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Ports—i.e., airports and seaports—are the main points of entry through which foreign intervention delivers aid into a country that is affected by a disaster. Affected countries are often developing nations, where transport infrastructure is limited and disaster management capacity is considerably lower than in industrialized countries. When developing countries’ ports suffer direct damage from a disaster or their processes are unable to handle the increased flow of needed goods in an effective and efficient manner, humanitarian aid delivery is delayed and disaster recovery is slowed down. This chapter examines the state of the art of port preparedness in research and practice, identifies gaps and suggests the Mission Dependency Index as a tool to address them.
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BVL International is a Germany-based logistics association where BVL stands for “Bundesvereinigung Logistik”.
According to Hofmann et al. ( 2013), this distinction is not universally applied in the literature, so you will find various terms being used synonymously for risk, like hazard, uncertainty, peril or exposure. For the sake of simplicity, we adopted the terms disruption and risk exclusively for this chapter.
Jereb et al. ( 2011) combined the ISO 31010 risk management process with the ISO 28000 international standard on security in supply chains in an online tool to support risk assessment. The tool is available online at: http://labinf.fl.uni-mb.si/risk-catalog/. Jereb et al. focus on risk assessment because they identified it as the single most important activity in the risk management process. ISO 28000 offers categories to hold risks, e.g. natural environmental events (storm, floods, etc.), which may render security measures and equipment ineffective. We do not pick up the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000 families in greater detail here but encourage readers to examine them in the light of this chapter.
Waters ( 2011) presents several techniques to identify risks, e.g. a general five-step procedure that systematically breaks down the supply chain into series of operations and analyses each of them, process charts, the analysis of past events with tools like cause-and-effect diagrams or Pareto charts, or the Delphi method.
To be precise, Husdal ( 2009a) speaks of sparse transportation network settings. In the case of ports, this situation is given though, as constraints apply to both transportation mode and transportation link choice.
The matrices and weighted coefficients have been determined empirically during extensive field-testing by Navy, Coast Guard and NASA facility engineers and managers. They may be directly applicable to the ports we are interested in or require tweaking, which could be examined by field-testing.
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- Disaster Management Capacity Building at Airports and Seaports
Teo A. Babun
James F. Smith
- Chapter 6
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