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Über dieses Buch

Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation describes the development and testing of a model that couples fluid-flow, deformation, friction weakening, and permeability evolution in large, complex two-dimensional discrete fracture networks. The model can be used to explore the behavior of hydraulic stimulation in settings where matrix permeability is low and preexisting fractures play an important role, such as Enhanced Geothermal Systems and gas shale. Used also to describe pure shear stimulation, mixed-mechanism stimulation, or pure opening-mode stimulation. A variety of novel techniques to ensure efficiency and realistic model behavior are implemented, and tested. The simulation methodology can also be used as an efficient method for directly solving quasistatic fracture contact problems. Results show how stresses induced by fracture deformation during stimulation directly impact the mechanism of propagation and the resulting fracture network.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Computational modeling of hydraulic fracturing can be used for stimulation optimization, long term production forecasting, basic research into fundamental mechanisms, and investigation of novel techniques. However, modelers face daunting challenges: a variety of complex physical processes, limited and imperfect information, and a heterogeneous and discontinuous spatial domain. Because of these difficulties, it is necessary to make trade-offs between efficiency, spatial resolution, and inclusion of physical processes.

M. W. McClure, R. N. Horne

Chapter 2. Methodology

The model described in this book computes fluid flow and deformation in a discrete fracture networks. As an input, the model requires a realization of the preexisting fracture network. The model has the ability to represent propagation of new fractures, but the potential locations of new fractures must be specified in advance.

M. W. McClure, R. N. Horne

Chapter 3. Results

A variety of simulations were performed using four test models: Models A, B, C, and D. The simulations were designed to test the accuracy, convergence, and efficiency of the simulator and to test the effect of a variety of simulation options. In addition, tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy and scaling of Hmmvp for hierarchical matrix decomposition.

M. W. McClure, R. N. Horne

Chapter 4. Discussion

In the Model A simulations, injection was performed at constant pressure (less than the least principal stress) into the center of the fracture shown in Fig. 3.1. The simulations ended when the entire system has reached the injection pressure. As in all simulations, matrix permeability was assumed negligible, so fluid did not leak off from the fractures.

M. W. McClure, R. N. Horne

Chapter 5. Conclusions

The modeling methodology described and demonstrated in this book is capable of efficient and accurate simulation of fluid flow, deformation, seismicity, and transmissivity evolution in large two-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Appropriate stress conditions and constraints on displacements are applied on elements depending on whether they are open, sliding, or stationary. Results are convergent to grid refinement, and discretization settings required for acceptable accuracy were identified. A variety of techniques that enable efficiency and realistic model behavior—such as adaptive domain adjustment, crack trip region adjustment, and the strain penalty method—have been developed and tested. The model can be used for direct solution of fracture contact problems in a way that has minimal memory requirement, excellent efficiency, and desirable scaling with problem size.

M. W. McClure, R. N. Horne
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