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Über dieses Buch

This is the second volume of a series of edited books whose aim is to collect c- tributed papers within a framework that can serve as a collection of persons in MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science). This is a continuation of the first volume that was published in 2008, again combining very ancient and very recent scholars in order to give not only an encyclopaedic character to this project but also to emphasize the significance of MMS over time. This project has the characteristic that the papers illustrate, by recognizing p- sons and their scientific work, mainly technical developments in the historical evolution of the fields that today are grouped in MMS. Thus, emphasis is also given to biographical notes describing efforts and experiences of people who have c- tributed to the technical achievements whose technical survey is the core of each contributed paper. This second volume of the project has been possible thanks to the invited authors who have enthusiastically shared in this initiative and who have spent time and effort in preparing the papers. The stand-alone papers cover the wide field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS. I believe that readers will take advantage of the papers in this book and future ones by supplying further satisfaction and motivation for her or his work (historical or not).

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

AL-JAZARI (1136–1206)

Ismail Al-Jazari, Arab inventor who is remembered for his design of water-raising machines and many unusual clocks and automata. His book entitled: “Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices” presents a whole range of devices and machines, with a multiplicity of purposes.

From all the presented machines, two are most remarkable: his famous elephant clock, which was by far the most sophisticated clock at that time and his invention of a water pump using a crank-slider-like system, which was the first known machine to use a crank.

Lotfi Romdhane, Saïd Zeghloul

Ivan Ivanovich Artobolevski (1905–1977)

Ivan Ivanovich Artobolevski devoted his life to the science of machines and to the creation of a theoretical base for the construction of modern and future machines which could improve man’s work and release him from tiresome, monotonous and unhealthy operations. He received enormous respect and authority in his Motherland and great recognition abroad as a talented scientist, organizer and also as a statesman.

Olga V. Egorova, Nikolai V. Umnov

Ludwig Burmester (1840–1927)

Ludwig Burmester was a nineteenth century German mathematician. His

Lehrbuch der Kinematik, Erster Band, Die ebene Bewegung

(Textbook of Kinematics, First Volume, Planar Motion), of 1888, contains the first far-reaching attempt at a synthesis of theoretical kinematics and kinematics of mechanisms. His most influential technical contribution is the Burmester theory which deals with four or five discrete positions of a moving plane. The goal of the Burmester theory is the synthesis of mechanisms. In the present paper, Burmester’s work is discussed against the background of the development of the theory of machines and mechanisms in the nineteenth century.

Teun Koetsier

Henry George (Harry) Ferguson (1884–1960)

This article reviews the life and significant contributions of Henry George (Harry) Ferguson, the pioneer of a system of farm mechanization which helped to revolutionize agriculture. Ferguson, see Fig. 1, was the inventor of the tractor that bears his name and which led to a partnership with Henry Ford and eventually to the Massey-Ferguson tractor. Ferguson was a philanthropist with a single-focus mission, the aim of which was agricultural production. During his lifetime it was this production which controlled the cost of living. As an employee of the Irish Department of Agriculture, during World War I, he supervised the operation and maintenance of the small number of tractors that were then in use. He came to the realization that efficient agriculture based on mechanization was the only solution to the problems of the world’s food supply. He devoted his time and energy to the development of equipment which he believed would reduce the cost of food production and the cost of living. His passion to mechanize farming to the highest degree, occupied most of his working life. He was a man with a never-let-up personal drive and had a love for building and tinkering with machines. Ferguson received some 100 patents on improvements in carburetors for internal combustion engines, improvements relating to tractor plows, and the means for coupling agricultural implements to tractors. He was a brilliant engineer who brought about a major change in tractor design with his revolutionary linkage, the three point hitch, that allowed both tractor and implement to work as an integrated unit. Today, virtually all tractors are based in some manner on the unique ideas of Ferguson.

Gordon R. Pennock

Juanelo (1501–1585)

Juanelo Turriano was a clockmaker, astronomer, mathematician, and a mechanical and hydraulic engineer. He worked for kings Charles I and Philip II during the Iberian Empire. His most important device was called the “Dancing Machine” and was built in the sixteenth century in Toledo, the capital city of Spain at that time, to raise water from the River Tagus to the city, 90 m above the river, with only the power of the water flow. He is also famous because he is supposed to be co-author of the “The Twenty-One Books of Devices and Machines of Juanelo Turriano” written in the second half of the sixteenth century.

Emilio Bautista, José Luis Muñoz, Javier Echávarri

José María Lanz y Zaldívar (1764–1839)

The Mexican José María Lanz y Zaldívar was one of the authors, together with the Spaniard Agustín de Betancourt, of the first book about industrial kinematics, dealing with mechanisms classification in a systematic fashion. The book, written in French, was published first in Paris in 1908 and later was translated to English and German. Furthermore, at the end of the eighteenth and the first part of the nineteenth centuries, apparently Lanz y Zaldívar played an important role in developing modern engineering in Europe.

Carlos S. López Cajún

Nicolae Manolescu (1907–1993)

Nicolae Manolescu is the founder of the Romanian school of Mechanism and Machine Science (MMS) and one of the IFToMM founders.Through his extensive scientific activity, he approached numerous MMS topics but, above all, he carried out studies on the numerical, structural and kinematic analysis and synthesis of the plane kinematic chains and of various degrees of mobility mechanisms, as well as on the kinetostatic and dynamic analysis of mechanisms. Throughout his entire activity he promoted MMS at national level and essentially contributed to the worldwide recognition of the Romanian school of MMS.

Theodor Ionescu

Francesco Masi (1852–1944)

In this paper, the figure and work of Francesco Masi is presented as an influent professor in the field of TMM in Italy. His main contribution, still of present-day significance, can be recognized in the rigorous systematization of Reuleaux’s classification of mechanisms together with an analytical approach for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. He was also a scientist and engineer in approaching design problems and teaching developments in mechanical engineering at large, and particularly in TMM, lubrication and machine drawing.

Marco Ceccarelli

Adam Morecki (1929–2001)

Adam Morecki contributed significantly to the advancements in several fields of mechanical science. He worked on the classification of mechanisms, developed the model of skeletal muscles co-operation, stimulated great progress in modeling and design of elastic manipulators and walking machines. The paper presents Morecki’s life, the history of his fundamental works, and the facts proving his contribution towards the development of mechanics.

Teresa Zielinska, Krzysztof Kedzior

Feodor Orlov 1843–1892

Professor Feodor Orlov was one of the founders of the Moscow School of Applied Mechanics. His activities from the year 1872 until his death in 1892 were connected with the two biggest academies: the Moscow University and the Imperial Moscow Technical School (IMTS). He had graduated at the Moscow University and then worked there as an invited professor at the chair of applied mechanics. The chair of Applied Mechanics of IMTS (now TMM) has existed as an independent educational department since 1872, in other words, since the time when Orlov began to teach his course. In 1868, the Imperial Moscow Technical Secondary School (IMTS) was by law confirmed as the Supreme Educational School. It had the following divisions: Mechanical, Chemical and Mechanical-Building. The academy status required an important rise in the scientific level of all courses. Orlov’s main course was that of applied mechanics, which he, according to the Great Russian mathematician and mechanician Professor N. Zhukovsky, was the best in Russia. Moreover, Orlov prepared and read courses about thermodynamics, hydraulics, steam engines and the resistance of materials. The creating of the mechanic collection in the Moscow University and the IMTS was Orlov’s greatest service. In the IMTS (today it is called the Bauman Moscow State Technical University), the main part of this collection, gathered by Orlov, is housed. Orlov dreamt about going in for abstract mathematics. But his financial position made him spend most of his time working with applied disciplines. However, he had written a number of unique mathematical articles. He was one of the founders of the Polytechnic Society and its vice-president.

Alexander Golovin, Valentin Tarabarin, Zinaida Tarabarina

Todor Pantelić (1923–1999)

By transforming fundamental theoretical solutions into functional mechanisms, Todor Lazar Pantelić became a pioneer of innovative structural synthesis. Most of his work evolved to the level of patents and industrial products. Professor Pantelić’s specialty was the four-bar chain in innumerable varieties such as walking, imprinting, and shutter mechanisms. The crown of his innovative work was the helical conveyor, theoretically established, patented, designed, and prototyped. Loved and admired by his students and colleagues, he made a point of introducing engineering talent and creativity into the science of machines and mechanisms. He was one of the founders of the International Federation for the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (IFToMM) and the first president of its Commission for Collaboration of Science and Industry.

Aleksandar Veg

Ferdinand Jakob Redtenbacher (1809–1863)

The rapid development of technology in the twentieth century, especially in the automotive and aircraft industries as well as machine tool and manufacturing engineering, is causally connected to the developments of the scientific principles of mechanical engineering in the nineteenth century. The transformation of mechanical technology from a mainly workshop-based profession into an engineering science, particularly in the area of design of machines and mechanisms, is closely related with the name of Ferdinand Redtenbacher. He was of eminent historical importance for this evolution of mechanical engineering to a technical science in the nineteenth century. Redtenbacher’s role as the originator of mechanical engineering as a science in Germany is fundamental and of general interest since the introduction of science into engineering is a “sine qua none” for the development of a powerful high tech industry. As a professor and the director of the Polytechnic School in Karlsruhe, Germany – today the University of Karlsruhe (TH) –, Redtenbacher’s influence therefore helped establish the German manufacturing systems engineering even today.

Jörg Wauer, Klaus Mauersberger, Francis C. Moon

Wang Zheng (1571–1644)

Wang Zheng was a Chinese official interested in machine design from a young age. In the 1620s, he became familiar with European missionaries and the knowledge they brought to China. Together with Johannes Schreck Terrenz (1576–1630), a German Jesuit missionary, he compiled

Yuanxi Qiqi Tushuo Luzui

(

A Record of the Best Illustrations and Descriptions of Extraordinary Devices of the Far West

) to introduce European mechanics and machines to China. This remained the most authoritative book on mechanics and machine design in China until the 1860s. Wang Zheng published two further books on machine design and constructed several devices himself. In 1644, he committed suicide because of the fall of the Ming Dynasty.

Baichun Zhang, Miao Tian

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