Skip to main content

2022 | Buch

Distributed Control and Optimization of Networked Microgrids

A Multi-Agent System Based Approach


Über dieses Buch

This book presents new techniques and methods for distributed control and optimization of networked microgrids.

Distributed consensus issues under network-based and event-triggered mechanisms are first addressed in a multi-agent system framework, which can explicitly characterize the relationship between communication resources and the control performance. Then, considering the effects of network uncertainties, multi-agent system-based distributed schemes are tailored to solve the fundamental issues of networked microgrids such as distributed frequency regulation, voltage regulation, active power sharing/load sharing, and energy management.

The monograph will contribute to stimulating extensive interest of researchers in electrical and control fields.


Chapter 1. Introduction
With the ever-increasing demand for electricity, the exhaustion of traditional energy resources (e.g., coal, fossil oil, gas) and environmental deterioration have been becoming the major concern for the modern society. This stimulates the rapid development of green and renewable energy resources. Undoubtedly, smart grids can provide a necessary and important support to realize the transformation of high-efficient, low-carbon and clean energy. Currently, many countries and regions such as China, the United States, Europe and Canada have invested mounts of human and material resources to develop such a novel smart grid. For example, in the “China Manufacturing 2025” plan, smart grids have been listed as one of key breakthrough strategic domains and become a critical mission for “Internet+Smart Energy”, aiming fundamentally to make a significant promotion of energy transformation and accomplish the strategic plan of energy development.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 2. Network-Based Consensus of Multi-agent Systems
This chapter is concerned with network-based distributed leader-following consensus for multi-agent systems. A network-based consensus control protocol under a directed graph is proposed, with which each agent can be remotely controlled via a communication network. A delay-dependent stability criterion for the multi-agent system is derived by constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with graph information. Then, by employing this stability criterion, a delay-dependent sufficient condition for the existence of network-based consensus controllers is formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which ensures that all the follower agents’ states can reach an agreement on the leader’s state. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 3. Sampled-Data-Based Event-Triggered Consensus of Multi-agent Systems
This chapter is concerned with event-triggered sampled-data consensus for distributed multi-agent systems with a directed graph. A distributed event-triggered sampled-data transmission strategy is proposed, which allows the event-triggering condition to be intermittently examined at constant sampling instants. Based on this strategy, a sampled-data consensus control protocol is presented, with which the consensus of distributed multi-agent systems can be transformed into the stability of a system with a time-varying delay. Then, a sufficient condition on consensus of the multi-agent system is derived. Correspondingly, a co-design algorithm for obtaining both the parameters of the distributed event-triggered transmission strategy and the consensus controller gain is proposed. Two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 4. Distributed Event-Triggered Secondary Control for Islanded Microgrids
This chapter is concerned with active power sharing and frequency regulation in an islanded microgrid under event-triggered communication. A distributed secondary control scheme with a sampled-data-based event-triggered communication mechanism is proposed to achieve active power sharing and frequency regulation in a unified framework, where neighborhood sampled-data exchange occurs only when the predefined triggering condition is violated. Compared with traditional periodic communication mechanisms, the proposed event-triggered communication mechanism shows some prominent ability in reducing the number of communication among neighbors while guaranteeing the desired performance level of microgirds. By employing the Lyapunov-Kravovskii functional method, some sufficient conditions are derived to characterize the effects of control gains, system parameters and sampling period on stability of micgrogrids. Finally, case studies on a modified IEEE 34-bus test system are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed distributed control scheme, showcasing its effectiveness, robustness against load changes and plug-and-play ability.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 5. Distributed Finite-Time Secondary Control for Islanded Microgrids
This chapter is concerned with distributed secondary frequency and voltage control for islanded microgrids. First, the distributed secondary control problem is formulated by taking both communication delays and switching topologies into account. Second, by using an Artstein model reduction method, a delay-compensated distributed control scheme is proposed to restore frequencies of each distributed generation (DG) to a reference level in finite-time while achieving active power sharing in prescribed finite-time regardless of initial deviations generated from primary control. Third, a distributed finite-time controller is developedr to regulate voltages of all DGs to a reference level. Finally, case studies are carried out, demonstrating the effectiveness, the robustness against load changes, and the plug-and-play capability of the proposed controllers.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 6. Distributed Resilient Finite-Time Secondary Control for Heterogeneous BESSs
This chapter addresses the problem of distributed resilient finite-time control of multiple heterogeneous battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in a microgrid subject to denial of service (DoS) attacks. Notice that, DoS attacks may block information transmission among BESSs by preventing the BESS from sending data, compromising the devices and jamming a communication network.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 7. Distributed Optimal Control of DC Microgrids with Communication Delays
This chapter is concerned with load sharing and voltage regulation in DC microgrids. In order to address this issue, a multi-objective optimization problem with tunable weighting coefficients is first formulated for DC microgrids. Second, a distributed control scheme, which only requires local communications among neighbors, is proposed to solve the optimization problem. It is shown that, the proposed distributed control scheme has remarkable advantages in improving reliability and scalability of microgrids.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Chapter 8. Distributed Energy Management for Smart Grids
This chapter is concerned with distributed energy management and control issues of both generators and loads, aiming to maximize the total social welfare which balances generation-side expanses, user-side payments, and transmission line costs. A distributed control strategy with continuous information exchange among neighbors is first proposed. It is shown that this distributed algorithm asymptotically achieves the global optimal power outputs on generators and the optimal electricity usage on loads.
Lei Ding, Qing-Long Han, Boda Ning
Distributed Control and Optimization of Networked Microgrids
verfasst von
Lei Ding
Prof. Qing-Long Han
Boda Ning
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN