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Modern technologies are central to creation of wealth through business expansion leading to economic development. This is visible in the fast-paced technology-induced economic growth experienced by most countries, especially by rapidly growing economies such as India, China, Brazil, South Korea, among others. Increasing individual scientific contribution, nurturing entrepreneurial talent, promoting innovative competence, strategically prioritizing and investing in technologies and enhancing national economic wealth are some of the important Technology Management goals. Technology Management has emerged as a strategic and knowledge domain of interest to academicians, practitioners, and policy makers across the globe. Technology Management has also evolved into an inter-disciplinary concern which requires national and international collaborations and exchange of insights. Keeping this objective in mind the International Conference on Technology Management is organized by the Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, a leader in research and education in Technology Management for the last several decades. This conference aims at integrating experiences of academicians, industry leaders, Technology Managers and Innovators towards effective knowledge creation and economic development. The contributions of the present volume are presented at the International Conference on Technology Management-2012 during 18-20 July 2012.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Technology and Emerging Markets

Frontmatter

Innovation Objectives, Strategies and Firm Performance: A Study of Emerging Market Firms

Emerging market firms pursue multiple innovation objectives to counter the effects of environmental complexity and uncertainty. The innovation objectives so selected define the innovation strategy adopted by the firm. Innovation strategies however are characterised by innovation objective trade-offs based on a collection of positively and negatively impacted objectives. The research identifies the various trade-off baskets for each innovation strategy and the impact of these strategies on the innovation performance of the firm. Firms can accordingly balance the positively and negatively impacted objectives by carefully selecting a suitable strategy and achieve superior innovation performance.

Aniruddha

Technology for Rural Market Development

Modern technology is one of the important mediums for economic development which is visible through fast-paced technology-induced economic growth in most of the parts of rural India which could be possible through entrepreneurial talent. This chapter focuses on established technology-based initiatives to investigate the association of these efforts with the rural market development so as to propose information and communication technology as a viable mode for analysing rural markets on the one hand and as an effective tool to develop rural markets through augmenting conventional marketing strategies on the other hand. This chapter follows a case study approach which focuses on information and communication technology development at Charba village (Dehradun, Uttarakhand), an initiative by SIIRD (Students’ Initiative for Integrated Rural Development), IIT Roorkee, and finds out its association with economic development and finally rural market development.

V. K. Nangia, Vinay Sharma, Anita Sengar, Ritika Mahajan

Bridging Digital Divide and Capacity Building in Rural India

Information and communication technology (ICT) is growing exponentially by offering numerous public services which is expected to integrate rural development. There is a conjecture that ICT-enabled application and digital inclusion may strive to integrate digital divide and capacity building by providing more opportunities for entrepreneurial activities in rural areas. Consequently, the digital divide has many dimensions and can be categorised as global, regional, national, rural and urban. However, disparities are observed among geographical areas in the diffusion of ICT that affect not only global digital divide but also regions within a country, that is, rural-urban digital divide. The problem is more visible in emerging countries like India where success in ICT and emerging areas of technologies is restrained. Therefore, in this chapter, an attempt is made to explore the ways how ICT can be helpful for capacity building and contribute to develop locally relevant content for ICT users in India.

Shailaja Rego, Naresh Kumar, P. N. Mukherjee

Considerations About How to Eliminate the Technological Backwardness of Latin America

This chapter deals with the relation between geographical characteristics of Latin America and the occurrence of innovations. Although representing about 9% of the world population, Latin America accounts for only 1.2% of total global investment in science and technology. If we consider production of patents participation is even lower. The objective of this chapter is to analyze the reasons for this backwardness and to show that there are historical reasons for this. The approach of this chapter is to observe the largest local companies of the region. This chapter dedicates attention to the institutional aspects as well.

Paulo R. Feldmann

Technology Management

Frontmatter

Technology Management to Accelerate Competitiveness Journey: Exploratory Case of a Renewable Energy Focal Firm from India

Several firms from India are trying to climb to higher stages in competitiveness journey. The key objective of this chapter is to identify characteristics of the phenomenon of “technological gap vicious loop” taking case of focal firms in an emerging industry in India. For this, an exploratory case study approach is adapted. The firm for the case study, Moser Baer India Limited (MBIL), was selected carefully. We use secondary data to make sense of situation, actors, and processes as part of SAP-LAP framework. The elements of the phenomenon are characterized and areas for further are work listed.

Kirankumar S. Momaya, S. Chachondia

Assessment of Technology in the View of Sustainability and Capability Approach: A Case-study of Home Inverters

This chapter presents a methodology to assess technology in view of sustainability. As a designer/policymaker, it is crucial to have an informed perception on any technology/product meant for society. In successfully designing and strategizing a technology/product for a given market, it is crucial to assess relevant societal, environmental, and economic impacts. Simply put, sustainability in view of any technology would gauge the health of the system (society) with and without that technology. However, the societal, environmental, and economic implications are intertwined and require a systems approach to tackle. Recognizing the fact that the human dimension is central in the introduction/adoption of any technology, the capability approach aims to further integrate human capabilities with technology interventions for sustainability. A methodology, with a working case study of home inverters, to evaluate a technology/product in view of sustainability has been proposed, discussed, and presented in this chapter.

Pramod Khadilkar, Monto Mani

Design-Technology and Sustainability

The chapter explores the use, purpose and appropriateness of technology in the design process. From a sustainability perspective, factors such as diversity, creativity and skill are fundamental for innovation (competition and survival). In addition to formalizing guidelines for the role of technology in the design process, the chapter discusses the role of both the designer and the design-technology in the co-operative complex involved in generating, capturing and storing ideas. In addition, capability approach has been adopted to discern this relationship further.

Sudhir Rama Murthy, Monto Mani

Technology Management Issues in the Indian Medical Devices Industry: A Morphological Analysis

New technology products are continuously replacing the older ones especially in medical devices. The time interval between successive technologies of medical devices is less. This reduces the impact of new technology in terms of adoption, product effectiveness and efficiency. Organizations face tighter targets with respect to new technology introduction due to lack of developmental time. Stringent government regulations further concern the medical device industry in terms of new technology selection, product development and effective diffusion. A systematic approach towards technology development helps the medical device industry to foresee the issues related to technology with respect to policy planner, manufacturer and user. Morphological analysis is employed in this chapter to discuss the possible issues of Indian medical device industry from the perspective of policy planners, manufacturers and users.

Ananthavalli Ramesh, L. Prakash Sai

Managing Innovation in Perceived Low-Tech Industries: A Review of the Technology Management Practices of the Fish Processing Industry of Newfoundland and Labrador

Typically, the fishing and fish processing industry has been considered less dynamic than other resources-dependent R&D-intensive industries such as the offshore oil industry (OECD, OECD science, technology and industry outlook 2006. OECD, Paris, 2006). Nonetheless, some “low-tech” industries have become capital intensive (Von Tunzelmann and Acha, Innovation in “Low-Tech” industries. In: Fagerberg J, Mowery D, Nelson (eds) The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 406–430, 2005; Robertson and Smith, Distributed knowledge bases in low-and medium-technology industries. In: Hirsch-Kreinsen H, Jacobson D (eds) Innovation in low-tech firms and industries. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 93–116, 2008). We believe this is the case for the fishing industry in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), for which factors such as labour availability and cost, strong international competition, availability of fishing resources, etc. are transforming the way the industry conducts business. This chapter is aimed to present a case study-based, qualitative report of the implications and effects of product innovation, process innovation, systems’ integration and the need to rethink the management of technological innovations for the so-called low-tech industries. For these purposes, the authors will present two case studies. The first focuses on the innovative efforts to automate the production process for seafood and fish. The second concentrates on the management of innovation of fisheries supply chains, specifically the transportation of livestock to the point of sale by considering the use of electronic tags and wireless networks. The results of the chapter will provide guidelines for future research projects, since the fisheries industry has been deemed essential in the strategic economic development plan by the provincial government of NL and the Canadian federal government.

Christian E. Coronado Mondragon, Adrian E. Coronado Mondragon

Technology and Development

Frontmatter

Role of Technology Management in Development

The governments and development agencies around the world have focused on achieving development by targeting on poverty reduction for more than two decades. Development, however, is multifaceted and goes beyond increases in income levels to incorporate human welfare by enhancing people’s choices and their substantive freedoms by providing both social and economic opportunities. While poverty is widespread in India, a study done by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative concludes that Uttar Pradesh state had the fifth last Multidimensional Poverty Index rank in 2007 in the Indian states having 69.9% of its total population living under poverty. Lucknow District, taken up as the study area, demonstrates that due to technological disparities, infrastructural lags and lack of economic and social opportunities in the rural areas, the city becomes a hub for immigration. Government with the help of private enterprises, management agencies and NGOs can directly aid the situation through technology management projects, targeted at the grass roots and then upscaled, that can be beneficial in enhancing income opportunities through capacity building and focused knowledge dissemination, resulting in standardised, consistent and quality production, while the intervention of the private sector for these setups can be utilised for infrastructure provisions against the profit incentives, thereby resulting in a better quality of life, higher economic choices and higher income levels of the rural inhabitants.

Niruti Gupta, V. Devadas

Role of IT to Encounter Rising Food Inflation

An analysis of India’s food supply chain, rising inflation, and a suggestion how information technology can be leveraged to become a potential solution to these problems is conceptualized in this chapter. Causes of inflation are analyzed, and among them, the main causes considered are increase in wastage due to inefficient supply chain and farm production not linked to market demand. There is a reference to Canadian Wheat Board, where an efficient supply chain planning and management system has been implemented.

This chapter proposes a solution that leverages information technology in the field of statistical forecasting and supply chain optimization.

Gururaman Subramanian, Kanishka Maheshwari, Ashish Kaushik

Achieving Dynamic Capability Through Collaborative ICT Infrastructure: A Strategic Driver for SMEs in Emerging Economies

Increasingly, small and medium enterprise firms (SMEs) in emerging economies are partnering with large multinational firms within a ‘service value network (SVN)’. Moreover, these firms are short of resources such as human capital, financial capital and know-how, which are essential for innovation, development of new technologies and maintaining sustainable competitive advantage. This chapter draws on existing constructs on collaborative organisational infrastructure (COI), collaborative architecture management (CAM) and information technology infrastructure flexibility (ITIF) from extant literature to demonstrate the importance of governance, leadership, information and communication technologies (ICT) infrastructure and business IT infrastructure flexibility in achieving effective collaborative entrepreneurial alertness (CEA). In particular, this chapter theoretically postulates the flow-on effects of partnering in an SVN fostering entrepreneurial alertness (EA) capability on individual SME firms’ capability.

Shahriar Sajib, Renu Agarwal

Innovation and Economic Performance of Ancillary SMES: An Empirical Analysis

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) need to enhance their performance to survive and grow in the era of globalisation, and innovation is one of the main factors for achieving this. This chapter examines the nature of innovations carried out by ancillary SMEs in the Indian automobile industry and how these innovations contribute to their economic performance. SMEs were able to achieve significant innovations in terms of new product developments, product modifications, process improvements and raw material selection where as their innovations related to R&D allotment were average only. Analysis using multiple regression model revealed the positive contribution of innovation, along with labour for enhancing economic performance of SMEs. Quantile regression analysis showed that SMEs having high economic productivity tend to make more of use their innovations for economic performance than SMEs with average economic productivity.

R. Sudhir Kumar

Technology and Sustainability

Frontmatter

Survival and Growth Strategies for Small- and Medium-Scale Enterprises in India: A Key for Sustainable Development

MSME is a key enterprise for employment, entrepreneurship and economic development in India. Globalisation brought challenges in the small- and medium-scale enterprises to adopt research practices for survival and facing competition with multinationals to sustain competitiveness through lower cost and quality, creating opportunities for growth by innovative ideas and upgradation of technology. This chapter focuses on to develop sustainable development through technological innovation in small- and medium-scale enterprise which has received attention from the government entrepreneurs in the country. Secondly, this explores the Cartel model in food processing units, ayurvedic plants and tribal handicrafts. Thirdly, this chapter provides a viable solution which aims on transferring of skills for facilitating research and development and reward system for the innovator and successor.

Ravindra Tripathi, Rajesh Kumar Shastri, Sweta Agarwal

Technologies for Social Goods, Latest Trends

Innovation is all around us. We are, we are told, experiencing massive changes reflecting the impact of new technologies, of globalization, of a whole new order. Lifelong learning is at the very center of this new agenda, as encapsulated in the first paragraph of the introduction.

Change in higher education is thus driven by a number of forces including the demands of employers, government policy initiatives, and attempts by “teachers” in universities to meet the changing needs of students and to reflect the changing nature of their subject matter. But inertia, or resistance to change, is also heavily supported by a range of factors. For certain institutions, the nature of their intake has remained more or less constant, the demands of employers fairly distant and the temptations of government-advocated reforms generally resistible, despite the necessity of some token effort. The higher education sector is, of course, highly differentiated, with the obvious divide between “new” and “old” universities (pre- and post-1992). However, there are also divisions within institutions and even within departments. Even in the most research-oriented of old universities, there are lecturers who see themselves primarily as having a teaching role, and in the most progressive of new universities, aiming at becoming student-centered learning centers, there are those who strongly aspire to international levels of research excellence. For many “academics,” a term which they would much prefer to “teachers,” their subject remains paramount and their expertise is measured by their research output rather than the quality of learning experienced by their students. Nevertheless, one of our second-phase case studies was of a research-oriented “old” university that had developed a very strong teaching and learning strategy, with a high level of innovation well supported by external funding.

The creativity, energy, enthusiasm, innovative techniques, modern thinking, and approach with positive attitude of the youth can be channeled correctly with ICT, with young people becoming the catalyst of the changes they attempt to manifest. ICT also provides websites like You Tube, MySpace, Face book, and Twitter.

The present study is an attempt to make the higher authorities or management to initiate the best practices in their educational institutions to explore and exploit ICT to enable them having far-reaching developmental changes in education, students, teachers, and society as a whole, under their leadership for the progress of their nations.

Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid change across continents and communities, due to the global belief in the crucial role of ICT, in bringing youth empowerment through education, market dynamics, business, and social environments. This is a clarion call to business schools and educational bodies to train and involve the youth and let them evolve as the pioneers with the aid of ICT. This will emphasize the awareness in them echoed by its mission statement, that is, “

Harnessing Internet Technology to cultivate youth leadership and engagement in societal issues, bridging the community gap that causes the fragmentation between and within the generations of youth movements and championing the role of young people as key stakeholders in all aspects of society.

Neha Jain

Analytical Approach on Economic Development in India Focusing on Strategies for Application of Technology

The aim of this chapter is to evolve strategies for economic development to bring down inequality in the society by justifying the importance of application of technology in the economy system effectively for reorientation of policy on economic growth in India, considering the economy in India as a dynamic system incorporating various subsystem of services and economic resources that are interrelated in the economy system and sensitive to global economic changes subsequent to economic reform. The discussion begins with highlighting the prevalent norm of unequal distribution of income in the population that differentiates purchasing power on access to basic requirement of services and consumable goods. An indicator to measure access to benefit of services (abs) has been evolved, that is, used as a tool to assess efficiency in achieving development of a state and to fix up specific area of service sector that requires improvement by penetrating technology. Then, the discussion follows on the mode of the penetration of technology into economic resources and supply of services/goods for synchronized developmental activities in the subsystems that improve the indicator (abs) of economic development in the states of India.

Nirmalendunath Ghosh

Urban Land Management: The Retrospect of Three Metro Cities in India

Indian economy has seen a boost in the past few years, impacting the metropolitan cities the most, but the pace of economic growth is not in a par with the functioning of the institutions and their services. This chapter attempts to determine the principal reasons, which are directly or indirectly responsible for the ailments like unplanned growth, inadequate supply of urban land and services leading to inefficient land management system in Indian metro cities. Three case studies have been chosen to demonstrate the difference between the superannuated conventional methods of land administration, which have been followed from the last many years since independence and the latest technological approach, which has been popular since the last decade. There is an effort to analyse the potential of technological tools and techniques as a solution to the problems inherited within the land administration.

Pooja Nigam, V. Devadas

Technology and Market

Frontmatter

Marketing Dynamics in Technology-Based Industries: Pioneering Advantage, Customer Experience, and Adaptive Pricing

In this chapter, we address three important research and managerial issues relevant to the dynamic marketplace of technology-based industries.

Is there a pioneering market-share advantage? What should be the strategic marketing approach to this entry phenomenon?

What is a useful customer care conceptual model?

What is appropriate pricing approach?

Gurumurthy Kalyanaram

Changing Consumer Perception of Electronic Vehicles Through Branded Technical Components

Ingredient branding is a branding strategy between a manufacturer and a supplier in which the end product of the supplier becomes one of the components of the manufacturer’s offering. The motivation behind ingredient branding revolves around the ingredient or component brand forming an alliance with an end product brand in an effort to generate pull effects through the value chain. In this study, we ask if the brand perception of such an ingredient-branding alliance can help to increase the adoption of e-cars. We found that the acceptance of e-cars can be increased through a strong component brand for critical parts, in particular the battery. Our findings include critical implications for car producers to help them improve the acceptance of their products through creating strategic brand alliances with component suppliers.

Christian Linder, Sven Seidenstricker

Dominance of Chinese Market: An Empirical Study

In the 1950s, Japan held a prominent position as a low-cost manufacturer and gained abnormal profits through international sales. In a span of three decades, Japan became one of the world’s pioneers of “quality” in products and services. However, in the last decade or two, China has gained a prominent position and has replaced Japan – in terms of low manufacturing cost – and has improvised its position from a low-cost provider to the pioneer.

Arun Kumar Gopalaswamy, S. S. S. Kumar, Chia-Hsing Huang

Is Cloud Computing a Tipping Point for IT Innovation Leading to Next Wave of Business Growth in Developing Economies

Developing economies like India, China, and Brazil have seen tremendous growth in domestic economy and GDPs. However, the actual GDPs in these economies are much lesser as compared to developed countries like USA and Europe. Indian GDP is just about 5 % of the world economy, and that of China is around 12 % though each of these countries accounts for nearly 20 % each of the world population, whereas US GDP is around 25 % of the world economy though USA accounts for only nearly 5 % of the population.

So, though the emerging economies like India and China are growing at a good healthy rate, there is lot of gap that needs to be filled. One of the main reasons why such a gap exists between developed economies and emerging economies is the technology adoption and diffusion in these economies. For instance, Internet penetration in India is not more than 25 %, whereas in USA, it is more than 70 %. Technology, being a keep enabler for business growth, plays a highly crucial role in enhancing the business processes bringing in efficiencies and productivity improvements in the economy and population, which in turn fuel the business growth.

Technology adoption also requires significant investments in hardware and software. It is not the awareness or lack of skills that is inhibiting the adoption of technology in economies like India, but more to do with lack of required investments in technology hardware and software, particularly the capital expenditure.

In this chapter, we will analyze how new technologies, the new deployment, and delivery models like cloud computing can potentially have a great impact in overcoming capital investments as the main barrier of technology adoption in emerging economies. This chapter will take some examples to drive this point. In addition, this chapter will also analyze other inhibiting factors of cloud computing technology like security, compliance, etc., which need to be addressed to make this technology more suited for such developing economies so that this technology can get into mainstream adoption, thus acting as the fuel to drive further business growth in these economies.

Ramkumar Dargha

Advanced External Counter Pulsation: A Solution for Healthy Heart

This paper demonstrate how a dream seen can seem impossible, then improbable, and eventually inevitable. Beginning of a new enterprise by improving their competitiveness through acquisition, development and management of technology. They have a clear mission of contributing to the growth of nation, development of society and to help a common man. This paper talks about the technology intelligence to address the issue which have emerged as the number one killer in both urban and rural areas of India causing economic loss to the country. Cardio vascular disease is a chronic, system wide illness in which poorly functioning blood vessels weaken circulation, precisely in and around the heart causing blockage of artery, angina and heart attack. Advanced External counter pulsation helps in Increasing coronary perfusion, Increasing diastolic perfusion pressure, decreasing ventricular load, increasing venous return, increasing coronary collateral flow to ischemic regions of myocardium, eliminating toxins such as carbon dioxide and lactate, supplying more nutrients such as oxygen and glucose.

Mohammed Ismail, S. Sookthi

Managing Technology for Marketing Success

Kotler et al. (2007) while discussing on today’s marketing communications mentioned that marketing communication would increasingly occur as a personal dialogue between the company and its customers. From the point how a company would reach its customers, they felt that the company would be forced to find out how the customers could reach the company effortlessly. Technological advances have allowed people and the company to communicate with each other through the Internet, fax machines, cellular phones, and other wireless appliances. Personalizing communications and creating dialogues by saying and doing right things to the right customers at the right time would become critical for the marketer, Kotler et al. thought. Ansari and Mela (2003) mentioned that the exchange process in the information age became increasingly customer initiated and to an extent, customer controlled. Marketers and their representatives would have to wait until customers agreed to participate in the exchange. Even the marketers entered the exchange process; customers would define the rules of engagement. They would insulate themselves with the help of agents and intermediaries if they so chose. The authors were of the opinion that even the customers had started to define what information they needed and what offerings they would be interested in.

Prafulla Kumar Das

Innovation Management

Frontmatter

Review of Corporate Management Model for Defense R&D Programs

Much research has focused on multiple models of corporate management in business and industry. However, few studies have examined the role of corporate management in managing strategic research. The role of corporate management in public-funded research institutions for strategic programs in defense and space sectors is the point of discussion in this chapter. The need for a more efficient model is brought out by conducting a survey and analyzing the results. A new framework with multilevel-networked architecture is proposed.

K. Ajith Kumar, V. P. Jagathy Raj

Utilities’ Technology Management of Smart Grid Innovation and Implementation

Sustainability in society’s energy system, power producers and consumers need smart grid technology to balance the production and consumption of units. Smart grid constitutes a host of specifications, unproven products and concepts as well as a strong and dedicated innovation process for utility companies. Few proven concepts exist, and with its extent in time, smart grid represents an excellent case of technology management. The current study uses a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight and characterise critical issues. Major findings are that the companies have limited management of technology capabilities despite both strong push and pull, and the consequences of vaguely defined objectives.

Torben Tambo

Towards Patients as Innovators: Open Innovation in Health Care

One of the recent developments in the health care sector has been the use of Web 2.0-based technology. This is promising for two reasons. Firstly, the Web 2.0 provides features that help to give patients an active voice. Secondly, patients obtain easier access to health-related information and gain a better understanding of their health status. This chapter focuses on patients as innovators and takes a case-based approach to explore an open innovation perspective on Health 2.0. It derives a taxonomy of real-world platforms in Health 2.0 settings and presents experience from a large-scale open innovation pilot.

Christoph W. Kuenne, Kathrin M. Moeslein, John Bessant

Does “Strategic Patenting” Threaten Innovation and What Could Happen If It Did?

Recent buyouts of Nortel’s patent portfolios by a consortium including Microsoft, Apple, and Sony and Motorola Mobility’s by Google have focused attention on the role of intellectual property (IP) in business strategies. IP changed a lot these last 15 years. New patent-eligible subject matters (biotechnology, software) and regulatory developments in the United States have since the mid-1980s led to a rapid growth of patenting, to a fast raise of patents’ value but also to the deterioration of their average quality. It also led to the massive use of strategic patenting by firms. Globalization, network organizations, and generalized subcontracting can explain part of an evolution that could have a significant impact on the pace and direction of innovation. These changes create barriers to new entrants, divert R&D budgets from research, and bring major uncertainty to new entrants who never know whether they infringe a patent or not. Universities that file patents may neglect basic research, while firms that indulge in strategic patenting spend an increasing proportion of their R&D effort in legal expenses and defensive strategies. In short, they could slow the pace of innovation and harm those industries that innovate the most.

Bernard Girard

Monetization of Intellectual Property: An Open Innovation Perspective

Monetization of intellectual property (IP) presents a challenge to firms in a market economy because innovation is expensive to produce and inexpensive to copy. Still, individual firms, in search of supernormal profits, continue to invest in innovation and employ a variety of means to monetize IP. This chapter discusses several forms of monetization—including sale of products, licensing and sale of technologies, and securitization—and suggests the importance of complementary marketing assets for monetization. Finally, this chapter discusses monetization of IP in the context of the emerging open innovation paradigm—in contrast to the vertical integration (VI) model of innovation—with reference to open-source and proprietary software and concludes that there is a trend toward coexistence and convergence between the two.

P. M. Rao

Human Resource Management

Frontmatter

Role of Innovation in Practices of Human Resources for Organizational Competitiveness: An Empirical Investigation

Competitive advantage shows the road to sustainability and directly gets linked with the varied functional success of the organization. To remain competitive, diagnosing human resource (HR) problems and finding innovative solutions for the same serves are one of the most important determinants of organization survival. The objective of this chapter is to understand the linkage between human resource management (HRM) and innovation and how one complements the other in effective functioning of an organization. This chapter follows an iterative approach. Firstly, it emphasizes on innovation primarily to be the key to sustainability and presumable future growth. Secondly, it explores how innovation in different HR practices like recruitment and selection, learning and development, performance management, and leadership and organic compensation system facilitates competencies and simultaneously generates long-term fruitfulness of business ideas and strategies for future. Thirdly, it embraces employees’ knowledge to be of grave importance for augmentation of innovation for successful execution of HRM practices and firm’s performance. The study is based on primary findings from select sectors which include ITES, manufacturing units, etc., which when evaluated subsequently through appropriate statistical techniques leads to a comprehensive understanding of innovation as a key to human resource function for achieving competitive success of an organization.

Shivani Pandey, Debdeep De

Work Behaviors of Korean and Indian Engineers: A Study of Comparison

Cultural understanding is a key issue in the development of international or cross border business. The greatest challenge to international business today is the management of business operations across cultural boundaries. In recent years, knowledge-based software business is facing very unusual problems of cross-cultural and work-related behavior issues. Such problems are found to be the major cause for software joint-development business failures between any two countries. This chapter explores the major differences in work-related behavior between South Korean and Indian engineers in knowledge-based software business.

M. K. Sridhar, Paul Jeong

Demographic and Personality Determinants of Entrepreneurial Tendencies of Aspirant Human Resources

For many years, scholars employed “trait research” in attempting to identify a set of personality characteristics that would distinguish entrepreneurs from others. A great deal was known about the personality characteristics, personal background, and family background (Louw et al.

2003

) of entrepreneurs such as age, gender, birth order, family size, education levels, socioeconomic status, and religion that urged them to set up a business venture. Still very few studies had been carried out on the demographic variables and psychological characteristics as predictors of entrepreneurship in India despite the growing importance of entrepreneurship in the country.

Subhash C. Kundu, Sunita Rani

Reducing Voluntary Turnover Through Improving Employee Self-Awareness, Creating Transparent Organizational Cultures, and Increasing Career Development

Successful companies exist when employees and stakeholders interact in a constructive manner to focus on the accomplishment of critical tasks. This research examined the ways self-assessment and peer assessments can be used to reduce organizational dysfunction by increasing employee self-awareness as well as improving employee career progression. Employee management behaviors in a service company were assessed by their peers in order to determine positive organizational culture and level of stress. The study also explored two links: (a) between the consistency of self-evaluation versus peer evaluation of the employee and the level of stress in the organization and (b) between the consistency of peer evaluation versus the supervisor’s performance expectation of the employee and the level of stress in the organization. The researchers hypothesized that lower levels of stress within the organization indicate a higher perception of skill among employees. This study also explored which management skills are most important for developing a healthy work culture in a service industry.

Jeffrey R. Moore, Douglas Goodwin

Impact of Technology on Leadership Style: Using “Least Preferred Coworker”

The present day competitive scenario is witness to rapid changes in technology due to market pressure. This imposes a heavy challenge on organizational leadership to maintain acceptable performance levels.

R. Srinivasan, B. Janakiram, Rajendra Todalbagi

Learning and Knowledge Management

Frontmatter

An Empirical Model to Foster Innovation and Learning Through Knowledge Sharing Culture

In today’s knowledge-based economy, knowledge is the most important resource for an organization to gain competitive advantage (Stewart

1996

). Knowledge creation, sharing, and dissemination are the main activities in knowledge management. Being part of knowledge management (KM) process (Kim and King

2004

), knowledge sharing is the exchange of experience, events, thoughts, or understanding of anything. Knowledge sharing culture is viewed as an important process because it results in shared intellectual capital (Liao et al.

2007

). Knowledge sharing culture is defined in many ways: Culture with a positive orientation to knowledge is the one that highly values learning on and off the job (Davenport et al.

1998

); positive attitudes of leaders and colleagues toward knowledge processes (Dobrai and Farkas

2008

); people would share ideas and insights because they see it as natural rather than something they are forced to do (McDermott and O’Dell

2001

); and a way of organizational life that enables and motivates people to create, share, and utilize knowledge (Oliver and Kandadi

2006

). Knowledge sharing culture impacts the organization in many ways – at individual, group, and organizational level.

Vijila Kennedy, M. Kirupa Priyadarsini

Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Management: A Case Study

This chapter analyses the concept of collaborative knowledge management introducing a case study of an Italian firm, MOMA, the main actor of the network ‘Pole of Excellence on Knowledge’. This chapter illustrates MOMA’s vision, evolution, profile and business strategy.

Data were gathered from different sources: semi-structured interviews, field observation and archival material.

The case study presented is an original business model, where high tech is combined with innovative research. The formula guarantees innovation and product evolution and highly competitive services. MOMA’s specialist, distinctive competences are united and opportunely integrated with those of the other actors of its network.

Giulia Monetta, Francesco Orciuoli, Gabriella Santoro

A Descriptive Analysis of Intellectual Capital Concept Implementation Within Slovak Companies

Twenty-first century is often considered as the century of knowledge economy with knowledge as the main competitive strategic advantage of single companies. This chapter focuses on intellectual capital model as a measurement system for evaluation of both internal and external knowledge management activities and provides systematic research-based evidence on the usage of the intellectual capital concept within Slovak companies. Four different scopes of intellectual capital concept as the framework for indicators followed up by companies are defined, and the conscious and unconscious usage by Slovak companies is analyzed.

Ján Papula, Jana Volná

Two Perspectives on Intellectual Capital and Innovation in Teams: Collective Intelligence and Cognitive Diversity

Teams are increasingly the locus of creativity and innovation in organizational settings, and understanding what affects their performance is critical to organizational performance. We draw on research from two different perspectives on intellectual capital to theorize about the enablers and disablers of innovation in teams. The first perspective draws on collective intelligence in human groups, and the second is related to team composition, specifically cognitive diversity. Borrowing from these two perspectives, we generate theory to integrate our understanding of how collective intelligence and cognitive diversity contribute toward (or detract from) the team’s potential to produce innovative solutions and products.

Ishani Aggarwal, Anita Woolley

Effective Utilization of Tacit Knowledge in Technology Management

Tacit knowledge is extremely experiential knowledge. Technology has both forms of knowledge, i.e., tacit and explicit knowledge. The tacit knowledge of an individual has relevance only when it can be effectively captured for the benefit of the organization. This chapter attempts to understand the issues of technology management from knowledge management perspective in technology intensive companies. We in this chapter argue that tacit knowledge is equally important for the organization to capture and grow. Hence, we have proposed a model for effectively capturing the tacit knowledge, as well as suggested appropriate techniques that would help in increasing the acquisition of tacit knowledge.

Indumathi Anandarajan, K. B. Akhilesh

Technology and Innovation

Frontmatter

Semantic Web as an Innovation Enabler

We examine the role of Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 in enabling innovation and their effects on organizations, with examples of financial and technology enterprises. While Web 1.0 plays significant roles in collaborative innovation, easing professional connectivity among peers, Web 2.0 facilitates open innovation to corporations. Meanwhile, Web 3.0 (Semantic Web), in its infancy, is about machines talking to machines, enabling machines to understand the meaning of information on the Web, making the Web more “intelligent.” It could institutionalize open innovation. We examine geographic tilts in the nature of innovation and discuss our study to deploy Semantic Web in an extended enterprise and our survey results.

Ranjith Nayar, K. Venugopalan, Rajeshwari Narendran, Smitha Nayar

How to Charge Electric Vehicles: A Comparison of Charging Infrastructure Concepts and Technologies

Electric vehicle sales are expected to soar within upcoming years. A main restraint could be the lack of charging infrastructure. With various available charging technologies, selection is an important challenge. This study provides a decision framework to select a suitable charging infrastructure technology for specific use-cases. We identify and explain the main criteria for an evaluation of charging infrastructure technologies. Furthermore, we develop an assessment framework. For the European market, we found that battery swapping stations should not be implemented. For home and workplaces, we recommend normal charging, whereas for public places and highways fast charging is preferred.

Benedikt Römer, Tobias Schneiderbauer, Arnold Picot

Innovations in an Emerging Software Cluster

Low wage rate in India, rather than technological innovation, is widely believed to have caused the phenomenal growth of the Indian software industry. Low total software exports from India is taken as an indication of lack of innovation in the industry. This chapter argues, based on the case study of the software firms in Trivandrum, that the software industry in India is innovative and that the nature of innovation depends on the characteristics of its knowledge base.

M. Arun

Innovation Management Strategy: Empirical Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms

This chapter contributes to the understanding of innovation management in manufacturing firms. Findings of a cross-sectional study drawing on data from an opinion survey amongst Indian manufacturing firms indicate that firms exhibiting high innovation performance apportion attention to both continuity and change dimensions of innovation management processes related to technology, organization, learning, managerial and networking functions. Making use of cluster analysis to restructure the data, discriminant analysis reveals the relatively important roles of processes concerned with technology change, managerial continuity and technology continuity in improving performance. The results could help firms evolve a suitable innovation strategy leading to enhanced performance.

Jyoti S. A. Bhat

Rethinking the Management of Technological Innovations, Product Complexity and Modularity: The Effects of Low-Probability, High-Impact Events on Automotive Supply Chains

Japan’s tidal wave of 2011 represented a Black Swan, one low-probability, high-impact event that disrupted supply chains all over the world. The automotive sector, characterized for the extensive use of modularity to handle technological innovations and product complexity, was severely affected. A review is provided of the implications of the 2011 Black Swans on supply chains of automotive modules that use complex electronic components such as microcontroller units (MCUs). The disruptions to the supply of MCU-based modules prompted to discuss the supplier park model, resulting in the generation of a solution that has the potential to mitigate future Black Swans effects.

Adrian E. Coronado Mondragon, Christian E. Coronado Mondragon

Technology Nurturing

Frontmatter

Enhancing and Leveraging Potential for Innovation

In a highly competitive environment, developing talent with an orientation for innovation is becoming one of the key challenges for organizations. Talent management processes need considerable improvement in defining, assessing and enhancing potential of employees, and then building their capacity for innovation. Research shows that there are three factors, namely, aspiration, ability and engagement, that determine the potential of people. Ability comprises two factors, namely, innate ability and learned skills. This chapter recommends an approach to build capacity for innovation by selecting employees for innate ability and then engaging them to learn the skills.

V. Kovaichelvan

A Soft Technology for Effective Enactive Management

This chapter shows a soft technology for the care of the organizational performance by means of observation and configuration of critical enactive factors, which allow moving the actors’ action toward effectiveness in the management of any organizational domain.

The use of this technology generates changes in the networks of organizational conversations enhancing the capacity to handle complexity by means of an enactive view of management, where the embodiment of situations becomes the main process of success in applications.

Study cases allow highlighting the pragmatism of the technology and the benefits of offering a complementary view in the managing of organizational performance, generating structural adjustment, and rethinking the organizational practices.

Osvaldo García de la Cerda, Alejandro Salazar Salazar

The Evolution of the Production Function: Transition to the “Value Creation Cube”

This chapter is theoretical in nature and follows the evolution of production in the context of developed nations. We begin with the physical nature of industrial economies of the past, move to the service- and knowledge-based economies of the present, and incorporate the emerging creative industries where human creativity forms the basis on which value is created. Paralleled to this is the contributions of academic scholars whose theories and models have provided understanding and meaning at each of these evolutionary stages. The chapter culminates with our contribution which recombines aspects of each of the models to form the Value Creation Cube framework. The Value Creation Cube framework represents the different perspectives of production, including the human elements of customers, suppliers, shareholders, employees and managers, whilst also provisioning for the technical components that enable the efficient communication and integration of each of the sub-components.

Moira Scerri, Renu Agarwal

Factors Contributing to Teachers’ Attitude Towards Knowledge Sharing

In today’s knowledge era, organisations are increasingly recognising the role of knowledge resource in building and sustaining a firm’s competitive advantage position in the market. Organisations are widely adopting knowledge management (KM) initiatives to capture and leverage the knowledge effectively. Within the KM domain, a critical factor that needs most attention is knowledge-sharing behaviour. Knowledge sharing is vital in universities and higher education institutions. This chapter attempts to explore the factors that positively or negatively influence faculty attitude towards knowledge sharing. Findings of the study clearly reveal that personal, organisational and technological factors significantly contribute to teachers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing.

Soofi Anwar, K. Durga Prasad

Vocational Value Vector (V3) Management in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Enhanced Industrial Employability

Improvement in availability of trained manpower and good infrastructure is required for the sustainable growth of the industry. Only an advanced, specialised and industry-specific initiative can lead to competitive advantage. Recently, there is a shift in the focus towards investigation of learning and development factors. Hence, a new concept, termed as ‘vocational value vector (V3) management’ for enhancing industrial employability quotient (EmQ) of the trainees, was developed. Through this chapter, an attempt is made to discuss the results of the improvements in the expected employability skill vectors in the TVET programme and their sustainability during the induction at a technical training institute near Bangalore, India.

K. M. Nagendra, S. Radha, C. G. Naidu

Critical Factors in Managing Creativity in an SME Global Challenger

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine the creative environment in an enterprise with global reach, an SME global challenger, and to identify factors that are critical to building a sustainable competitive advantage in a high-value technological industry such as clinical research. The creativity preferences and internal environmental profile of BetaNova, an SME from India, is assessed in a post-merger integration (PMI) scenario. Organisational factors related to shaping creative work culture are identified as a first step towards building theory, as this area of management is as yet unexplored.

Design/methodology/approach – As existing research is sparse in this area, the study used an exploratory research followed by a survey of key employees of BetaNova, with the objective of examining the internal creative environment and how its leadership can better realise creativity and innovation synergies. Key levers of creative environment and management are identified, and the impact of an enabling environment on innovation success discussed.

Findings – The current internal creative environmental profile of BetaNova is analysed. The research identifies factors in developing a creative environment and in resolving creativity-related cross-border integration issues. Findings reveal that while cultural settings can affect employees’ creativity, to communication and learning, opportunities may have a greater impact.

Practical implications – The research outcomes identify implications for the leadership of SME global challenger such as BetaNova in PMI scenarios and provide clear signposts to building intercultural creative environments.

Sandhya Sastry

E-Governance

Frontmatter

E-Governance and the ‘Developing’ Countries: Conceptual and Theoretical Explorations

This chapter proposes to explain what is meant by e-governance. It starts with a definition of e-governance and then presents a general e-governance model and several case studies and examples. Technology aspects are discussed, followed by a SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis on e-governance in developing countries particularly focusing on India.

The implementation and use of information communication technologies (ICTs) solutions can support governance reforms, in a particular context. Considering series of reforms in governance across the globe has led to certain diversity (contextually) in the conceptual understanding of e-governance and also its implementation. Such diversity mandates some sort of theoretical discussion. Internationally, most countries are in the early stages of conceptualizing and implementing e-governance.

Chetan B. Singai

Compartmentalization of E-Governance Practices

Compartmentalization is a principle that limits the damage and protects other compartments. More compartmentalized methods/services or organizations are the threats for flexibility, creativity and innovation. Successful user-friendly and cost-effective implementation of e-governance practices has become the need of the hour. It appears that an e-governance system functions in isolation in its number of practices. In India, state governments are developing e-governance projects and services for the purpose of their state only. It gives birth to the compartmentalization which forbids others to take its use. It is required to come out of this compartmentalization view of e-governance practices.

P. V. Bokad, P. M. Kuchar, Priya V. Satpute

Project Nemmadi: The Bytes and Bites of E-Governance in Karnataka, India

This case documents the challenges involved in adoption of Nemmadi, an e-governance project initiated in 2004 by the government of Karnataka. Nemmadi was conceived to deliver services to rural citizens across 800 hoblis in the state. This was the first large-scale workflow-based e-governance project using a public-private partnership (PPP) model to deliver 38 services. Nemmadi had received bouquets and brickbats. Mr. Naveen, the new principal secretary, had to assess the success of Nemmadi and do what he could to transform Nemmadi into a truly village-level Citizen Service Center (CSC) paving the way for an e-governance revolution.

Madhuchhanda Das Aundhe, Ramesh Narasimhan

An Empirical Investigation into the Extent of Green IT Practices in Sri Lanka’s Data Centers: A Case Study Approach

The objective of this research is to study the extent of the use of green IT practices by data centers in Sri Lanka. In this research, we review the literature of globally accepted green IT practices and, by means of nine case studies in the finance sector, explore the extent of green implementation in affecting the environment sustainability. Cross-case synthesis of implementation scores of different cases indicates that virtualization and consolidation are at a higher significance of execution, where other practices are at a poor implementation rate. Research findings summarize several implementation gaps and flaws in the current green execution.

Nadeera Ahangama, Kennedy D. Gunawardana

Technology and Supply Chain Management

Frontmatter

ICT Innovation for Buyer-Seller Relationships in International Supply Chains

This study focuses on the adoption of ICT innovation for international supply chains managed by large retailers. Three areas of innovation have been analyzed. The first is related to information and communication technology (ICT), the second to the joint management of supplying activities, and the third to collaboration on marketing issues, included end-customer analysis and joint marketing policies. An empirical research on a sample of 70 firms in the food sector was conducted adopting a suppliers’ perspective. Results revealed a connection between the size of suppliers and the size of customers, on one side, and the adoption of ICT innovation for vertical relationships, on the other side.

Fabio Musso, Mario Risso

SCM and ICT: A Cornerstone to Sustainable Development of Agribusiness: An Analytical Study

The great Indian rural agriculturist dream continues to be a pie in the sky of Commercial Revolution in agricultural activities. Nearly 1.21 billion strong Indians live in villages, with two out of three Indians are directly and indirectly engaged in agriculture and other allied activities. These disadvantaged people are not using ICT and SCM in their farm activities. The sustainable economic growth is only possible through ICT and SCM. This chapter identifies the ICT and SCM requirements and its advantages to agribusiness.

Y. M. Raju

A Two Stage Supply Chain Model for Multi Sources and Destinations, Incorporating Quantity and Freight Discounts with Case Study

The modern business era focuses toward consumers’ requirements and delivery in a short span. The scenario would become complex when orders are delivered with a halt (intermediate node) from multisources to multidemand points. The current study develops a two-stage integrated procurement-transportation model with an objective to minimize the total incurred cost during procurement, holding, and transportation, where inventory carrying cost at intermediate node is higher than cost at sources and destinations. Further, the discount policies are incorporated to procure and transport from one stage to another. A real life case study is exampled to validate the model.

Kanika Gandhi, P. C. Jha, M. Mathirajan

Adoption of Freight Management System (FMS) in Logistics: An Exploratory Study

The operation of transportation, be it raw materials, work in process, or finished goods, determines the efficiency of moving products. It involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging and is an important part of supply chain management. It is in this arena that IT-enabled solutions like freight management system (FMS) can be deployed to achieve higher efficiencies. FMS is a fully integrated Windows-based suite built to help small, medium, and large transporters to scale their operations, simplify back-office activities, add locations, and bring about better control over freight logistics with minimal additional resources.

The main objective of this chapter is to develop an insight into the application of FMS in logistics. A study has been undertaken to identify the important factors that impact adoption of FMS in logistics.

Timira Shukla, M. R. Bansal

Swap in Downstream Petroleum Supply Chain: An Effective Inventory Handling Tool

The petroleum industry carries immense importance in the Indian economy. The model of third party logistic company services has been for long used as a measure for improvement and cost saving along both the upstream and downstream petroleum supply chain. Companies in petroleum industry world overtook this outsourcing idea a step further to collaborate with competitors and found shared solutions to their supply chain challenges, commonly called as swap. The diversified outcome of refineries needs a special attention to its inventory handling. Swap practice coupled with application of IMS technology is an improved way of inventory handling. This chapter investigates this aspect of downstream petroleum inventory management on the basis of a survey of intermediaries of PSUs, namely, HPCL and BPCL in the state of Maharashtra.

Hari Mohan Jha Bidyarthi, Laxmikant B. Deshmukh

Technology, Development and ICT

Frontmatter

Implementation Issues of Aadhaar: The Human Resource Information System for India

This chapter examines the implementation issues of Aadhaar, the brand name for the unique identification (UID) for residents of India and one of the ambitious projects of Government of India. The UID is a 12-digit unique identification number issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) and is considered by policymakers as a critical and unparallel human resource information system in resolving identity crisis of residents, effective enforcement of individual rights and improving the delivery of social benefits by eliminating multiple identification mechanisms across various government departments while also strengthening national security. Use of information technology for human resource management is not new to corporate sector. But application of the same for Indian population is highly complex due to the heterogeneity of the vast population with wide range of demographics, and added are the reliability of biometrics, issues of illegal migrants, insufficiency of penalties for violations when the project promises financial inclusion and many more amidst a lot of criticism from all corners. The study, therefore, reveals that the managerial aspects of implementation especially multilateral consensus among different machineries of government and commitment to take the project to the appropriate application and utility would decide the success of Aadhaar and recommends a coherent approach towards concerned stakeholders including the citizens and major ministries in implementation.

Jesiah Selvam, K. Uma Lakshmi

Aadhaar and Financial Inclusion: A Proposed Framework to Provide Basic Financial Services in Unbanked Rural India

Over the past two decades, the government of India in coordination with Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has taken up many initiatives to achieve the objective of financial inclusion. Yet, basic financial services still remain an unrealized dream for millions of people, especially for citizens in rural and remote areas for several reasons (Microfinance India, State of the Sector Report – 2009. Sage, Delhi/London.

http://www.accessdev.org/downloads/State_of_the_Sector_Report_2009.pdf

). Widespread realization that financial inclusion is critical for poverty alleviation, balanced economic growth and economic stability has resulted in inclusive financial system, becoming an issue of global priority. In this regard, cellular mobile technology can be leveraged to offer a viable solution to achieve the objective of financial inclusion. This opens up new avenues for nonbank players, such as mobile network operators or banking agents, to get involved in the value chain of financial services by providing these services through mobile telephones. In wake of these emerging new opportunities, this chapter presents a framework based on Aadhaar (unique identity – UID)-led banking model leveraging ICT through mobile phone technology.

Saikumar Rathod, Shiva Krishna Prasad Arelli

Use of Mobile Phones by Small-Scale Farmers for Price Discovery of Fresh Produce: A Case Study from the Malur Taluk in Karnataka

The Indian agri-food industry is undergoing various changes with the advent of retail stores, food processing, and change of consumer preferences. The farmers now have access to more marketing channels to sell their fresh produce. This chapter is based on the research work done at Malur Taluk in Kolar district of Karnataka. With the extensive fieldwork consisting of in-depth interviews, this chapter examines the primary drivers that influence the choice of marketing channel(s) and identifies the associated transaction costs. Using transaction costs, we test the hypothesis that mobile phones help small-scale farmers in reducing information asymmetry and increasing profitability.

Navolina Patnaik

Mobile Banking: A Study on Progress and Customer Perception in India for Financial Inclusion

The aim of this chapter is to study the progress of M-Banking in India and to assess the customers’ perception towards usage segment of M-Banking by the customers. The result of this chapter reveals that mobile banking is enjoying a rapid growth in India. Mobile banking services are growing both in terms of volume and value of transaction. The results also reveal that usage pattern of M-Banking services among the customers is increasing. Mostly young and educated customers are very much interested to apply and avail mobile banking services. ‘Convenience’, ’24 × 7 flexible services’, ‘speed’ and ‘quick financial decision’ are the factors responsible for motivating customers to use mobile banking system. Government and other regulators may take some steps to introduce user-friendly software, good network, suitable regulation and security system that would help to bring 100 % financial inclusion in India.

S. Sudalai Muthu, T. Kadalarasane

Domestic Remittance: Money Transfer Anywhere and at Anytime in India

Domestic migrant workers are able to remit savings back home via National Electronic Funds Transfer through an integrated platform of collaborative services of YES Bank and banking correspondents. All the parties symbiotically benefit from this relationship leading to convenience for migrant workers where they avail this service 24 h a day without complete KYC at very low service charges even for small-sized transactions. Simultaneously banking correspondents earn an income and generate footfalls, whereas the bank gains brand visibility and a modest fee. This setup saves man hours and breaks even in a very small time span.

Deepak Venkatesh, Anand Kumar Bajaj

IT Offshoring

Frontmatter

Power Politics in the Governance of IT Outsourcing: The Undermining of Top IT Executives

IT labor is cheaper in countries like India and China than in the advanced economies like USA. When a US firm’s performance has been poor, its business leaders (CEO, CFO, COO) may attempt to undermine its IT leaders (CIO, Head of IT, etc.) to exercise power over the outsourcing of IT work. IT leaders may resist such attempts if they have the support of a sizeable in-house IT workforce—who might be incited by their cultural differences against the supplier’s IT workforce. Ultimately, a consequence of business leaders undermining IT leaders is that the customer firm’s outsourcing performance could suffer.

Subrata Chakrabarty, Jun Wang

Offshore Pricing with Onshore Management: A Case Study in Innovation and Technology Management

This chapter is a case study on Deerwalk, Inc., a premier healthcare software company located in Lexington, Massachusetts. Founded in June 2009 by Dr. Rudra Pandey after the establishment, development and phenomenal success of D2Hawkeye leading to its eventual acquisition by Verisk, Deerwalk appears to be well poised for another round of similar growth and accomplishment as before. The primary goal of this study is to understand Deerwalk’s (DW, hereafter) core competency and strategic advantage which has enabled the company to grow and become profitable in today’s highly competitive software development business. The information needed for writing this case has primarily come from the interviews with DW’s Executive Chairman, Dr. Rudra Pandey and from various case studies published by the company.

Gokul Bhandari, Rudra Pandey, Gerry Kerr

International Competitiveness of Russian IT Firms: Strong Rivals or Survivors at the Edge?

The competitiveness of firms from emerging markets has come increasingly to the focus of the international business research during last decades. The scholars have attempted to comprehend the foundations of their competitiveness and whether these foundations are different from those of developed market MNEs (Collinson and Rugman 2007; Luo and Tung 2007; Demirbag et al. 2009). Although literature has addressed these issues in the context of manufacturing firms from emerging economies (Jormanainen and Koveshnikov forthcoming), service sector, and in particular IT services, received significantly less attention. Indeed, only 50 academic studies for the time period of 1971–2007 were devoted to service companies (Kundu and Merchant 2008). This proves that theoretical and empirical knowledge about the patterns and determinants of international competitiveness in the service sector are still limited and the analysis of their growth potential has yet not been conducted in proper depth (Pauwels and de Ruyter 2005). Moreover, with regard to the IT services, the existing studies have been conducted on the basis of empirical evidence from Indian and Chinese firms (e.g., Narayanan and Bhat 2009), while other contexts are clearly under researched.

Irina Jormanainen, Andrey Panibratov, Marina Latukha

Perspectives of Users and Service Providers on Deployment Maturity Assessment: A Study of Product Lifecycle Management Systems (PLMS)

Product lifecycle management (PLM) is the activity of managing a product throughout its lifecycle – “from cradle to grave,” “from sunrise to sunset” (Stark J (2005) Product Lifecycle Management – 21st Century Paradigm for Product Realization. Springer, London). The management of product lifecycles is important since it involves all entities that exist along the value and supply chains of firms. Product lifecycle management systems (PLMS) have emerged as a potent resource used by firms to manage multiple activities required to develop, model, track, and manage manufactured products, including sales, maintenance, and product retirement. This research has been motivated by the massive investments (in the order of several million rupees) on acquiring PLMS and launching PLMS initiatives by various organizations in India, and the consequent need to analyze and assess their PLMS deployment maturity. Obviously, they (organizations) should want to know their PLMS deployment maturity with respect to both their present standing and relative to the industry. Assessment of PLMS deployment maturity of an organization serves as a good reference point to rate the success of its operations and the quality of its products. Venugopalan et al. (2009. A framework for assessing the maturity of product lifecycle management practices. In: Proceedings of PDMA India IV annual international conference NPDC 2009: new product development – challenges in meltdown times, Chennai, India, December 17–19 2009. pp. 159–171) have proposed a framework for assessing the deployment maturity of PLMS, and the same has been adapted for this study. It has been used to assess the perspectives of PLMS deployment maturity between

PLMS users and PLMS service providers

by means of preparing and administering a custom-designed questionnaire, and collating and analyzing the responses using appropriate statistical techniques. This will also enable organizations to benchmark their PLMS deployment maturity relative to others. This work analyzes the deployment maturity of PLMS components of 29 Indian organizations using nonparametric statistical tests.

S. R. Venugopalan, L. S. Ganesh, L. Prakash Sai

New Product and Services Development

Frontmatter

ICT in New Product Development: Revulsion to Revolution

Changing business dynamics have made it mandatory for companies across the sectors to invest in research and development efforts. Awareness about customers’ needs and their quick fulfilment with range of products and services has gained paramount significance in the last decade. Needless to mention that quality, cost and speed to market are important attributes of a product in present

red ocean

landscape necessitating the deployment of information and communication technologies (ICT) in all spheres of business activities including new product development (NPD). This chapter is based on secondary research. It cites a large number of cases from diverse industries like aviation, apparels, consulting, software, pharmaceuticals, electronics, construction, petroleum, energy and FMCG to conclude that implementation of ICT in NPD leads to tangible business benefits and also helps in strengthening their competitive advantage.

Nityesh Bhatt, Abhinav Ved

A Study of Structural Antecedents of Product Development Teams’ Flexibility on Small and Large Teams

In a changing and dynamic environment, product development (PD) activity has increasingly become team driven to achieve higher performance. Structural practices followed by PD teams are an important source for achieving flexibility. Understanding the role of antecedents that govern these structural practices would be helpful in increasing team flexibility. This chapter explores the nature of two such antecedents – participation and control (PAC) and time-bound formalization (TBF), which were derived as a part of larger study involving 108 PD teams, both small and large. Interestingly, PAC and TBF did not show any significant difference across small and large teams.

K. Srikanth, K. B. Akhilesh

Developing Sustainable IT Market Information Services: The Case of Esoko

This chapter introduces Esoko, an IT system offering market information services (MIS) from which sustainability factors relevant to emerging economies are derived. Using the case study method and a research design formulated by the inclusive markets team of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), qualitative data was acquired through semi-structured interviews and company documents and subsequently analysed using coding techniques. The resultant 14-factor model illustrates three distinct dimensions of sustainable MIS – consumer, organisational, and institutional. The findings demonstrate that unlike static enterprise or governmental IT systems, MIS are dynamic and require continuous information services and hence cannot be bound by time.

Olayinka David-West

Design and Development of an Online Database Management System (AGRI-TECHBASE): For Agricultural Technologies of ICAR

In the highly competitive IP environment, there is a need for finding an ideal solution to efficiently direct and protect the intellectual assets of an organization and speed up decision making. An online database management system, named AGRI-TECHBASE, is conceptualized and developed by Zonal Technology Management – Business Planning and Development (ZTM-BPD) Unit, South Zone – for providing an interactive environment for the end-to-end management of intellectual assets owned by R&D institutions under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). This chapter highlights the growing importance of agricultural information systems and presents an overview of AGRI-TECHBASE, the development methodology and data management process.

A. Razia Mohamed, P. Vineeth Kumar, S. Abhilash, C. N. Ravishankar, Leela Edwin

Integrated AHP-TOPSIS Model for Software Selection Under Multi-criteria Perspective

Improvement productivity in business and in day-to-day life IT (information technology) applications is becoming the most dominating field. As per the business point of view, the success or failure of a business organisation mostly depends on IT (information technology). In this point of view, software project selection is an important issue for many organisations. Sometimes, in product development scenario, inappropriate software selection cannot meet the balance between the input investments and the expected results. In this chapter, we present an analytical model which is based on multi-criteria decision-making approach for selection of appropriate software project using AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity of ideal solution) models. Additionally, it is also defining the optimum order among software with prospecting their competency measured by sensitivity analysis in combination with subjective factor and objective factors.

Santanu Kumar Misra, Amitava Ray
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