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We present a design of a complete and practical scheduler for the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) downlink by integrating recent results on resource allocation, fast computational algorithms, and scheduling. Our scheduler has low computational complexity. We define the computational architecture and describe the exact computations that need to be done at each time step (1 milliseconds). Our computational framework is very general, and can be used to implement a wide variety of scheduling rules. For LTE, we provide quantitative performance results for our scheduler for full buffer, streaming video (with loose delay constraints), and live video (with tight delay constraints). Simulations are performed by selectively abstracting the PHY layer, accurately modeling the MAC layer, and following established network evaluation methods. The numerical results demonstrate that queue- and channel-aware QoS schedulers can and should be used in an LTE downlink to offer QoS to a diverse mix of traffic, including delay-sensitive flows. Through these results and via theoretical analysis, we illustrate the various design tradeoffs that need to be made in the selection of a specific queue-and-channel-aware scheduling policy. Moreover, the numerical results show that in many scenarios strict prioritization across traffic classes is suboptimal.
Wernersson M, Wanstedt S, Synnergren P: Effects of QOS scheduling strategies on performance of mixed services over LTE. Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '07), September 2007 1-5.
Pokhariyal A, Monghal G, Pedersen KI, et al.: Frequency domain packet scheduling under fractional load for the UTRAN LTE downlink. Proceedings of the 65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), April 2007 699-703.
Shakkottai S, Stolyar A: Scheduling for multiple flows sharing a time-varying channel: the exponential rule. In Analytic Methods in Applied Probability, American Mathematical Society Translations, Series 2, A Volume in Memory of F. Karpelevich. Volume 207. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA; 2002:185-202.
Sadiq B, Baek SJ, de Veciana G: Delay-optimal opportunistic scheduling and approximations: the Log rule. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Joint Conference on the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '09), April 2009 1-9.
Shakkottai S, Rappaport T: Research challenges in wireless networks: a technical overview. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC '02), October 2002 1: 12-18. CrossRef
Holtzman JM: Asymptotic analysis of proportional fair algorithm. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '01), September-October 2001, San Diego, Calif, USA 2: F33-F37.
Borst S: User-level performance of channel-aware scheduling algorithms in wireless data networks. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Joint Conference on the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '03), March-April 2003, San Francisco, Calif, USA 1: 321-331.
Kushner HJ, Whiting PA: Convergence of proportional-fair sharing algorithms under general conditions. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2004, 3(4):1250-1259. 10.1109/TWC.2004.830826 CrossRef
Huang J, Subramanian VG, Agrawal R, Berry R: Downlink scheduling and resource allocation for OFDM systems. Proceedings of the Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS '06), 2006
Jang J, Lee KB: Transmit power adaptation for multiuser OFDM systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003, 21(2):171-178. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.807348 CrossRef
Hoo LMC, Halder B, Tellado J, Cioffi JM: Multiuser transmit optimization for multicarrier broadcast channels: asymptotic FDMA capacity region and algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2004, 52(6):922-930. 10.1109/TCOMM.2004.829570 CrossRef
Zhang YJ, Letaief KB: Multiuser adaptive subcarrier-and-bit allocation with adaptive cell selection for ofdm systems. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2004, 3(5):1566-1575. 10.1109/TWC.2004.833501 CrossRef
Yin H, Liu H: An efficient multiuser loading algorithm for OFDM-based broadband wireless systems. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM '00), 2000
Seong K, Mohseni M, Cioffi JM: Optimal resource allocation for OFDMA downlink systems. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT '06), July 2006 1394-1398.
Madan R, Boyd SP, Lall S: Fast algorithms for resource allocation in cellular networks. to appear in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Neely MJ, Modiano E, Rohrs CE: Power and server allocation in a multi-beam satellite with time varying channels. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '02), 2002 3: 1451-1460.
Neely MJ, Modiano E, Rohrs CE: Dynamic power allocation and routing for time-varying wireless networks. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '03), March-April 2003 1: 745-755.
Venkataramanan VJ, Lin X: On wireless scheduling algorithms for minimizing the queue-overflow probability. submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Sadiq B, de Veciana G: Large deviation sum-queue optimality of a radial sum-rate monotone opportunistic scheduler. submitted to IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Chen N, Jordan S: Downlink scheduling with probabilistic guarantees on short-term average throughputs. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '08), March-April 2008, Las Vegas, Nev, USA 1865-1870.
Shakkottai S, Stolyar A: Scheduling algorithms for a mixture of real-time and non-real-time data in HDR. Proceedings of the 17th International Teletraffic Congress (ITC '01), 2001
Agarwal R, Majjigi V, Vannithamby R, Cioffi JM: Efficient scheduling for heterogeneous services in OFDMA downlink. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '07), November 2007 3235-3239.
Lerida M: Adaptive radio resource management for VoIP and data traffic in 3GPP LTE networks, M.S. thesis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; 2008.
Wernersson M, Wänstedt S, Synnergren P: Effects of QOS scheduling strategies on performance of mixed services over LTE. Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '07), September 2007, Athens, Greece 1-5.
Gidlund M, Laneri J-C: Scheduling algorithms for 3GPP longterm evolution systems: from a quality of service perspective. Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications (ISSSTA '08), August 2008 114-117.
Lei H, Yu M, Zhao A, Chang Y, Yang D: Adaptive connection admission control algorithm for LTE systems. Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), May 2008 2336-2340.
Jiang D, Wang H, Malkamaki E, Tuomaala E: Principle and performance of semi-persistent scheduling for VoIP in LTE system. Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM '07), September 2007 2861-2864.
Choi S, Jun K, Shin Y, Kang S, Choi B: MAC scheduling scheme for VoIP traffic service in 3G LTE. Proceedings of the 66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), September-October 2007, Baltimore, Md, USA 1441-1445.
Wang H, Jiang D: Performance comparison of control-less scheduling policies for VoIP in LTE UL. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '08), March-April 2008, Las Vegas, Nev, USA 2497-2501.
Pokhariyal A, Monghal G, Pedersen KI, et al.: Frequency domain packet scheduling under fractional load for the UTRAN LTE downlink. Proceedings of the 65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), April 2007, Dublin, Ireland 699-703.
Ning X, Ting Z, Ying W, Ping Z: A MC-GMR scheduler for shared data channel in 3GPP LTE system. Proceedings of the 64th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '06), September 2006, Montreal, Canada 1-5. CrossRef
Kela P, Puttonen J, Kolehmainen N, Ristaniemi T, Henttonen T, Moisio M: Dynamic packet scheduling performance in UTRA long term evolution downlink. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC '08), May 2008 308-313.
Assaad M, Mourad A: New frequency-time scheduling algorithms for 3GPP/LTE-like OFDMA air interface in the downlink. Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), May 2008 1964-1969.
Beh KC, Armour S, Doufexi A: Joint time-frequency domain proportional fair scheduler with HARQ for 3GPP LTE systems. Proceedings of the 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), September 2008 1-5.
Al-Rawi M, Jantti R, Torsner J, Sagfors M: Opportunistic uplink scheduling for 3G LTE systems. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT '07), November 2007 705-709.
Calabrese FD, Michaelsen PH, Rosa C, et al.: Search-tree based uplink channel aware packet scheduling for UTRAN LTE. Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), May 2008 1949-1953.
Castellanos CU, Villa DL, Rosa C, et al.: Performance of uplink fractional power control in UTRAN LTE. Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), May 2008 2517-2521.
Anas M, Rosa C, Calabrese FD, Michaelsen PH, Pedersen KI, Mogensen PE: QoS-aware single cell admission control for UTRAN LTE uplink. Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '08), May 2008 2487-2491.
Andrews M: Instability of the proportional fair scheduling algorithm for HDR. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2004, 3(5):1422-1426. 10.1109/TWC.2004.833419 CrossRef
Eryilmaz A, Srikant R, Perkins JR: Stable scheduling policies for fading wireless channels. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 2005, 13(2):411-424. CrossRef
Zhou C, Wunder G: General stability conditions in wireless broadcast channels. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, September 2008 675-682. CrossRef
Andrews M, Qian L, Stolyar A: Optimal utility based multi-user throughput allocation subject to throughput constraints. Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Annual Joint Conference of the Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '05), March 2005 4: 2415-2424. CrossRef
Yavuz M, Paranchych D: Adaptive rate control in high data rate wireless networks. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '03), March 2003 2: 866-871.
3GPP TR 25.814 : Physical layer aspects for evolved universal terrestrial radio access (UTRA). http://www.3gpp.org/
3GPP TR 25.848 : Physical layer aspects of utra high speed downlink packet access. http://www.3gpp.org/
3GPP 25.896 : Feasibility study for enhanced uplink for UTRA FDD. http://www.3gpp.org/
3GPP2 C.R1002-0 Version 1.0 : CDMA2000 evaluation methodology. http://www.3gpp2.org/
Rappaport TS: Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA; 2002. MATH
Brueninghaus K, Astélyt D, Salzer T, et al.: Link performance models for system level simulations of broadband radio access systems. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '05), 2005 4: 2306-2311.
NGMN radio access performance evaluation methodology 2008.
Patil S, de Veciana G: Managing resources and quality of service in heterogeneous wireless systems exploiting opportunism. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 2007, 15(5):1046-1058. CrossRef
- Downlink Scheduling for Multiclass Traffic in LTE
- Springer International Publishing
- EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
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