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Über dieses Buch

This two volume book presents an in-depth analysis of many of the most important issues facing today's shipping and port sectors. Volume 1 of Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy focuses on the application of theory to practice in Maritime Logistics.



1. Introduction

The global maritime network underpinning the world economy is currently facing critical challenges. These include, inter alia, relatively stagnant economic and trade activity, China’s growing impact on international trade, changes in the structural pattern of international trade as a consequence of emerging free trade agreements, the need to further integrate maritime logistics systems, fierce port competition and the influence of mega carriers, terrorist attacks and other security issues, natural disasters and the need for enhanced resilience, and global warming and other environmental concerns. Within the context of a globalized world economy, the continued emergence of new developments which fundamentally affect it (such as China’s growing engagement in Africa and South America) and aspects such as the pursuit of an integrated logistics environment, the competitiveness of alternative production bases, the potential for the relocation of production lines, and the associated establishment of new supply chains have all attracted the attention of manufacturers, maritime logistics providers, academics, and policymakers. This is the context which has prompted the production of this book entitled Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy. Consisting of two volumes, the first concentrates on aspects of maritime economics and logistics which revolve around Applying Theory to Practice in Maritime Logistics.
Paul Tae-Woo Lee, Kevin Cullinane

2. Container Ports in Latin America: Challenges in a Changing Global Economy

“The only way to change one’s relative location on the network is to change the geographic area covered by the network” (Black, 2001, p. 1). Consequently, analyzing how ports work and interact with their environment and identifying the determinants of its performance are key to understanding the challenges currently faced by the port system in a globalized economy.
Gordon Wilmsmeier, Jason Monios

3. Port Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Competitive Forces, Port Reform, and Investment Challenges

From as early as the seventeenth century, Southern Africa served as an important maritime space in the global network. The ports in this region have transformed from colonial halfway refreshment stations to viable container and bulk ports following various port investment initiatives. Today, however, due to greater social and economic stability, regional integration, and globalization, Southern African container ports in particular face increased pressure to provide sufficient port capacity. This growing misalignment between container demand and container port capacity impacts the quality of service experienced at the ports and leads to port congestion. Chang et al. (2008) cite an important attribute affecting service quality and port performance as port congestion. Port user costs rise sharply once the port traffic approaches the existing effective port capacity limits. To alleviate the problem of congestion, ports increase capacity by investing in port infrastructure such as canal enhancements, additional berths, or additional port handling equipment. Ceteris paribus, increasing port capacity should help to enhance service quality and reduce time costs for ships and cargoes and should therefore attract and accommodate more traffic to the port (Xiao et al., 2012).
Darren Fraser, Theo Notteboom

4. A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Container Ports in China and the Implications for Their Development

Prompted by a phenomenal growth in trade over the last decade, China’s container ports have been increasing in both number and importance. Within the Asian market sector, container ports in the Chinese mainland now threaten to undermine the dominance of both Hong Kong and Singapore. This chapter describes the development of China’s container ports to this point in time and, by applying a classification system based on a hierarchy of ports, seeks to deduce likely scenarios for the sector’s future development.
Kevin Cullinane, Sharon Cullinane, Tengfei Wang

5. Port-Focal Logistics and the Evolution of Port Regions in a Globalized World

Globalization and the changes in international trade pattern have significant influences on port and shipping industries, leading to alliances and competitions at the regional and international levels. Recently, we have witnessed the consolidation of shipping routes, globalization of shipping lines and cooperation of port operators. In addition, production has moved from being “firm-focal” to “port-focal” (Ng and Liu, 2014), in which the port region plays an increasingly important role. Such a process has comprehensively transformed the port system, and many proximate ports that initially competed with each other have started to cooperate in various aspects and/or establish a more complementary relationship. Such a process has led to the formation of port regions around the world.
Enrique Martín-Alcalde, Sergi Saurí, Adolf K. Y. Ng

6. Port Governance as a Tool of Economic Development: Revisiting the Question

There was a trend toward the devolution of government-owned entities like ports during the 1980s and 1990s. Governments purposely devolved responsibility to the private sector in the belief that social welfare would be improved. Types of reform efforts spanned the spectrum. For instance, the United Kingdom essentially privatized its key port infrastructure while in the United States governance changed only in a few ports. In Canada, port reform was accomplished via Canada’s National Marine Policy of 1995. The intention in Canada was to secure the benefits of commercially driven business decision making in organizations previously run by governments while securing compensation for prior taxpayer investments. The Government of Canada had already begun the process of devolution for airports in 1987, and ports were the next logical step.
Mary R. Brooks

7. Economic Impact Analysis of Port Development

Ports are often recognized as a public good and/or social infrastructure given their important roles in many supply chains and distribution channels related to international commodity trade. In this regard, their values are assessed from the perspective of the contribution to regional or national development. As suggested by Lee et al. (2008) and Bennathan and Walters (1979), in a country with a less mature port system, developing ports should be considered in the context of national economic security and the fundamental infrastructure of the national economy rather than commercial entities required for a recovery of their full costs from users.1
Tsung-Chen Lee, Paul Tae-Woo Lee

8. Developing the Fifth Generation Ports Model

Port functions including container ports have been dramatically developing since the inception of container transportation. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (1994), Van den Berg and Van Klink (1995), and Van Klink (1995) documented the function and role in the development of ports from the first generation stage to the fourth generation stage under the category of external environment, functional organization, spatial organization and port organization and strategy (see Table 8A.1). UNCTAD (1999) in its newsletter proposed the concept of “fourth generation port” (4GP), referring to vertical and horizontal integration port strategies. Following the above literature contribution, several studies contributed to classifying ports’ typologies and to elaborating their roles and functions in a comprehensive way (e.g., Beresford et al., 2004; Bichou and Gray, 2005; Flynn et al., 2011; Lee and Lam, 2014, 2015; Paixao and Marlow, 2003; Pettit and Beresford, 2009; Verhoeven, 2010). Flynn et al. (2011) proposed the “fifth generation port” (5GP) with the introduction of “port ladder” for customer centric community-focused port. Most existing literature has not focused on the types of container ports. Container ports are key facilitators of international trade development, being a critical node in the context of supply chain management.
Paul Tae-Woo Lee, Jasmine Siu Lee Lam


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