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Given the rapid advancement of technologies in the automotive domain, driver--vehicle interaction has recently become more and more complicated. The amount of research applied to the vehicle cockpit is increasing, with the advent of (highly) automated driving, as the range of interaction that is possible in a driving vehicle expands. However, as opportunities increase, so does the number of challenges that automotive user experience designers and researchers will face. This chapter focuses on the instrumentation of sensing and displaying techniques and technologies to make better user experience while driving. In the driver--vehicle interaction loop, the vehicle can sense driver states, analyze, estimate, and model the data, and then display it through the appropriate channels for intervention purposes. To improve the interaction, a huge number of new/affordable sensing (EEG, fNIRS, IR imaging) and feedback (head-up displays, auditory feedback, tactile arrays, etc.) techniques have been introduced. However, little research has attempted to investigate this area in a systematic way. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances of input and output modalities to be used for timely, appropriate driver--vehicle interaction. After outlining relevant background, we provide information on the best-known practices for input and output modalities based on the exchange results from the workshop on practical experiences for measuring and modeling drivers and driver--vehicle interactions at AutomotiveUI 2015. This chapter can help answer research questions on how to instrument a driving simulator or realistic study to gather data and how to place interaction outputs to enable appropriate driver interactions.
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- Driver in the Loop: Best Practices in Automotive Sensing and Feedback Mechanisms
Anna K. Frison
- Chapter 11