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This book constitutes the refereed conference proceedings of the 13th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services and e-Society, I3E 2014, held in Sanya, China, in November 2014. The 32 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: digital services, digital society, and digital business.



Digital Services

Customer is King? A Framework to Shift from Cost- to Value-Based Pricing in Software as a Service: The Case of Business Intelligence Software

With a shift from the purchase of a product to the delivery of a service, cloud computing has revolutionized the software industry. Its cost structure has changed with the introduction of Software as a Service (SaaS), resulting in decreasing variable costs and necessary amendments to the software vendors’ pricing models. In order to justify the gap between the software’s price and the incremental cost of adding a new customer, it is essential for the vendor to focus on the added value for the client. This shift from cost- to value-based pricing models has so far not been thoroughly studied. Through literature review and expert interviews, a conceptual model for customer-centric SaaS pricing, especially Business Intelligence & Business Analytics tools, has been developed. The model has then been initially validated by discussions with the top five software players in this realm and builds a strong basis for further theoretical inquiry and practical application.

Aaron W. Baur, Antony C. Genova, Julian Bühler, Markus Bick

Weibo or Weixin? Gratifications for Using Different Social Media

Social media has experienced great changes in recent years. Various social media platforms emerge and develop significantly. Why users choose to use some particular social media becomes a major concern. Through adopting uses and gratifications theory, this study aims to explore gratifications sought from using two popular social media: Weibo and Weixin. Data was collected by eighteen in-depth interviews and content analysis was conducted for data analysis. Results show that, seven gratifications could be sought from using Weibo: information seeking, social interaction, entertainment, pass time, self-expression, information sharing and social networking, while five gratifications from Weixin usage: private social networking, social interaction, convenient communication, high-quality information provided and information sharing. In addition, three general gratifications for usage of both Weibo and Weixin were identified: information sharing, social networking and social interaction. Implications of this study are also discussed.

Chunmei Gan, Weijun Wang

A Bibliometric Analysis of Social Media Research from the Perspective of Library and Information Science

A bibliometric analysis was conducted on social media research in journals under the subject category “Information Science & Library Science” of the Social Science Citation Index. 646 articles were retrieved using the term “social media” as a keyword to search parts of titles, abstracts or keywords of publications. The research performance and trends were analyzed with descriptors of types and languages, characteristics, countries, journals, authorships and author keywords. Results showed that, social media research steadily increased from the period of 2002 to 2013 and the annual publication output in 2012 and 2013 were almost half of the total. A total of 9,851 pages, 29,433 cited references, 1,540 authors and 3,740 citations were identified in all 646 articles, with the average per article of 15.25 pages, 45.46 cited references, 2.38 authors and 5.79 citations. Analysis of countries and journals suggested an uneven distribution of publications on national and journal levels. The USA attained a leading position by contributing the largest share of articles. UK, Spain and China were the other three top productive countries in total publications. 73.53% of the total articles were published in 25 journals with impact factors ranging from 0 to 5. More than half (51.24%) journals had an impact factor between 1 and 3. Journal of Health Communication with 2.079 IF had published the most articles. The most commonly used author keywords appeared in the articles were “social media”, “social network”, “Internet”, “communication”, “Web 2.0”, “blog”, “Twitter”, “Facebook” and “virtual community”.

Chunmei Gan, Weijun Wang

Understanding the Influence of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Outbound Tourists’ Visit Intention

The valence of online user-generated reviews is an increasing important antecedents affecting tourist’s decision with the pervasion of Web 2.0 and information and communication technology. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on outbound tourists’ intention to visit a destination through a dual-process perspective. A research model was proposed based on the dual-route theory of elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and theory of planned behavior (TPB). The research model was empirically tested with the data collected among the Chinese outbound tourists. The research results indicate that, tourist’s attitude towards a destination was positively influenced by argument quality of eWOM, and intention to recommend the destination before travel was positively influenced by attitude towards destination and source credibility of destination related eWOM. Outbound tourists’ intention to visit a destination was positively influenced by argument quality, attitude towards destination, and WOM intention. Several practical and theoretical implications are also discussed in the paper.

Ping Wang

The Role of Trust towards the Adoption of Mobile Services in China: An Empirical Study

This research aims to study the role of trust towards the adoption of mobile services in China. This study examined users’ adoption of general mobile services by extending TAM with additional trust-related constructs. Based on the literature review from previous research, a research model with 10 research hypotheses is proposed in the study. This research model is empirically evaluated using survey data collected from a sample of 373 subjects. Seven research hypotheses are positively significant supported, while three research hypotheses are rejected in this study. The results indicate that both perceived reputation and perceived structural assurance directly affects the consumers’ trust in mobile services. However, perceived environment risk does not have positive effect on consumers’ trust in mobile services. Another interesting finding is that consumers’ trust in mobile services does not have direct positive effect on users’ intention to use mobile services.

Shang Gao, Yuhao Yang

The Use of Lean Principles in IT Service Innovation: Insights from an Explorative Case Study

IT service innovation is often dependent upon the relationship with outsourcing vendors. In such situations innovation is a result of knowledge accessing and utilization between outsourcing provider and user. As a management thinking, the application of Lean principles can facilitate knowledge accessing and utilization to enable IT service innovation for the customer. Based on the knowledge-based view of the firm, we developed a conceptual framework to describe how Lean can drive IT service innovation within IT outsourcing relationships. This framework is used to analyze the use of Lean principles in an explorative case study of a service organization and its two IT outsourcing providers. The framework and the case study show that IT service innovation is an ongoing process. A clear strategic direction and learning environment are critical to achieve it. Applying Lean principles facilitates the learning behaviors and allows smooth communication on innovative ideas and in this way drive innovation.

Yiwei Gong, Marijn Janssen

Design and Implementation of Enterprise Office Management System Based on PHP

Using a network to manage enterprise office affairs is an important means of improving efficiency of the office management and achieving standardization for the enterprise business. The major technology about using PHP and MySQL to develop an enterprise office management system was illustrated in this paper. The contents including the realization of functional modules were discussed, such as: The foreground web page module used by employees, business management module, design of the database tables and web management technology of administrator. The system has features of full-featured, high-efficiency, advanced technology. The systems provide an important reference platform to help enterprise reduce management costs, improve internal management, and enhance competition in the market for comprehensive competitiveness.

Yuan Hao, Laihong Lu, Yuping Zhou

E-Loyalty Building in Competitive E-Service Market of SNS: Resources, Habit, Satisfaction and Switching Costs

Despite considerable efforts have been devoted to study consumer loyalty, there is a lack of knowledge concerning how online service loyalty is or can be established in a competitive e-service market, in which several major service providers coexist to compete for customers. In this study, we attempt to explore the industry environment of Chinese social networking service (SNS), and examine the association between consumer satisfaction and switching costs in building service loyalty. From a resource-based view, unique service resources of SNS (critical mass and supplemental entertainment) are examined regarding their potentials in enhancing consumer satisfaction, habit and switching costs. The results show that habit and the interaction effect of satisfaction and switching cost are the key determinants of SNS loyalty. Critical mass and supplemental entertainment directly or indirectly affect habit and switching costs. This study attempts to bring the thought of competitive environment into e-service loyalty research while new insights for e-service loyalty building in different market environments are discussed.

Yong Liu, Shengli Deng, Feng Hu

Rays of Uniqueness – Cloud in Multinational Organisations: Challenge to Traditional Business System Alignments

Cloud computing initiatives support multinational corporations in optimizing resource utilisation and at the same time provide ubiquitous capacity to satisfy expectations of users within it. However, research carried out in the early 1990s demonstrated consequences when there were mismatches between business and IT strategies. The advent of utility computing through cloud based resource development seems to have altered both the perception of IT resources as well as the expectations of their use. In this paper by using a resource based view of cloud computing we examine the nature of unique capacity development in multinational organisations. Evidence for the research was gathered through interviews conducted in two well-known multinational companies in the oil and natural gas and the car manufacturing sectors respectively. The lessons drawn in this research is likely to be beneficial for organizations implementing Cloud based solutions.

Amit Mitra, Nicholas O’Regan, Ximing Ruan

An Improved Signal Subspace Algorithm for Speech Enhancement

Most of the algorithms for speech enhancement are designed to improve the speech listening comfort. However the frequency spectrum character is destroyed seriously after the speech enhancement. To achieve better speech listening comfort with less frequency spectral damages, we present an improved signal subspace algorithm for speech enhancement. Compared with the traditional signal space method, the improved algorithm can decrease the Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) distance, an evaluation measure which means less frequency spectral damages to the voice and keep the voices’ intelligence at the same time. Besides, the method can enlarge the distance of the easily confused voices, which means the improvement of the voice recognition ratio. Thus we get the purpose of the speech enhancement. The improved algorithm is used in a speech recognition program and has a good performance.

Xuzheng Dai, Baoxian Yu, Xianhua Dai

The Key Algorithm of the Sterilization Effectiveness of Pulsating Vacuum Sterilizer

The relationship between the physical parameters of pulsating vacuum sterilizer and the piping system states is analyzed based on cluster analysis and interpolation approximation algorithm. The cluster analysis is performed first, followed by the interpolation approximation of the cluster data. The algorithm provides a comprehensive sterilization efficacy evaluation, as well a feasible method to analyze the states of the system.

Xicheng Fu, Mingcai Lin, Xingdong Ma

Study on Driving Forces of UGC Adoption Behavior in Service Industry: A Platform Feature Based Model

Nowadays, User Generated Content (UGC) influences consumers profoundly in their decision-making. UGC is more credible than advertising as common users generate it. The influencing power traditionally held by enterprises has shift to consumers dramatically. Current research mostly focus on the changes in consumer behavior after adoption of UGC, ignoring the source—factors that influence customers to choose and adopt certain UGC information, especially those related to social media platform features, emotion and attitude. Based on Information Adoption Model (IAM), this study introduces two types of trust and platform feature related factors to construct a new theoretical model, to comprehensively interpret information adoption behavior in service industry, aiming to provide theoretical contributions by extending IAM and according theory in new research settings.

Ying Hua, Jin Chen, Yonggui Wang

Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Diversity-Controlled

Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is a global convergence guaranteed algorithms, which outperforms original PSO in search ability but has fewer parameters to control. But QPSO algorithm is to be easily trapped into local optima as a result of the rapid decline in diversity. So this paper describes diversity-controlled into QPSO (QPSO-DC) to enhance the diversity of particle swarm, and then improve the search ability of QPSO. The experiment results on benchmark functions show that QPSO-DC has stronger global search ability than QPSO and standard PSO.

HaiXia Long, Haiyan Fu, Chun Shi

Modified K-means Algorithm for Clustering Analysis of Hainan Green Tangerine Peel

K-means is a classic, the division of the clustering algorithm, apply to the classification of the globular data. According to the initial clustering center, this paper comprehensive consideration the characteristics of various Hierarchical cluster algorithms and choose the appropriate Hierarchical cluster algorithm to improve K-means, and combined with Hainan Green Tangerine Peel cluster analysis of data which is compared experiments. The results indicate that the improved algorithm have increasing the distance between classes with each others, get a stable of cluster results and better implementation data mining. Finally to summary the two algorithms and the further research direction.

Ying Luo, Haiyan Fu

Digital Society

Perceived Significance of Improved Patient Data and Healthcare Services in the Formation of Inter-organizational Healthcare IT Governance

IT is seen as the means to develop healthcare and social welfare services for citizens and to improve the quality of medical and social welfare data. This is deemed to require better IT cooperation between organizations. My research investigates the formation of voluntary inter-organizational IT governance in healthcare and social welfare IT engaging over 100 organizations. Attention is placed especially on the perceived benefits of IT governance. Results suggest that concrete benefits are necessary for the formation of inter-organizational IT governance arrangements. The anticipated benefits of patient data improvement and short-term benefits were evaluated more important than the expected long-term improvements of healthcare and social welfare reforms.

Tomi Dahlberg

TAM and E-learning Adoption: A Philosophical Scrutiny of TAM, Its Limitations, and Prescriptions for E-learning Adoption Research

TAM and TAM derived theories have been very popular for investigating users’ e-learning adoption/post-adoption behavior. However, several philosophical holes as well as a number of limitations of TAM research have been pointed by several leading researchers in the recent years. In this paper, we discuss the philosophical holes and present our reflections and possible prescriptions about these holes while conducting research on e-learning adoption/post-adoption. We also discuss the limitations of TAM research and present prescriptions about how e-learning adoption research can be conducted by addressing these limitations.

A. K. M. Najmul Islam, Nasreen Azad, Matti Mäntymäki, S. M. Samiul Islam

The Overall Design of Digital Medical System under the Network Environment

The wireless sensing network technology, communication technology, password technology, etc. were adopted to carry out the overall design to the digital medical system under the network environment, in order to realize the functions of the remote medical diagnosis, health care, locating and tracking, emergency calls and first aid. In this paper, the design method of the community and personal digital medical system was expounded and the overall design scheme of the digital medical system was provided, including the function module design such as the user terminal system, safety call system, electronic medical records system, hospital information management system, diagnosis expert system and emergency center control system.

Yuping Zhou, Yicheng Zhou, Min Yu

Improving Physical Activity and Health with Information Technology

Physical inactivity and overweight/obesity kill 6 million people yearly [1]. Regular physical activity (PA) such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports has significant benefits for health and weight-loss maintenance. It reduces of the risk of diseases, e.g. diabetes, depression, or helps weight controlling. This one year case study explores how daily monitoring of objective PA and weight effects on body mass index (BMI) -value when the target is to achieve globally accepted normal BMI-value. The study aims to learn by cost-effective modelling how improvements in wellbeing and health on an individual level occur with the help of information technology gadgets.

Eija Koskivaara

A Novel Regional Cloud Digital Library Network Based on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

At present the digital library has entered into the period of cloud computing. The cloud digital library is a kind of virtual library, which is built upon Internet, and uses the cloud computing technology to provide services for readers. For the status and developing trend of cloud digital libraries, a regional cloud digital library network based on the mobile ad hoc network is proposed, the network architecture is designed, and its performance is evaluated by network simulation software NS-2. The result shows that the performance of the network is good, and it is feasible. The research result in the paper is valuable for the study and application of cloud digital libraries.

Zhiming Zhang, Wei Zhang

Process Design of Digital Platform for China’s Industrial Investment Fund

Nowadays, the Industrial Investment Fund is booming in China. Though it has achieved big success till now, there are still some key problems troubling the further development of Industrial Investment Fund. Two major challenges are the recognition of appropriate industries and also related companies. In order to solve such problem, we propose a design for the digital platform of Industrial Investment Fund. In the process of this platform, Web Text Extraction and Data Mining techniques are employed in order to help investors to make decisions in a Big Data Analysis manner.

Xuan Yang, Jin Chen, Yanbo J. Wang

Data Mining Challenges in the Management of Aviation Safety

This paper introduces aviation safety data analysis as an important application area for data mining. Safety is a key strategic management concern for safety-critical industries and management needs new, more efficient tools and methods for more effective management routines. The aviation field is confronted with increasing challenges to provide safe and fluent services. Air travel has grown steadily during the last decades with a direct impact on the air traffic control. At the same time, the competition has become tougher because of increasing fuel prices and growing demand for air travel.

Olli Sjöblom

Function Inverse P-sets and the Hiding Information Generated by Function Inverse P-information Law Fusion

Introducing the concept of function into inverse P-sets (inverse packet sets) and improving it, function inverse P-sets (function inverse packet sets) is obtained. Function inverse P-sets is the function set pair composed of function internal inverse P-set (function internal inverse packet set)


and function outer inverse P-set (function outer inverse packet set)


, or (




)is function inverse P-sets. Function inverse P-sets, which have dynamic characteristic and law characteristic (or function characteristic), can be reduced to finite general function sets


under certain condition. Inverse P-sets is obtained by introducing dynamic characteristic to finite general element set


(Cantor set


) and improving it. Inverse P-sets is the element set pair composed of internal inverse P-set


(internal inverse packet set


) and outer inverse P-set


(outer inverse packet set


), or




is inverse P-sets which has dynamic characteristic. In this paper, the structure of function inverse P-sets and its reduction, the inverse P-information law fusion generated by function inverse P-sets, and the attribute characteristics and attribute theorems of inverse P-information law are proposed. Using these theoretical results, the hiding image and its applications generated by inverse P-information law fusion are given, which is one of the important applications of function inverse P-sets.

Kai-Quan Shi

Digital Business

Classification of Customer Satisfaction Attributes: An Application of Online Hotel Review Analysis

With the wide penetration of Internet, online hotel reviews have become popular among travellers. Online hotel reviews also reflect customer satisfaction with hotel services. In this study we use online hotel reviews to classify the attributes of customer satisfaction with hotel services. The empirical data was collected via, the Chinese affiliated brand of online travel opinion website Based on text mining and content analysis, we found that the following seven dimensions are important attributes generating customer satisfaction with hotels: hotel, location, service, room, value, food and dinging, and facility availabilities. Finally we concluded on the research findings and also highlight the research limitations and future research directions.

Jian Dong, Hongxiu Li, Xianfeng Zhang

Research on Non-verbal Graphic Symbol Communication of Cross-Border e-Commerce

Promoting e-commerce in Southeast Asia and South Asia has language barriers. There are many languages in the region that have a very limited number of speakers. And not many ordinary people use English for their communication purposes. Online translation software does not include such languages like Burmese and Laos. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative methods for instant network communication. This paper explores the use of non-verbal graphic symbols for instant communication in the cross-border e-commerce context by borrowing theories and methods from linguistics, psychology, semiotics, graphic design and computer science to enrich this approach.

This paper designed and implemented three experiments: (1) the cognitive effect of non-verbal symbols and network graphical symbols experiment, (2) the cognitive efficiency experiment of non-verbal graphic symbols and a global language such as English and (3) a simulated communication experiment using graphical symbols. Experimental results show that designed non-verbal graphical symbols are recognizable can be used as media for simple communication purposes in e-commerce after some training.

This study has the potential to contribute to cross-border e-commerce by less educated groups of small regional language speakers. It may also contribute to special purpose communications as well as providing an embodiment of the need to use graphic expressions.

Yuhui Feng, Meiyun Hua

How to Set and Manage Your Network Password: A Multidimensional Scheme of Password Reuse

The rapid development of the Internet and highly decentralized network services, prompting the majority of Internet users continue to register more accounts, and cause a high incidence of password reuse, which makes the user information leakage risks facing the domino-style. Based on the data of Internet password leak door at the end of 2011 as well as the college students’ online survey, the paper analyzed the structural characteristics and reuse behavior of netizen passwords in detail, and thus designed a multidimensional password scheme that infused into the information dimensions and classified management. This scheme, based on the structure of "seed - reuse code", includes three dimensions: the content dimension contains multi-independent "information factor", which constitutes the main part of the password; the formal dimension is responsible for conversion formatting, in order to enhance the complexity and security of the password; and space-time dimension is targeted designed to protect the password timeliness and reusability. Through comparative analysis and quantitative analysis, the new password scheme not only has good memorability and convenience, and can effectively resist the violent attacks and acquaintances attacks.

Yang Cheng, Zhao Qi

The Analysis of Advertising Pricing Based on the Two-Sided Markets Theory in Social Network

The mushroom development of social networks has brought opportunity to the analysis of social ad pricing. On the one hand, compare with traditional ad pricing, social networks advertising pricing (SNAP) enables greater consumer surplus and profits to social network companies; On the other hand, reasonable SNAP can provide guidance to network users and advertisers and coordinate the interests between bilateral participants to maximize their behavior. In this regard, using the methodology of bilateral market, this paper firstly analyzed the conduct of bilateral participants to maximize the benefits of social network companies. Secondly, the paper investigates the characteristics of bilateral markets and social networks comprehensively and proposes the Relation-Intensity Model (R-I model) to measure the strength of social relation to optimal ad asking price. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion that the SNAP increases along with the growth of the number of users at first and performs a downward trend after the number of users comes to a certain value (threshold). Thus, the paper explains that after exceeding certain amount of users (a higher network clustering coefficient), the price elasticity of demand of advertising is relatively large, lower price for the enterprise can realize higher profits, i.e. the scale effect of advertising exceeds its price effect.

Qiongwei Ye, Zhang Qian, GuangXing Song

Enterprise’s Online Trust Crisis Management: A Life Cycle View

Online trust is the vital mechanism for the development of e-commerce, and the significance of online trust has become a consensus. Undeniably, an obscure message may be magnified indefinitely and evolve into the enterprise’s online trust crisis, which will affect the image of the enterprise, threaten the survival and development of the enterprise, or make the enterprise into a doomed situation that can never be recovered. We study the development phases of enterprise’s online trust crisis life cycle, and then put forward framework of enterprise’s online trust crisis management strategies based on the characteristics of online trust crisis life cycle, which may be provide some theoretical supports for enterprise’s online trust crisis management.

Yitang Zeng, Chunhui Tan

Young People Purchasing Virtual Goods in Virtual Worlds: The Role of User Experience and Social Context

Millions of young people spend real money on virtual goods such as avatars or in-world currency. Yet, limited empirical research has examined their shopping behaviour in virtual worlds. This research delves into young consumers’ virtual goods purchasing behaviour and the relevance of social context and usage experience. We assert that virtual goods purchasing behaviour is inseparable of the online platform in which it is taking place. We employ the concept of cognitive absorption to capture the user experience and examine the social context with three variables, the size of one’s in-world network, trust in the other users of the online platform and social presence. We test our research model with data collected from 1,225 virtual world users and use PLS in the analysis. The results show that virtual goods purchasing behaviour is predicted by cognitive absorption, perceived size of one’s in-world network as well as trust in the other users.

Matti Mäntymäki, Jani Merikivi, A. K. M. Najmul Islam

Insight into the Construction of Occupational Classification in E-Commerce in China

The great advances on e-commerce industry have tremendously promoted the development of Chinese economy and society. However, thus far, there has been a lack of a comprehensive occupational classification system of e-commerce in China, which has inhibited the further improvement of Chinese e-commerce industry. In this article, on the basis of current situations, we highlight the importance, summarize the relevant researches and learn excellent experience of constructing e-commerce occupational classification system, from China and overseas, and thus put forward the reasonable methods and contents of the construction of e-commerce classification system in China.

Xuewen Gui, Xiaolan Wu, Song Liu

Investigating Key Antecedents of Customer Satisfaction in B2B Information Service Firms

Service sector has grown significantly over the years and now is one of the major contributors of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of most of the developed and developing economies. Within the service sector, information economy has grown significantly with the rapid developments in the Internet and Communication Technologies (ICTs). However, the research so far has focused on the manufacturing sector rather than the service sector. This paper, therefore, aims to fill this void by testing the service management and Service Quality (SERVQUAL) theories in Businesses to Business (B2B) information services context. An empirical investigation with secondary data is carried out to explore the relationship between three key antecedents of Customer Satisfaction (CS) namely; Functional Service Quality (FSQ), Technical Service Quality (TSQ) and Corporate Image (CI). This re-search also aims to investigate the interrelationship between the three key antecedents of customer satisfaction. The findings show that FSQ, TSQ, and CI are positively correlated with customer satisfaction. Results also show that CI is positively correlated with TSQ and FSQ.

Vikas Kumar, Archana Kumari, Ximing Ruan, Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes, Supalak Akkaranggoon

A Research of Taobao Cheater Detection

This paper focuses on Taobao cheater detection. At present the phenomenon of fake trading is widespread in Taobao, which makes it difficult for consumers to distinguish between true and fake product reviews. To solve this problem, we collect a total number of 50,285 historical review data from 100 cheaters and 100 real buyers to create a dataset. By using these data, we extract 8 features from three dimensions that are reviewer, commodity, and review. Then we use the SVM algorithm to construct the classification model and choose the RFB kernel function, which has a better performance to identify the cheater. The precision of the final classification model we built to identify the cheater reaches up to 89%. The experimental result shows that extracting features from the historical review data can recognize the cheaters effectively. It can be applied to the recognition of the cheaters in Taobao.

Baohua Dong, Qihua Liu, Yue Fu, Liyi Zhang

Analysis of Two Methods of Systemic Risk Measurement Based on Option

This paper makes a comparison and analysis about those two main systemic risk measurement methods based on option. Through the comparison and analysis in 5 aspects, more knowledge about each method can be discovered including its advantages and disadvantages. Some conclusions about extensions of credit risk measurement methods can also be included in this paper.

Peng Wang, Mingjia Xie


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