so complex that are nearly impossible to determine. Hence, while being a major issue in the process of accurately evaluating software products, the unpredictability exhibited by HPCs offer a high potential for random number generation. In the present paper we propose a new unpredictable random number generator (URNG) based on HPCs and analyze the feasibility of producing cryptographic quality randomness. The experiments performed on the proposed generator show that the quality and throughput of the new design is comparable to those exhibited by the well known HAVEG URNG [1]. The results of thorough statistical testing prove the high randomness quality of the produced sequences enabling the generator to be considered a suitable candidate for integration in cryptographic applications.

Alin Suciu, Sebastian Banescu, Kinga Marton

Hardware and Systems

Software Controlled High Efficient and Accurate Microstepping Unit for Embedded Systems

In this paper, we present a novel design of a microstepping control unit. The goal is to improve the efficiency and compactness of current control units. An effective hardware implementation based on a single microcontroller and L6202 is proposed. By performing the computation of the duty cycle inside the microcontroller PIC18F2455, we have achieved superior positioning accuracy. The unit is designed as a small module, suitable for embedded applications.

Petr Olivka, Michal Krumnikl

Multimedia

3-D versus 2-D Animation in Multimedia Application: Is the Extra Effort Worth It?

Does animation play a role in multimedia learning? Animation in multimedia is said to be beneficial to learning especially when the learning material demands visual movements. The emergence of 3-Dimensional animated visuals has extended the presentation mode in multimedia learning. It is said that animated visuals in a 3-D representation not only possess motivational value that promotes positive attitudes toward instruction but also facilitate learning when the subject matter requires dynamic motion and 3-D visual cue. The field of computer science, especially in operating systems concepts uses an array of abstract concepts such as virtual memory, paging, fragmentations etc to describe and explain the underlying processes. Various studies together with our own observations strongly indicate that students often find these concepts difficult to learn, as they cannot easily be demonstrated. This study investigates the effects of animation on student understanding when studying a complex domain in computer science, that is, the subject of memory management concepts in operating systems. A multimedia learning system was developed in two different versions: 2-D animation and 3-D animation. A hundred and one students took part in this study and they were assigned into one of these groups. All the students who took part in this experiment had low prior knowledge in this subject and after viewing the treatment, they were asked to take a test which tested them for recall and transfer knowledge. This test was used to determine if, in fact, improved learning actually occurred and which version of the animation produced the better outcome. Initial analysis of results indicates no statistical difference between the scores for the two versions and suggests that animations, by themselves, do not necessarily improve student understanding.

Riaza Mohd Rias, Halimah Badioze Zaman

Ad Hoc Network

Multi-path Construction for Bypassing Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

Holes in wireless sensor networks are the geographical region without enough available sensor nodes. When a hole exists in the wireless sensor network, it often causes traditional routing algorithms to fail. In most of the previous works, the routing hole problem was addressed by using the static detour path to route data packets along the boundaries of holes. As a result, the energy of sensor nodes on the static path depletes quickly, and the hole size enlarges. In this paper, we propose a scheme for bypassing holes in wireless sensor networks by exploiting energy-aware multiple paths. Our approach not only takes into account the shorter path to bypass the hole, but also eases the loading of the sensor nodes on the boundaries of holes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve short detour paths, low energy consumption and network load balancing.

Sheng-Tzong Cheng, Jia-Shing Shih

On the Usability of Vehicle-to-Roadside Communications Using IEEE 802.11b/g Unplanned Wireless Networks

Wireless networks are achieving a widespread penetration thanks to a variety of low cost solutions; cities are overcrowded with IEEE 802.11 access points. While connecting a notebook to a wireless network is simple, a vehicle connection to a roadside unit is still one of the most challenging topic.

In this paper, we introduce a novel solution for vehicle-to-roadside communications using the standard IEEE 802.11b/g network devices. Despite the existence of IEEE 802.11p standard, we exploit IEEE 802.11b/g, which is available and can be already used for the real world applications.

The proposed solution is composed of two layers. A wireless connection layer is responsible for network switching. The upper roaming layer is a proxy and tunneling module providing reliable connection for rapidly changing network environment. The system is designed to provide secure roaming capability on GSM, UMTS, HSDPA and WiFi networks.

Proposed solution was experimentally verified and used as a part of projects involving a vehicle-to-Internet applications.

Martin Milata, Michal Krumnikl, Pavel Moravec

A Comparative Study of Aspect-Oriented and Object-Oriented Implementations: Pervasive System Use Case

Pervasive computing is becoming a reality. On the one hand, they will be deployed into a diversity of small devices and appliances, and on the other hand, they must be aware of highly changing execution contexts. Adaptation is the key crosscutting concern of pervasive computing applications. In this paper, we discuss our experience of implementing an adaptive display environment using Aspect-oriented programming. We compare the aspect-oriented implementation with independently developed object-oriented implementation of the environment. The comparison demonstrates that an aspect-oriented approach is indeed more effective in modularizing adaptation in a reusable, maintainable and evolvable fashion. It also reduces the complexity of the implementation with respect to the above three desirable attributes. At the same time, our experience challenges some of the existing conceptions about aspect granularity within an application and also highlights the need for development guidelines and idioms.

Benamar Abdelkrim, Belkhatir Noureddine, Bendimerad Fethi Tarik

Artificial Intelligence

Review of Power Quality Disturbances Classification Using Variable Size Detector (V-Detector)

The variable size detector (V-detector) is a real-valued negative selection algorithm with variable-sized detector. The V-detector algorithm is a kind of negative selection algorithm (NSA) inspired by biological immune system (BIS).This paper overviewed the theory of basis V-detector algorithm and typical improved V-detector algorithm summarized their applications in the area of power quality disturbances classification. The comparison between the traditional and V-detector method shows the method has good applicability and effectiveness for power quality disturbances classification. The analysis directions of a new dimension of studying about the power quality (PQ) disturbance classification are also forwarded. All of these showed that the Vdetector based methods have great potential for the future development in the power quality or others field of studies.

Kamarulazhar Daud, Noraliza Hamzah, Saiful Zaimy Yahaya, Mohd Affandi Shafie, Harapajan Singh Nagindar Singh

Classifying Sleep Disturbance Using Sleep Stage 2 and Wavelet-Based Features

This paper classified sleep disturbance using non rapid eye movement-sleep (REM) stage 2 and a neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). In this paper, wavelet-based features using EEG signals in non-REM stage 2 were used to classify subjects who have mild difficulty falling asleep and healthy subjects. At the first phase, detail coefficients and approximation coefficients were extracted using the wavelet transform (WT) with Fpz-Cz/Pz-Oz EEG at non-REM stage 2. At the second phase, using statistical methods, including frequency distributions and the amounts of variability in frequency distributions extracted in the first stage, 40 features were extracted each from Fpz-Cz/Pz-Oz EEG. In the final phase, 80 features extracted at the second phase were used as inputs of NEWFM. In performance results, the accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 91.70%, 91.73%, and 91.67%, respectively.

Sang-Hong Lee, Joon S. Lim

Automated Text Summarization: Sentence Refinement Approach

Automated text summarization is a process of deriving a shorter version of a text document from an original text. The most well known and widely used technique for automated text summarization is sentence extraction technique. Using this technique, sentences are extracted based on certain features that have been decided. In this paper, a new technique called sentence refinement is introduced as an improvement of the technique. In this approach, a sentence is refined; unimportant words or phrases exist in the extracted sentences are omitted. A summarization tool has been developed based on the proposed approach. The tool was tested using English and Malay texts. Extrinsic and intrinsic measurement methods have been used in evaluating generated summaries. Results show the proposed approach is promising.

Shaidah Jusoh, Abdulsalam M. Masoud, Hejab M. Alfawareh

Signal Processing

Software-Defined Radio for Versatile Low-Power Wireless Sensor Systems

Traditional wireless sensor network architectures are based on low-power microcontrollers and highly integrated short range radio transceiver chips operating in one of the few ISM bands. This combination provides a convenient and proven approach to design and build inexpensive sensor nodes rapidly. However, the black box nature of these radio chips severely limit experimentation and research with novel and innovative technologies in the wireless infrastructure. Our team previously proposed a revolutionary architecture for wireless nodes based on Flash FPGA devices. This paper shows the first results of our work through the implementation and evaluation of a simple baseband FSK modem in the SmartFusion FPGA fabric. We also demonstrate how we could leverage existing software radio projects to use the baseband modem in a wide range of radio frequency bands.

Sándor Szilvási, Benjámin Babják, Ákos Lédeczi, Péter Völgyesi

Implementing Independent Component Analysis in General-Purpose GPU Architectures

New computational architectures, such as multi-core processors and graphics processing units (GPUs), pose challenges to application developers. Although in the case of general-purpose GPU programming, environments and toolkits such as CUDA and OpenCL have simplified application development, different ways of thinking about memory access, storage, and program execution are required. This paper presents a strategy for implementing a specific signal processing technique for blind-source separation: infomax independent component analysis (ICA). Common linear algebra operations are mapped to a low cost programmable graphics card using the OpenCL programming toolkit. Because many components of ICA are inherently parallel, ICA computations can be accelerated by low cost parallel hardware. Experimental results on simulated and speech signals indicate that efficiency gains and scalability are achievable through general-purpose GPU implementation, and suggest that important applications in telecommunications, speech processing, and biomedical signal analysis can benefit from these new architectures. The utilization of low cost GPUs for programming may potentially facilitate real-time applications of previously offline algorithms.

Jacquelyne Forgette, Renata Wachowiak-Smolíková, Mark Wachowiak

Two-Dimensional Signal Adaptive Processing for Airborne Radar

In static radars, all the ground returns are received with a Doppler frequency almost null. However, in airborne radars, they present a wide spectrum for the Doppler frequencies because of the platform in motion. Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) was introduced to improve the capacity of radars to detect slow moving targets which can be masked by clutter or jammer. In this paper, we present the principles of STAP and we discuss the properties of optimum detector, as well as problems associated with estimating the adaptive weights such as ambiguities and the high computational cost. The performances are evaluated highlighting the influence of radar parameters on the detection of slow targets. To resolve problem of high computational cost of optimal space-time processing, reduced-rank methods are used. And to resolve Doppler ambiguities staggering of PRF is used. The simulation results are presented and the performances of STAP are discussed.

Samira Dib, Mourad Barkat, Jean-Marie Nicolas, Morad Grimes

Cloud Computing

Towards Improving the Functioning of CloudSim Simulator

Cloud computing has become a major force for change in how web design, configure, provision, and manage IT infrastructure. Instead of custom-provisioning individual systems or clusters, an architect or administrator is expected to have hundreds, or even thousands of resources under their control! A variety of approaches have emerged to do this. CloudSim enables seamless modeling, simulation, and experimentation of emerging Cloud computing infrastructures and application services. In the CloudSim simulator there are two fundamental problems: i) Lack of links between Datacenters, this lack of links will lead necessarily to a lack of communication between them and therefore no exchange or shared of any service or information with other datacenters. ii) No possibility to create a virtual machine in more Datacenters. In a first time, we propose to use a ring topology to allow the exchange and the and sharing of information and services between different Datacenter, and in the second time improving the method of creating virtual machines, and by consequence to allow the creation of a virtual machine in several Datacenter, which improves fault tolerance in this type of environment.

Ghalem Belalem, Said Limam

Towards New Data Access Control Technique Based on Multi Agent System Architecture for Cloud Computing

With the rise of the era of “cloud computing”, concerns about “Security” continue to increase. Cloud computing environments impose new challenges on access control techniques due to the growing scale and dynamicity of hosts within the cloud infrastructure; we proposed Multi-Agent System (MAS) architecture. This architecture consists of two agents: Cloud Service Provider Agent (CSPA) and Cloud Data Confidentiality Agent (CDConA). CSPA provides a graphical interface to the cloud user that facilitates the access to the services offered by the system. CDConA provides each cloud user by definition and enforcement expressive and flexible access structure as a logic formula over cloud data file attributes. This new access control is named as Formula-Based Cloud Data Access Control (FCDAC). A prototype of our proposed FCDAC will be designed using Prometheus Methodology and implemented using the Java Agent Development Framework Security (JADE-S).

Amir Mohamed Talib, Rodziah Atan, Rusli Abdullah, Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad

Agent-Based MOM for Cross-Platform Communication WorkFlow Management in SOA Systems

A lot of research works in different areas of workflow management can be found in various literatures. Each area of research has its own specification and requirements to manage a complex processing request. Workflow management is significantly important for utilizing heterogeneous communications and resources sharing in SOA systems. Many studies combine the workflow management with agent technology. This requires support from different approaches of implementing agent technology. In this paper, we describe our Agent-based MOM cross-platform communication workflow for SOA systems. We argue that our suggested framework is composing autonomous and flexible interaction for SOA communication. We also illustrate the technologies for cross-platform interoperability communication across wide area computing systems.

Najhan M. Ibrahim, Mohd Fadzil Hassan, Zain Balfagih

HSFS: A Compress Filesystem for Metadata Files

In this paper we propose a solution to improve the search among compress data. A Linux filesystem have been implemented by combining the advantages of squashfs (compression) and hixosfs (for research). We test our idea with DICOM file used to store medical images.

Nicola Corriero, Emanuele Covino, Giuseppe D’amore, Giovanni Pani

Forensics

Environment Sound Recognition for Digital Audio Forensics Using Linear Predictive Coding Features

Linear Predictive Coding coefficients are of the main extraction feature in digital forensic. In this paper, we perform several experiments focusing on the problems of environments recognition from audio particularly for forensic application. We investigated the effect of temporal Linear Predictive Coding coefficient as feature extraction on environment sound recognition to compute the Linear Predictive Coding coefficient for each frame for all files. The performance is evaluated against varying number of training sounds and samples per training file and compare with Zero Crossing feature and Moving Picture Experts Group-7 low level description feature. We use K-Nearest Neighbors as classifier feature to detect which the environment for any audio testing file. Experimental results show that higher recognition accuracy is achieved by increasing the number of training files and by decreasing the number of samples per training file.

Mubarak Obaid AlQahtani, Abdulaziz S. Al mazyad

Security

Improving Code-Based Steganography with Linear Error-Block Codes

We introduce a steganographic protocol based on linear error block codes. Our method is an extension of Westfeld’s F5 algorithm. It allows to grow embedding capacity by exploiting more bits from the cover, in such a way that the probability for each bit to be flipped is related to its influence on the image quality. For example least significant bits (LSB) are the most exposed to alteration. Moreover, linear error-block codes, as a generalization of linear error correcting codes, provide larger and better choices for the codes to use. The results show that with a good choice of parameters, the change rate can also be reduced for an acceptable image quality.

Rabiî Dariti, El Mamoun Souidi

Software and Systems

Vibration of Composite Plate - Mathematical Modelling and Experimental Verification by ESPI

For observatory of vibrations of composite rectangular plate were used two different methods: mathematical and experimental. Experimental part was done by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This method - ESPI - is very suitable for non-destructive observatory several types of materials - in our experiment it is composite rectangular plate. Results of this method - vibration modes - are applicable especially in designing of various structures. Results of the mathematical modelling are suitable for verifying and comparison with results from ESPI method - they are very comparisonable. In our mathematical modelling program MARC was used with help of the FEM.

David Seidl, Pavol Koštial, Zora Jančíková, Soňa Rusnáková

SIP Registration Burst Load Test

The paper deals with performance testing a SIP infrastructure. While the working methodology for measuring performance and effectiveness of the SIP B2BUA and SIP Proxy has recently been introduced, the more complex application of this methodology is still missing. This paper tries to fill this gap and improve the methodology further to better fit into the planned modular design of the testing platform, which is being designed in the VoIP laboratory of VSB – Technical University of Ostrava. By separating registrations from calls, we were able to measure both cases without the need of extensive postprocessing of data to ensure the data in one case is not affected by the ones from the other case. Furthermore the security vulnerability of the SIP protocol has been harnessed to allow measuring software for performing both registrations and calls together but in individual processes, which builds the basis for planned and already mentioned modular design of the platform. In this paper the results from separate registration stress test analysis will be presented as one of the examples of usage of the mentioned methodology.

Jan Rozhon, Miroslav Voznak

Analysis of M-QAM Data Communication System Using 3D Eye Diagram

When designing digital systems and incorporating a high-speed digital device with the need of quick transfer of large data amounts between chips and peripherals, jitter will be a key parameter to measure. In this paper, we are able to determine the initial phase of a carrier sine wave by performing carrier recovery loop in Digital communication systems of M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) schemes. It is important for the M-ary QAM carrier recovery circuits to have low phase jitter as well as only four stable phase points as we see below. We examined the effect of channel noise on carrier recovery. More specifically, we examined what behaviour can occur when channel noise is significant enough to prevent carrier locking. We saw the symbols on the 3D Eye Diagram and constellation plot begin to jitter at first, and then settle closer to the ideal symbol locations after a short period of time.

Mohamed Al-Wohaishi, Radek Martinek, Jan Zidek

Mobile Networking

Mobile Phone Positioning in GSM Networks Based on Information Retrieval Methods and Data Structures

In this article we present a novel method for mobile phone positioning using a vector space model, suffix trees and an information retrieval approach. The method works with parameters which can be acquired from any common mobile phone without the necessity of installing additional hardware and is handset based. The algorithm is based on a database of previous measurements which are used as an index which looks for the nearest neighbor toward the query measurement. The accuracy of the algorithm is in most cases good enough to accomplish the E9-1-1 requirements on tested data.

Tomáš Novosád, Jan Martinovič, Peter Scherer, Václav Snášel, Roman Šebesta, Petr Klement

Miscellaneous Topics in Digital Information and Communications

The Framework of e-Forensics in the Republic of Croatia

With the development of information communication systems and the services they provide, the complexity of the organization of information within information systems is growing. The complexity itself contributes to the increase in the number of electronic incidents and affects the high demands of forensic procedure implementation. It is estimated that in the near future the number of electronic incidents will outgrow the number of classical criminal incidents both financially and quantitatively. Due to the things mentioned above, early identification, discovering and taking legal proceedings against the perpetrator of an electronic incident are necessary. It is necessary to investigate all electronic incidents adequately and promptly and adapt the legal framework and laws related to e-Forensics. e-Forensics is a relatively new discipline within which there is a low level of standardization and consistency. With the purpose of increasing the quality of performing e-Forensics and presenting the evidence in a possible judicial proceeding one has to define the legal framework of e-Forensics. The analysis of current legal standards and methods used to perform e-Forensics is presented in the paper as well as the proposal of performing e-Forensics with defined procedures and methods.

Vladimir Remenar, Dragan Peraković, Goran Zovak

Knowledge Based Data Cleaning for Data Warehouse Quality

This paper describes an approach for improvement the quality of data warehouse and operational databases with using knowledge. The benefit of this approach is three-folds. First, the incorporation of knowledge into data cleaning is successful to meet the user’s demands and then the data cleaning can be expanded and modified. The knowledge that can be extracted automatically or manually is stored in repository in order to be used and validated among an appropriate process. Second, the propagation of cleaned data to their original sources in order to validate them by the user so the data cleaning can give valid values but incorrect. In addition, the mutual coherence of data is ensured. Third, the user interaction with data cleaning process is taken account in order to control it. The proposed approach is based in the idea that the quality of data will be assured at the sources and the target of data.

Louardi Bradji, Mahmoud Boufaida

Using Uppaal for Verification of Priority Assignment in Real-Time Databases

Model checking, as one area of formal verification, is recently subject of an intensive research. Many verification tools intended to check properties of models of systems were developed, mainly at universities. Many researches are also interested in real-time database management systems (RTDBMS). In this paper we show some possibilities of using a verification tool Uppaal on some variants of priority assignment algorithms used in RTDBMS. We present some possible models of such algorithms expressed as nets of timed automata, which are a modeling language of Uppaal and then some simulation and verification possibilities of Uppaal on those models.

Martin Kot

User Modeling to Build Mobile Advertising Algorithm

Digital signage is a form of electronic display that presents information, advertising and other messages. With the merge of mobile technology and exponential growth of broadcasting network, an overwhelmingly amount of digital signage has been made available to dissimilar consumers. This paper presents an algorithm based on Naïve-Bayes technique to build a user modelling to be used for recommending a suitable signage to customers. Our goal is to personalize signage by choosing the proper products to the proper customers. This way is promising to present an automated algorithm to create an adaptable content which can be exchanged more easily and the signs can adapt to the context and audience.

Mohammed A. Razek, Claude Frasson

Use of Multi-level State Diagrams for Robot Cooperation in an Indoor Environment

This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques were presented to analyze these diagrams by combining individual robots behaviors into a single finite graph describing a complete system. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and combine large probabilistic state diagrams. The paper also describes how to use probabilistic state diagrams to design and evaluate robot games.

Bogdan Czejdo, Sambit Bhattacharya, Mikolaj Baszun

VANET Security Framework for Safety Applications Using Trusted Hardware

Vehicular ad hoc network has caught much attention from researchers in industry and academia. Security is one of the main issues that must be addressed for successful deployment of VANETs. Many researchers have proposed security protocols and frameworks. Since no standards have been finalized as yet, much of the early research works regarding security has become obsolete. Efficiency and reliability are two of the core issues that need to be resolved. In this paper a security framework is proposed for efficient periodic and event-driven messages. Proposed framework uses TPM hardware to reduce processing time for secure messaging. Framework is based upon two major components i.e. smart utilization of symmetric and asymmetric security methods and a trusted grouping scheme. Furthermore, simulations were carried out to highlight the potential bottlenecks created by processing delays while using trial security standard for VANET.

Asif Ali Wagan, Bilal Munir Mughal, Halabi Hasbullah

Technology Resources and E-Commerce Impact on Business Performance

Many firms around the world have adopted E-commerce to enhance competitive advantage and business performance. E-commerce is now an important model in today’s business environment and is often considered a key dimension in generating a firm value, despite the fact that many firms still have difficulty generating the anticipated returns of E-Commerce technology investments. To date, researchers have attempted to develop range of strategies for E-commerce success but uptake in business environments has proven slow and inconsistent. In this paper we proposed a model that offers a strategic framework for generating value from E-commerce, using technology resources factors, IT infrastructure, IT-human resources to facilitate business outcomes. A regression analysis was performed on survey data from 243 Malaysian firms. Results indicated that technology resources are the key drivers of E-commerce and lead to better business performance.

Muhammad Jehangir, P. D. D. Dominic, Alan Giffin Downe, Naseebullah

A Mitigation Approach to the Privacy and Malware Threats of Social Network Services

In the past few years, there has been a substantial growth in the number of users who employ social network services (SNS) for communicating and sharing information with their friends. Notwithstanding many plus points of SNSs, they have some drawbacks which can be potentially misused by perpetrators for their destructive goals. Owing to a massive amount of personal data stored and exchanged on SNSs and the simplicity of gaining access to the vast majority of data using illegitimate methods like social engineering techniques, these services are highly vulnerable to privacy intrusion threats. Moreover, the tremendous number of users of SNSs and a variety of communication features provided by these services, make SNSs as a suitable target for virus authors to employ them for infecting users’ machines. This paper investigates threats, vulnerabilities, and risks that endanger privacy of SNS users. It also encompasses techniques used by cybercriminals for propagating malicious software (malware) and launching attacks against victims’ machines through these services. The paper eventually presents a set of recommendations to eliminate or mitigate the privacy and malware risks of SNS.

SeyedHossein Mohtasebi, Ali Dehghantanha

Cooperative Multiagents Detection and Beamforming with Spherical Array Sensors

In this paper multi-agents systems are presented as a new design paradigm that allows an efficient use of multiprocessor architectures and distributed systems architectures currently widely available and preferred. Moreover, in our case, multiagent systems will bring the concepts of artificial intelligence, collaboration principles, autonomy, proactive behavior and communications possibility. Adopting a multiagent approach on spherical array sensors for both sources detection and spatial filtering will provide several issues: simultaneous several signals acquisition, effective spatial filttering, optimal performance under the imposed environment circumstances and prompt reaction and treatment.

Belkacem Benadda, Fethi Tarik Bendimerad

New Method: Mapping of 802.11e into MPLS Domains, Conception and Experimentation

Mapping between two heterogeneous networks, Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and IEEE 802.11e is choice of future technology as it has ability to perform traffic engineering and create the corresponds between LSP (Label Switch Path) and AC (Access Category). This paper discusses the mapping between IEEE 802.11 MPLS integration to achieve quality of service on MPLS networks. MPLS and 802.11e is very useful approach for today’s internet to ensure the Quality of service the end to end. It talks about different approaches to map 802.11e Access Categories (AC) to Label Switched Path (LSP) and their advantages. It then introduces the concept of encapsulated LSPs to achieve future QoS, which requires further study to examine its practicability.

Jawad Oubaha, Adel Echchaachoui, Ali Ouacha, Mohammed Elkoutbi

Reusability Assessment of Task Knowledge Patterns through Metrics

Reusability assessment of patterns is needed to help pattern designers and pattern developers to check whether a pattern is well-designed. Hence, the outcome from the assessment can be used to improve the current patterns and also to reveal the potential of reusing the patterns in software development. This paper presents the reusability assessment of task knowledge patterns through the proposed metrics. This is a continuous effort to evaluate the potential reuse of the proposed task knowledge patterns for multi agent system development. The reusability assessment proposed in this paper further elaborates reusability assessment by synthesizing how to evaluate the genericity of a task knowledge pattern (aka. agent patterns) and its similarity to other patterns in tackling a particular problem. The hypothesis is that a pattern is reusable when it is descriptive and expressive. A case study will be presented to showcase that the outcome of the assessment can help to improve the effort to design the task knowledge patterns for reuse purposes. Furthermore, the outcome of the assessment allows the pattern developer to communicate their patterns in quantitative manner. The two main contributions of this paper are first, to determine the design quality of agent patterns and secondly, the introduction of a novel designs metrics for agent patterns and the process to assess the potential reuse of task knowledge patterns.

Cheah Wai Shiang, Edwin Mit

Personal Recognition Using Multi-angles Gait Sequences

This paper presents an automatic gait recognition system which recognizes a person by the way he/she walks. The gait signature is obtained based on the contour width information of the silhouette of a person. Using this statistical shape information, we could capture the compact structural and dynamic features of the walking pattern. As the extracted contour width feature is large in size, Fisher Discriminant Analysis is used to reduce the dimension of the feature set. After that, a modified Probabilistic Neural Networks is deployed to classify the reduced feature set. Satisfactory result could be achieved when we fused gait images from multiple viewing angles. In this research, we aim to identify the complete gait cycle of each subjects. Every person walks at difference paces and thus different numbers of frame sizes are required to record the walking pattern. As such, it is not robust and feasible if we take a fixed number of video frames to process the gait sequences for all subjects. We endeavor to find an efficient method to identify the complete gait cycle of each individual. In this case, we could work on succinct representation of the gait pattern which is invariant to walking speed for each individual.

Connie Tee, Michael Kah Ong Goh, Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

Performance Comparison of Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Algorithms for Towed Array Sonar System

Under water acoustic signatures can vary significantly under different environmental conditions. Finding direction-of-arrival (DOA) using towed array in under water environment requires algorithm robustness against variable acoustic signatures. The algorithm should be capable of performing source separation and localization extremely well in complex environments. Concurrently, the algorithm should not be much complex because it will be used in real time and systems needs to identify a target instantly. Array size is another important issue in target positioning because fewer sensors could lead to small size and require less computational cost.

In this paper, we present a comparison of the conventional direction-of-arrival algorithm with 2DFFT, MVDR and MUSIC algorithms for the purpose of finding DOA in underwater acoustics. The comparison would be focused on array size, source separation/resolution, signals type and complexity. We showed the DOA results of different algorithms on a simulated signal with given SNRs (Signal to Noise Ratio) and discuss issues such as resolution, computational complexity, and array size.

Hamza Qayyum, Muhammad Ashraf

Platform for Dynamic Adaptation of Learning Content for Pervasive Learning Environments

With the evolution and convergence of wireless technologies, mobile devices and sensors, the mobile and ubiquitous learning have appeared next to the e-learning. Far from being simple extensions of distance learning, they pose several challenges. Most of learning content used in learning platforms are built to be consumed on broadband networks and powerful terminals. However, technological advances have allowed their access over low-flow wireless networks, and terminals with limited resources such as ubiquitous and mobile devices. With this type of access, there is a strong need for learning content adaptation systems. Our work focuses on pervasive learning environments which are the new trends of distant learning and proposes to solve a big range of constraints posed by the use of various technologies in learning. We are interested in studying the various limitations of learning in pervasive environments and the development of a platform for dynamic adaptation of learning content, taking into account the challenges posed by the evolving learning context.

Amal Elhamdaoui, Mounia Abik, Rachida Ajhoun

A Theoretical Scheme to Implement MAC Protocols in VANETs Employing Cognitive Radio

Vehicular communications have the capacity to open up a plethora of service applications and most importantly, increasing road safety by providing warning messages. To enable these features, it is necessary to establish MAC protocols which not only offer good QoS and fairness but also address other concerns of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). As VANETs pose greater challenges compared to conventional Ad-hoc networks like MANETs, it is required to implement effective medium access schemes which address efficient use of spectrum, minimization of packet delay, as well as authentication, security and prioritized delivery of safety messages. In this paper, we study novel concepts of three recently proposed MAC protocols for VANETs. We provide a theoretical approach in implementing multiple MAC protocols for VANETs, which use cognitive radio technology, by combining some of the novel features proposed in the reviewed protocols.

Shankar Yanamandram, Hamid Shahnasser

A General Description of a New Character Recognition Process Based on Ontology

In this paper, we present a general description of a new character recognition process based on ontology, semantically annotated by a domain expert. Such process is based essentially on a matching step between two ontologies, the first represents a domain ontology, containing the typographical description of different characters represent an alphabet of a well definite language (Latin for example), the second ontology, describes the document in question in the form of concepts where each concept represents a grapheme located in a well-defined order in the document.

Hacene Belhadef, Aicha Eutamene, Mohamed Khireddine Kholadi

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