Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter summarizes the most important features of the driving/engine cycles test procedure in the laboratory. A brief discussion of the type approval process is first conducted, followed by dynamometer fundamentals, analysis of the road-load equation and description of the coast-down procedure. The main part of the chapter is devoted to the exhaust emissions measurement using the constant volume sampling system, providing description of the facility as well as the basic equations for steady-state and transient testing during both vehicle and engine certification. Emphasis is placed on the procedures/equations valid in the European Union through UNECE regulations, which are also applicable in many other areas in the world; certain differentiations valid in the United States are discussed.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Mock P, German J. The future of vehicle emissions testing and compliance—How to align regulatory requirements, customer expectations, and environmental performance in the European Union. ICCT White Paper, Nov 2015.
Heinfellner H, Konrad C, Lichtblau G, Schodl B, Stranner G, Winter R. Legal obligations relating to emission measurements in the EU automotive sector. Directorate General for Internal Policies, IP/A/EMIS/2016-02, June 2016.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website. https://www3.epa.gov/. Accessed 6 Aug 2016.
Martyr AJ, Plint MA. Engine testing: the design, building, modification and use of powertrain test facilities. 4th ed. Oxford: Butterworh-Heineman; 2012.
Killedar JS. Dynamometer: theory and application to engine testing. Xlibris; 2012.
Gillespie TD. Fundamentals of vehicle dynamics. Warrendale PA: SAE International; 1992. CrossRef
Wong JY. Theory of ground vehicles. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley; 2001.
UNECE Regulation No. 83. Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the emission of pollutants according to engine fuel requirements. Date of entry into force: 16 Oct 1995.
Kühlwein J. The impact of official versus real-world road loads on CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption of European passenger cars. ICCT White Paper, May 2016.
Kadijk G, Ligterink N. Road load determination of passenger cars. TNO Report 2012 R10237, Oct 2012.
Global Technical Regulation No. 15. Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure. Established in the Global Registry on 12 Mar 2014.
SAE J1263. Road load measurement and dynamometer simulation using coastdown techniques. Revised Mar 2010.
SAE J2263. Road load measurement using onboard anemometry and coastdown techniques. Revised Dec 2008.
SAE J2264. Chassis dynamometer simulation of road load using coastdown techniques. Revised Jan 2014.
Commission delegated regulation (EU) No 134/2014 of 16 Dec 2013 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 168/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to environmental and propulsion unit performance requirements and amending Annex V thereof.
Global Technical Regulation No. 2. Measurement procedure for two-wheeled motorcycles equipped with a positive or compression ignition engine with regard to the emission of gaseous pollutants, CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption. Established in the Global Registry on 22 June 2005.
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines. Federal Register Vol. 35, No. 219, 10 Nov 1970.
Council Directive 83/351/EEC of 16 June 1983 amending Council Directive 70/220/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by gases from positive-ignition engines of motor vehicles.
Maricq MM. Exhaust emissions. In: Crolla D, Foster DE, Kobayashi T, Vaughan N, editors. Encyclopedia of automotive engineering. Wiley; 2014.
Council Directive 91/441/EEC of 26 June 1991 amending Directive 70/220/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles.
Merkisz J, Pielecha J, Radzimirski S. New trends in emission control in the European Union. Springer tracts on transportation and traffic, Vol. 4. Cham: Springer; 2014.
Engeljehringer K. Passenger car emission regulations. AVL-List GmbH, AVL-Italy Tech-day, Bologna, 21 Oct 2014.
Ladommatos N, Zhao H. Engine combustion instrumentation and diagnostics. Warrendale PA: SAE International; 2001.
Giechaskiel B, Maricq M, Ntziachristos L, Dardiotis C, Wang X, Axman H, et al. Review of motor vehicle particulate emissions sampling and measurement: from smoke and filter mass to particle number. J Aerosol Sci. 2014;67:48–86. CrossRef
Majerczyk A, Radzimirski S. Analysis of measurement errors of CVS method used for tests of pollutant emissions from light-duty vehicles. J Kones Powertrain Transp. 2013;20:253–9. CrossRef
Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 of 18 July 2008 implementing and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information.
Berg W. Legislation for the reduction of exhaust gas emissions. In: Gruden D, editor. The handbook of environmental chemistry, Vol. 3, Traffic and environment. Berlin: Springer; 2003. p. 175–253.
Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 of 10 March 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 6).
Global Technical Regulation No. 4. Test procedure for compression-ignition (C.I.) engines and positive-ignition (P.I.) engines fuelled with natural gas (NG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with regard to the emission of pollutants. Established in the Global Registry on 15 Nov 2006.
Global Technical Regulation No. 11. Engine emissions from agricultural and forestry tractors and from non-road mobile machinery. Established in the Global Registry on 12 Nov 2009.
Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 of 25 May 2011 implementing and amending Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and amending Annexes I and III to Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.
Engeljehringer K. Emission: heavy-duty and off-road—emission test systems. AVL-List GmbH, 2010.
ISO 16183:2002. Heavy duty engines—measurement of gaseous emissions from raw exhaust gas and of particulate emissions using partial flow dilution systems under transient test conditions, Dec 2002.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 9, 69, et al. Control of emissions of air pollution from nonroad diesel engines and fuel; Final rule, Federal Register Vol. 69, No. 124, 29 June 2004.
Directive 2005/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 September 2005 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression-ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive-ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles.
ISO 8178-4:2007. Reciprocating internal combustion engines—exhaust emission measurement—Part 4: steady-state test cycles for different engine applications, Dec 2007.
- Driving Cycles Test Procedure
Evangelos G. Giakoumis
- Chapter 6
in-adhesives, MKVS, Neuer Inhalt/© Zühlke, Technisches Interface Design/© scyther5 | Getty Images | iStock