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Über dieses Buch

This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter provides an introduction to driving cycles. Driving cycles are defined and classified with respect to each application and each application’s special attributes. A detailed discussion on the characteristics of each category (chassis dynamometer and engine dynamometer, modal and transient) is performed, with emphasis placed on cycle representativeness issues. Furthermore, the various metrics used to assess the technical properties and shortcomings of test cycles are detailed. The last part of the chapter describes the procedure followed when developing a test cycle; both the collection of driving data as well as the cycle construction techniques are discussed.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis

Chapter 2. Light-Duty Vehicles

Abstract
This chapter presents the most important driving cycles used for testing passenger cars and light-duty trucks, which are all of the chassis-dynamometer type. European, U.S., Japanese, Australian and worldwide modal and transient cycles are presented, including those intended for battery and electric vehicles, with graphic illustration of the speed profiles together with a detailed historical background. Main technical specifications are provided, as well as identification of the shortcomings, and representative results from real vehicles operation. An extensive comparison of the most important legislated cycles is also presented and discussed at the end of the chapter.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis

Chapter 3. Motorcycles

Abstract
This chapter presents the driving cycles used for the certification of motorcycles, which are all of the chassis-dynamometer type. European/UNECE (R40 and R47), American (FTP-72), Indian (IDC) and worldwide (WMTC) cycles are presented, with graphic illustration of the speed/acceleration profiles together with a historical overview. A summary of the main technical specifications is provided as well, along with detailed comparisons between the cycles, and results from real light-vehicles operation.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis

Chapter 4. Heavy-Duty Vehicles and Engines

Abstract
This chapter reviews the most important cycles used for the certification, and testing in general, of heavy-duty vehicles in the world. For trucks and buses, both chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles have been employed. The latter were initially steady-state but later evolved to a more realistic transient form. European, U.S., Japanese, Australian, Chinese and worldwide cycles are presented and discussed. A historic review regarding the development of each cycle is provided at first, together with technical specifications, 2D and 3D frequency diagrams, detailed comparative data, and examples from real heavy vehicles operation.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis

Chapter 5. Non-Road Engines

Abstract
This chapter reviews the cycles used for the certification of non-road engines/vehicles in the world, which are all of the engine-dynamometer type. A distinction is made with respect to whether the cycles are steady-state or transient. For the former case, standard ISO 8178 describes most of the relevant procedures; for the latter, the non-road transient cycle, NRTC, is the applicable test. Historical review, 2D and 3D frequency diagrams and comparative results are presented for all non-road steady-state and transient cycles developed over the years, combined with results from actual engines operation.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis

Chapter 6. Driving Cycles Test Procedure

Abstract
This chapter summarizes the most important features of the driving/engine cycles test procedure in the laboratory. A brief discussion of the type approval process is first conducted, followed by dynamometer fundamentals, analysis of the road-load equation and description of the coast-down procedure. The main part of the chapter is devoted to the exhaust emissions measurement using the constant volume sampling system, providing description of the facility as well as the basic equations for steady-state and transient testing during both vehicle and engine certification. Emphasis is placed on the procedures/equations valid in the European Union through UNECE regulations, which are also applicable in many other areas in the world; certain differentiations valid in the United States are discussed.
Evangelos G. Giakoumis

Backmatter

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