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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on equality, inclusion, and discrimination within the English-speaking Caribbean region, specifically as it relates to employment, education, society, and the law. Though anti-discrimination laws have recently been enacted in the Caribbean, this, in and of itself, neither translates to societal changes nor changes within the organisational context. The authors examine racial diversity in public sector organisations in Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana, gender diversity in organisations across the Caribbean region, sexual orientation and its impact on employment, disability and access within organisations, and equality and inclusion within Caribbean institutions of higher education. Further, the book explores the region’s equality laws and compares them with legislation from selected developed countries. This interdisciplinary text provides researchers in HRM, organisational behavior, sociology, and public policy with an overview of the types of discrimination prevalent within the Caribbean as well as the varied institutional frameworks in place that encourage equality.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter offers an introduction to the concept of diversity, discrimination, inclusion and equality in the Anglophone Caribbean. One of the prevailing objectives in this ongoing discourse, is the reduction and/or elimination of disparate treatment or discrimination and embracing diversity. Discrimination in the Caribbean is prevalent primarily on the grounds of race, sexual orientation, sex/gender and disability. Although acceptance of stereotypes is one of the primary reasons for the perpetuation of discrimination, it can also occur as a result of a lack of knowledge about the target group; the adoption of cultural norms and a prejudicial pattern of practice. This book is important at this time, because there is a paucity of literature on issues of discrimination, inclusion and diversity in the Caribbean, further, due to the recent and limited enactment of anti-discrimination legislation in the Caribbean, there has been insufficient evaluation of their efficacy in prohibiting disparate treatment against marginalised groups. Moreover, this volume establishes a benchmark and detailed guidance for future researchers, legislators, policymakers and organisational practitioners.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 2. Race Relations in the Caribbean: The Myth of Representative Bureaucracy

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to examine the mechanisms by which ethnic groups are accommodated in the public sector of an ex-colonial, small island state, Trinidad and Tobago. It will be noted, that in the case of Trinidad and Tobago, like its neighbour Guyana, the nature of the economy, the demographic relations between and among groups, the settlement patterns, the size of the country, its position in the context of international politics and the nature of the stratification system all coalesced to determine the political as well as the administrative systems and structures. The paper will explore the extent to which each group has been represented within the broader public sector and will assess the mechanisms which have been introduced to allow for assimilation by the various groups.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 3. Equality and Discrimination on the Basis of Sex

Abstract
The focus of this chapter is the extent to which sex/gender is equitably perceived and included in organisations across the Caribbean region. Caribbean societies are largely patriarchal in nature. Hence, relative to women, men have more key political, organisational and societal roles. This may be attributed in part, to the region’s history of colonization and enslavement. Over time, these disparate practices have become social norms which are now imbedded across the islands of the region. The result is a dichotomy in relation to remuneration, opportunities for promotion and development, power and leadership. In an attempt to redress the balance in terms of remuneration, some Caribbean islands have also included sex as one of the prohibited grounds in their equality laws, implemented equal pay legislation and have become signatories to international conventions as it relates to gender equality.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 4. Sexual Orientation and Inclusivity in the Caribbean Region

Abstract
This chapter discusses the lack of inclusion (in Caribbean societies) of persons who identify as members of the LGBTQ community in Caribbean societies. The Caribbean is inherently homophobic, given the established expected patterns of behaviour in relation to gender groups, religious beliefs, heteronormative cultural norms and current legislation which prohibits same-sex conduct (and where lawbreakers can still be imprisoned or sentenced to capital punishment). The discrimination faced by members of this community, means that they face challenges in relation to gaining and retaining full employment and experiencing full integration in society The chapter guides readers towards the applicability existing equality/anti-discrimination laws and advances for consideration a change typology, which could potentially influence outcomes for those with a non-heterosexual orientation.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 5. Disability: Disparate Treatment or Inclusion in Caribbean Organisations

Abstract
The islands of the Commonwealth Caribbean have largely signalled their commitment to inclusivity and reduction of disparate treatment for persons with disabilities, by becoming signatories to international conventions intended to protect this marginalised group, and enacting legislation which also prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. In some island states the legislation provides for accommodations to be made by employers to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to suitable gainful employment and are not under employed. There are several prevailing stereotypes with respect to persons with disabilities which hinder their employment opportunities and result in their dependence on the state for support. The objective of this chapter is to offer a systematic review of extant empirical evidence in relation to these issues within Caribbean organisations.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 6. Politics and Inclusivity in the Caribbean

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to examine the extent to which the political structure and systems in two countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, namely Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana allow for the inclusivity of the different societal groups. To a large extent, the article argues that the two-party system which prevails in these countries even with different models of governments (in the case of Trinidad and Tobago, a Parliamentary system of Government and in the case of Guyana, a Presidential system of government) have promoted or enhanced arrangements in which the governing party supports a specific group and excludes other groups. It suggests that in order to allow for inclusivity by groups, including ethnic groups, there is a need to re-examine the political structures and perhaps allow for a quota-like arrangement which obtains in Fiji.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 7. Equality and the Law: A Caribbean Perspective

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of the equality laws that exist in the Caribbean, based on current statute that provides for equality or non-discrimination in a broad manner as well as for employment purposes. Apart from constitutional provisions guaranteeing equality before the law and equality at work, the existence of law addressing equality broadly in the Caribbean is not widespread, but focuses more on equality in the workplace. Only two countries have general equality legislation, namely, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, but only the latter has established an institutional framework to administer the legislation. This framework can be used as a model for implementation in other Caribbean countries. While existing equality legislation covers numerous grounds of discrimination, sexual orientation is notably excluded.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 8. Equality Laws Compared: The Caribbean, the UK and the USA

Abstract
This chapter presents a review of the general equality legislation of Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, the UK and the USA, to compare the Caribbean legislative approach to those of the selected developed countries. While the law in the Caribbean region is relatively new, it has not taken its cue from the laws of these countries. Research shows that such laws cannot be static, as social issues are constantly evolving and require accommodation as norms change. One key area where this is evident is in the prohibited grounds of discrimination protected by the law. In the Caribbean legislation, and to some extent that of the USA, sexual orientation and gender identity have been consciously omitted, due to prevailing conservative social mores.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 9. Liberalisation of Higher Education in the Caribbean: Situating Matters of Access, Diversity and Equity

Abstract
Across the globe, neoliberal regimes continue to impact higher education sectors. While often couched as borderless, transnational or global education, the ethos has been on the restructuring/reform exercises that alter governance structures, processes and practices within higher education (Olssen and Peters in Journal of Education Policy 20:313–345, 2005; Slaughter and Rhoades in Academic capitalism and the new economy: Markets, state and higher education. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2004). Central to this process is the logic of the market and policies that connect principles of new public management to those of performance, knowledge production and institutional governance (Olssen and Peters in Journal of Education Policy 20:313–345, 2005). While patterns of liberalisation have profound implications on how we govern and sustain institutions of higher education, it is also important to consider and situate issues of access, equity and diversity within Higher Education Institutions in the Caribbean. This chapter therefore presents a critical analysis of these globalising educational trends and the challenges faced by regional Institutions.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 10. The Challenge of Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Within Educational Reform: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago

Abstract
As an increasing concern among educators, policymakers and researchers (Ainscow et al. in Improving schools, developing inclusion. Routledge, London and New York, 2006), inclusive education agendas on a broad level, shoulder the hope that educational systems remain responsive to the diverse needs of all learners, cultures and communities. With some attention to issues of disability, diversity and inclusion across diverse groups, a central aim is to create all-embracing educational contexts that leverage unique backgrounds, skills, cultural experiences, forms of knowledge and to ensure participation and representation for different groups within the broader society. This chapter: (i) provides a critical discussion on how Caribbean scholars have attempted to theorise the structural inequalities and systems of power in Trinidad and Tobago, (ii) examines how these axes of power have affected the patterns, process and outcomes of educational reform and (iii) assesses the inherent gaps that obtain for securing inclusive educational agendas in the contemporary period.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Chapter 11. Conclusion

Abstract
This volume presents some useful starting points for thinking through current landscapes and complexities related to inclusion, equality and diversity. To do so, we attempted to situate these notions within an analysis of institutional contexts (e.g. education, labour market, government and legal systems), their histories, structures and relational dynamics that are (re)produced therein. By taking this evaluative stance, we affirm the need for critical reflections and actions that fundamentally address the gaps and deficiencies within broader inclusivity agendas, while advancing noted achievements, possibilities and potential threats that obtain within institutional frameworks. Hence, what unfolds throughout these chapters, are multiple perspectives and treatments of equality, diversity and inclusion that both contextualise and problematise the strategies for promoting inclusive societies within the Caribbean. While not exhausting institutional frames of analysis related to inclusion, the volume offers a useful starting point for more pointed theorisation and advancement of policy and advocacy that challenge discriminatory practices, whether on the basis of sex, gender, sexual orientation, disability, race, ethnicity or class.
Jacqueline H. Stephenson, Natalie Persadie, Ann Marie Bissessar, Talia Esnard

Backmatter

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