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The volume comprises the proceedings of the second International Conference on Dynamics in Logistics LDIC 2009. The scope of the conference was concerned with the identification, analysis, and description of the dynamics of logistic processes and networks. The spectrum reached from the planning and modelling of processes over innovative methods like autonomous control and knowledge management to the new technologies provided by radio frequency identification, mobile communication, and networking. The growing dynamics confronts the area of logistics with completely new challenges: It must become possible to rapidly and flexibly adapt logistic processes and networks to continuously changing conditions. LDIC 2009 provided a forum for the discussion of advances in that matter. The volume consists of one invited paper and of 47 contributed papers divided into various subjects including mathematical modelling in transport and production logistics, routing in dynamic logistic networks, sustainable collaboration and supply chain control policies, information, communication, autonomy, adaption and cognition in logistics, radio frequency identification in logistics and manufacturing networks, applications in production logistics, and logistic solutions for ports, container terminals, regions and services.



Mathematical Modeling in Transport and Production Logistics


Structural Properties of Third-Party Logistics Networks

A third party logistic provider operates a distribution network with minimal control over supply and demand. The operation is characterized by three levels: a strategic level that includes the location and sizing of warehouses, a tactical level that determines the links between customers, warehouses and producers and an operational level that determines the size of the flows through the links at any given time. An algorithm to optimize the operational level is determined for a given network structure. Starting with a fully connected network a reduced network is found by deleting the least used links until the operational costs increase dramatically. The topological structures of the reduced network as a function of backlog and transportation costs are determined.

Dieter Armbruster, M. P. M. Hendriks, Erjen Lefeber, Jan T. Udding

Development of a Computational System to Determine the Optimal Bus-stop Spacing in order to Minimize the Travel Time of All Passengers

This work has the purpose to develop a computational tool based on the concepts of Non-linear Programming and Voronoi Diagrams to study and define the ideal bus-stop spacing in urban areas in order to minimize the total travel time of all passengers until a common destination. The idea is to help the cities to organize their traffic in the central areas. The main problem these cities are facing nowadays is the high number of automobiles that are used by the people for private transportation. In order to reduce the number of vehicles in the streets, public administrations are trying to improve the public transportation system in order to stimulate people to leave their cars at home. One way to encourage people to do that is reducing the time the passenger spent to go to their destinations using public transportation. The model also will allow us to solve problems of regional division of the affected areas to each bus-stop determining the scope area of each one of them. The system uses the density function of the distribution of the population in the affected area and combines it with the model of the Additively Weighted Voronoi Diagram to search for the minimum value using the usual methods of non-linear programming.

Homero F. Oliveira, Mirian B. Gonçalves, Eduardo S. Cursi, Antonio G. Novaes

Some Remarks on Stability and Robustness of Production Networks Based on Fluid Models

The dynamics of complex, large-scale production networks present an important issue not only for the management of such networks but also for scientific research. This problem is usually investigated either by numerical simulations or by mathematical analysis of the associated queueing model. One major property of stable production networks is the robustness of these networks with respect to perturbations of the arrival process of jobs from outside. Given a generic structure of the considered network with several production locations, different products and re-entrant material flows the determination of robustness is non trivial. In this paper we use a fluid model approach to analyse the robustness of queueing networks. First conditions for stability of a fluid network are introduced. These conditions allow to assess the dynamic behavior of the production network. Second the obtained results are investigated with the help of a simulation of the fluid and queueing network. Simulations of a test case scenario accompany the results of the theoretical analysis.

Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Fabian Wirth, Sergey Dashkovskiy, Michael Schönlein, Thomas Makuschewitz, Michael Kosmykov

Online Optimization with Discrete Lotsizing Production and Rolling Horizons

Wilhelm Dangelmaier, Bastian Degener

Dynamic Vehicle Routing in Over Congested Urban Areas

The solution of dynamic vehicle routing problems has evolved rapidly in the past years due to the development of telecommunication and information technologies. Traffic information systems have been installed in large cities of the world with the objective of reducing the negative effects of bottlenecks in street networks. In developing countries, however, the large investments to install such systems often forbid its extensive use. By analyzing a simple urban routing problem, subject to unexpected and frequent traffic jams, we show with the aid of Sequential Analysis concepts that even under limited technological resources it is possible to obtain significant benefits when adopting a dynamic strategy to handle vehicle routing problems.

Antonio G. N. Novaes, Enzo M. Frazzon, Paulo J. Burin

Serving Multiple Urban Areas with Stochastic Customer Requests

We consider the problem of routing one vehicle for serving customer requests. Customer requests appear randomly over time and must be either confirmed or rejected after becoming known. Our goal is maximization of the number of customer requests served within a given period of time. Customers have different request probabilities and are geographically clustered. The problem reflects a typical situation of logistics service providers covering a number of urban areas with one vehicle. We solve the problem by approximate dynamic programming. Our results are compared to solutions gained from state-of-the-art waiting heuristics.

Stephan Meisel, Uli Suppa, Dirk Mattfeld

Stability Analysis of Large Scale Networks of Autonomous Work Systems with Delays

This paper considers the problem of stability analysis for a class of production networks of autonomous work systems with delays in the capacity changes. The system under consideration does not share information between work systems and the work systems adjust capacity with the objective of maintaining a desired amount of local work in progress (WIP). Attention is focused to derive explicit sufficient delay-dependent stability conditions for the network using properties of matrix norm. Finally, numerical results are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

H. R. Karimi, S. Dashkovskiy, N. A. Duffie

Local Input-to-State Stability of Production Networks

In this paper, we analyze a given production network in view of stability, which means boundedness of the state of the network over time. From a mathematical point of view we model the network by differential equations. With help of local input-to-state stability (LISS) Lyapunov functions and a small gain condition we check, if the network is stable. This results in the derivation of conditions for the production rates for which stability of the production network is guaranteed.

Sergey Dashkovskiy, Michael Görges, Lars Naujok

An Approach to Model Reduction of Logistic Networks Based on Ranking

Simulations or mathematical analysis of a real-world logistic network require a model. In this context two challenges occur for modelling: First, the model should represent the real-world logistic network in an accurate way. Second, it should foster simulations or analytical analysis to be conducted in a reasonable time. A large size is often a drawback of many models. In the case of logistic networks this drawback can be overcome by reducing the number of locations and transportation links of the graph model. In this paper we present an approach to model reduction of a logistic network based on ranking. The rank of a given location states the importance of the location for the whole network. In order to calculate the importance of a location we introduce an adaptation of the PageRank algorithm for logistic networks. The information about the rank and the structural relations between the locations are used for our approach to model reduction. Depending on the structural relation between locations we suggest three different approaches to obtain a model of lower size.

Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Fabian Wirth, Sergey Dashkovskiy, Michael Kosmykov, Thomas Makuschewitz, Michael Schönlein

Optimization of Spare Parts Lot Size for Supply of Equipment’s Park

The model of stochastic optimization of inventory of nonrenewable spare parts for unreliable industrial equipment is studied. The processes of equipment’s work, its failures/renewals, and supply of spare parts are described in the terms of Markov drift process. The order points are assumed to be the moments of time when inventory level of spare parts at warehouse equals to zero. For manufacturing system “equipment park (production line)—warehouse of final product” the problem of optimum lot size of spare parts finding is formulated and analyzed (in steady-state regime).

Iryna Morozova, Mykhaylo Postan, Lyudmyla Shyryaeva

Routing, Collaboration and Control


Weighted Multiplicative Decision Function for Distributed Routing in Transport Logistics

In transport logistics, routing is usually done by a central instance that is solving the optimization problem of finding the best solution to cover the current set of orders with the current set of vehicles under constraints such as punctuality, vehicle utilization etc. Approaches have been suggested recently which change this paradigm towards a distributed approach with autonomous entities deciding on their own. Autonomous entities denote, in this case, the vehicles as well as the goods. When each of the entities makes its own route decisions, it has to consider multiple parameters, which are partially static (e.g. distances) and partially dynamic. An example for a dynamic parameter is the knowledge about vehicle availability that goods need for their decisions. The work presented here is based on the information exchange concept DLRP (Distributed Logistic Routing Protocol), which has been proposed before. Within that framework, the concept of weighted multiplicative combination of context values into a decision function is now introduced for the route decisions made by autonomous entities.

Bernd-Ludwig Wenning, Henning Rekersbrink, Andreas Timm-Giel, Carmelita Görg

Distributed Decision Making in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

The problem of combined vehicle routing and break scheduling comprises three subproblems: clustering of customer requests, routing of vehicles, and break scheduling. In practice, these subproblems are usually solved in the interaction between planners and drivers. We consider the case that the planner performs the clustering and the drivers perform the routing and break scheduling. To analyze this problem, we embed it into the framework of distributed decision making proposed by Schneeweiss (Eur J Oper Res 150(2):237–252,


). We investigate two different degrees of anticipation of the drivers’ planning behaviour using computational experiments. The results indicate that in this application a more precise anticipation function results in better objective values for both the planner and the drivers.

Christoph Manuel Meyer, Herbert Kopfer, Adrianus Leendert Kok, Marco Schutten

Dynamic Routing Applied to Mobile Field Service

This article presents the design and application of real-time routing modelling to the problem of geographically dispersed emergency requests through service mobile teams. Based on the dynamic repairman travelling problem (DRTP), the search of the solution was done using a computer model for evaluate the operational strategies that result in less waiting times for a given demand profile. A solution algorithm based on the Hungarian method that resulted in appropriate computational response times is presented and tested.

Auro C. Raduan, Nicolau D. F. Gualda

Intelligent Agent Control and Coordination with User-Configurable Key Performance Indicators

In Multi-Agent Systems (MASs) for autonomous control of industrial and logistic processes, intelligent agents are often faced with multi-criteria decision problems. The agents’ local goal systems may comprise qualitative and quantitative objectives that can conflict at the individual agent’s local level as well as on a global scope between agents. In general, the problem to be solved by the MAS cannot be decomposed in a way that eliminates all these conflicts as the competing goals are an integral property of the problem itself. Consequently, acceptable trade-offs need to be identified and negotiated by the agents. Due to the emergent, not entirely predictable behavior of many complex MASs, different users of the system may have different views and requirements regarding what constitutes an acceptable trade-off, or they may need to experiment with different goal settings before the system starts exhibiting the desired behavior. In this paper the concept of numerical key performance indicators is applied to agent control and coordination in MASs. A software framework is presented which allows the user of a MAS to define at runtime numerical key performance indicators and quantitative objectives attached to them, which then are incorporated into the agents’ individual goal systems in order to influence the local as well as global agent behavior. The central parts of the framework have been implemented as a Java programming library that facilitates the assessment and optimization of key performance indicators in MASs.

Florian Pantke

Stockout Costs in Logistics Unconsidered: Stockout Costs do Affect Service Level

This paper shows that the optimal performance of inventory logistics significantly changes by enhancing logistic costs with stockout costs of production as an often ignored cost driver. A revised logistic model links the logistic performance of the warehouse and the logistic requirements of production by calculating the weighted service level. As a result for minimizing overall logistic costs, an aspirable service level can be determined and the inventory level may be deduced.

Henner Gärtner, Rouven Nickel, Peter Nyhuis

Performance Measurement for Interorganisational Collaborations of SMEs

In recent years the formation rate of inter-firm collaborations has dramatically increased. Despite the growing importance of inter-firm relationships, the success rate remains low. The main problem is that companies do not employ systems or frameworks to measure or manage collaborations holistically. Thus, we present in this chapter a novel performance measurement system for interorganisational collaborations of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Yilmaz Uygun, Andreas Schmidt

On the Formation of Operational Transport Collaboration Systems

This paper discusses the formation process of operational transport collaboration systems. The actors forming this process are divided into two subgroups: potentially participating hauliers and a system provider offering the technical and cooperative framework. As such the formation process is characterized by two decision making problems—that of the hauliers and that of the system provider. Goals pursued when instituting operational transport collaboration are derived from research on strategic alliances and a heuristic procedure capable of supporting both decisions is introduced.

Melanie Bloos, Herbert Kopfer

Adaptive RBAC in Complex Event-Driven BPM Systems

Various real-time systems have been proposed for a wide range of business environments recently. One of the real-time system components is event. A single event is sometime meaningless. However, while complex events are incoming, automatic access control assignment is necessary to control real-time business process management systems (BPMS) and impart business process efficiency. Given the complexity of such events, access control rules are generated to ensure security, privacy, accuracy and conformity. This paper proposes a mechanism to handle complex-event-driven access control in BPMS for logistic. The separation-of-duty (SoD) constraint, as an extension of the typical role-based access control (RBAC), is used to invoke the system based on certain event types.

Bernardo N. Yahya, Hyerim Bae

A Preliminary Investigation on a Bottleneck Concept in Manufacturing Control

This paper gives an overview of existing hybrid manufacturing systems which are developed to overcome the main disadvantage of distributed control systems, non-optimization problem, by either modifying control system structures or gaining access to minimal global information by the means of scheduling. Distinguishing from the both of which, we propose a bottleneck concept to improve the performance of distributed control systems by utilizing bottleneck information as minimal global information during the decision-making process. In order to verify our idea, multiple simulation scenarios as well as a simulation-based fault detection and isolation method are developed in the context of production logistics.

Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Katja Windt, Huaxin Liu

Information, Communication, Autonomy, Adaption and Cognition


Synchronization of Material and Information Flows in Intermodal Freight Transport: An Industrial Case Study

Globalization of manufacturing has caused an increase of locations with common markets and customers resulting in harder competition for each of the involved actors. Furthermore, each company has to operate in an increasingly dynamic market and sourcing situation which again lead to complex logistic networks. Some of the main problems affecting freight transportation on a global scale are logistic processes that are characterized by limited information on goods movements. Despite several attempts from large logistic operators and supply chain leaders, the largest majority of goods still moves without accompanying information in electronic form. According to a survey sponsored by Wolters Kluwer (“What It Costs to Manage Collaborative Logistics”, Eye For Transport Research Services, November 2005.), 62% of the carriers are handling call-off management manually, while 90% of the communication on rush orders is handled via phone or fax. This has a negative impact both on logistic efficiency and on safety and security. Furthermore, inefficient handling of the cargo and accompanying documentation hampers the take up of intermodal and combined transport, thus limiting the possibility to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. In this article it will be discussed how necessary concepts and technological solutions need to look like in order to overcome such barriers as well as which impacts this might have on the efficiency and overall performance. The results are discussed for their applicability in a pilot case.

Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Valentina Boschian, Paolo Pagenelli

EURIDICE: Platform Architecture in Logistics for “The Internet of Things”


, March 2008) is an EU funded project in the area of ICT for the development of a free and open standards based platform with the key objectives of distributed intelligence on item level and easy business process integration for companies and institutions in the logistics area. The article will describe the architecture and the used key technologies.

Jens Schumacher, Manfred Gschweidl, Mathias Rieder

Initial Benefits of Using Intelligent Cargo Technology in Fresh Fishing Logistics Chain

The aim of this research is to understand the extent of the possible benefits of introducing the Intelligent Cargo (IC) technology into the fresh fishing logistics chain. IC solution provides cargo information services for logistic and industrial companies that can be activated at low cost and will work with any logistic partner along any transport route. The logistics chain under scrutiny is international in its nature: the fish is caught and partly processed in Africa, transported by air to European hubs and distributed throughout Italy by trucks. The research reports the state-of-the art of the current logistics chain, obtained through the literature review and conversations with operators and experts, the critical issues and the possible benefits of using the IC technology.

Donatella Vedovato, Tatjana Bolic, Marco Della Puppa, Marco Mazzarino

Autonomous Co-operation of “Smart-Parts”—Contributions and Limitations to the Robustness of Complex Adaptive Logistics Systems

In logistic markets, there is an increasing use of new Autonomous Co-operation technologies, like RFID or sensor networks (Riedel et al.


). These elements, which are called “Smart-Parts”, are enabled to interact by the appliance of the new technologies (e.g. RFID-chips) in logistic processes, making own decisions without an external control of a superior hierarchic entity. The technologies allow autonomously acting parts getting smaller and the number of logistic systems including “Smart-Parts” is by trend increasing. This higher number of elements consequently results in a higher degree of complexity. Hence, those systems can be described as Complex Adaptive Logistics Systems (CALS). However, the dynamic of these CALS with “Smart-Parts” results in an impossibility to forecast the system’s reactions and behavior due to the fact, that “Smart-Parts” render own decisions, based on information they got from other elements and finally based on the behavior of other system’s elements. Hence, the unpredictability of the system’s future state leads to the problem of achieving its robustness based on the balancing of its required stability and flexibility. Therefore, the question arises how “Smart-Parts” affect a CALS’ robustness as there is a link between them in the way that “Smart-Parts” influence Autonomous Co-operation, Autonomous Co-operation influences adaptivity and finally adaptivity influences robustness (“Smart-Parts” → Autonomous Co-operation → Adaptivity → Robustness). Therefore, the paper intends to analyze the possible effects caused by “Smart-Parts” and Autonomous Co-operation in order to identify contributions and limitations to the CALS’ robustness. So, the paper proceeds as it follows. Firstly, the need for robustness in CALS as the balance of the system’s stability and flexibility is outlined. Secondly, the concept of Autonomous Co-operation in CALS will be described. Thirdly, an evaluation of Autonomous Co-operation regarding the contributions and limitations to robustness will be accomplished.

Michael Hülsmann, Benjamin Korsmeier, Christoph Illigen, Philip Cordes

Decentralisation and Interaction Efficiency in Cooperating Autonomous Logistics Processes

The efficiency of conventional centralised control in logistics is limited due to the complexity, the dynamics, and the distribution of logistics processes. The paradigm of autonomous logistics aims at overcoming these limitations by delegating decision-making to local logistics entities such as packages or containers. Represented by software agents, these entities must cooperate with each other to succeed in their logistics objectives. This paper introduces two interaction protocols for team formation of logistics entities. Which of them is adequate depends on the concrete application at hand. This decision is closely related with the limitations of autonomous logistics. One protocol aims at decreasing the communication effort, i.e., increasing the interaction efficiency. The other one aims at increasing the degree of decentralisation. This paper contributes a thorough investigation that supports system developers in choosing the right protocol for their demands.

Arne Schuldt

Design Aspects of Cognitive Logistic Systems

In a transfer station heterogeneous goods need quickly to be transported from a source to a destination port. This involves high requirements regarding flexibility and throughput. Until now existing material flow technologies cannot completely satisfy both requirements simultaneously since they are either flexible or with good performance. This paper will present a novel material flow system approach that will overcome these limitations by combining the various research domains of robotics, wireless sensor networks and decentralized scheduling.

Carsten Beth, Jens Kamenik, Dennis Ommen, Axel Hahn

Autonomous Units for Solving the Traveling Salesperson Problem Based on Ant Colony Optimization

Communities of autonomous units are rule-based and graph-transformational systems with a well-defined formal semantics. The autonomous units of a community act and interact in a common environment while striving for their goals. Ant colony systems consist of a set of autonomously behaving ants and are often employed as a metaheuristics for NP-hard logistic problems. In this paper, we demonstrate how communities of autonomous units can be used as a formal graph-transformational framework for modeling ant colony systems. As a first example we model an ant colony system for the Traveling Salesperson Problem as a community of autonomous units


Sabine Kuske, Melanie Luderer, Hauke Tönnies

Radio Frequency Identification


Dynamic Management of Adaptor Threads for Supporting Scalable RFID Middleware

This paper presents a mechanism for providing reader scalability for RFID middleware. As the complexity of RFID environments increases, a middleware needs to support many RFID readers. The main purpose of the paper is to support multiple readers without decrease in the performance. To achieve this, we define Reader Framework for reader management, which consists of the adaptors and the adaptor manager. The adaptor manager needs many threads to process the requests from readers. Even the use of multiple threads is necessary for supporting multiple readers; it can deteriorate the performance of the middleware due to the overhead for excessive threads management. The basic Idea of this paper is to detect adaptor threads’ overhead which can adversely affect middleware’s performance and try to maintain the number of threads at an appropriate level. We propose two dynamic thread management mechanisms: Group Merging and Group Splitting. To reduce the overhead for thread management, group merging decrease the number of threads and group splitting increases the number of threads. An experiment shows that the proposed mechanism can improve the scalability of RFID middleware by reducing the overhead for thread management at runtime.

Chungkyu Park, Junho Lee, Wooseok Ryu, Bonghee Hong, Heung Seok Chae

Tag-to-Tag Mesh Network Using Dual-Radio RFID System for Port Logistics

This paper consists of two parts: the protocol for tag-to-tag mesh network (T2T-MN) and the implementation of dual-radio RFID system. Recently, RFID has been adopted in ports or warehouse, being attached to containers and palettes for loading/unloading automation. However, the RFID system has encountered one problem—some tags cannot receive any command from reader intermittently due to signal interference by containers or field equipments (e.g., cranes and yard tractors). This area where reader signal cannot reach is called




. This paper resolves the dead-zone problem by enhancing the RFID network to support the multi-hop communication between tags. Meanwhile, the multi-hop communication increases the number of transmission of tags, resulting in the high collision probability. Thus, the dual-radio RFID system is adopted in this paper, which utilizes two different radio frequencies for tag-to-reader communication and tag-to-tag communication. The experiment shows that the proposed multi-hop RFID network can resolve the dead-zone problem.

Jinhwan Kim, Hyocheol Jeong, Myungjae Kim, Haosong Gou, Munseok Choi, Younghwan Yoo

Automation of Logistic Processes by Means of Locating and Analysing RFID-Transponder Data

The fully automatic handling of objects, like the unloading of goods from containers, their place of deposition and previously unknown size and form represent a technical challenge for logistic processes. The ability of gathering information regarding the handled objects and their surroundings with the help of appropriate sensors is essential for the correct functioning of such a system. Existing systems with optical sensors already provide impressive results, but there is still room for improvement regarding reliability, dynamic and diversity of their processes. This article proposes a system concept which provides the desired information and resolves the described problems. It works with an RFID-transponder, which is attached to the object, a suitable locating procedure as well as an optical sensor technology and appropriate data analysis. In order to implement this system there is need for further research. It is especially necessary to develop appropriate locating procedures and real time analysis algorithms.

Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Wolfgang Echelmeyer, Harry Halfar, Anne Schweizer

Auto-Triggering of RFID-based Logistic Process in Inter-workflow Using Complex Event

In logistic environments, a process, in that it manages the flow of materials among partners, inherently involves more than one organization. In this regard, a logistic process can be considered as a combined process consisting of multiple sub processes, each of which is managed by a single participant. In achieving systematic management of a logistic process, traditional business process management (BPM) cannot be used for the entire flow, since it lacks the ability to manage interactions among partners. In this paper, then, we propose inter-workflow patterns that represent the relations among separate processes. We specify the inter-workflow patterns between processes, which patterns enable the generation of event–condition–action (ECA) rules to control the execution of the RFID-based logistic process. Especially, this research can solve problem about access privilege between partners because can limit event that trigger other partner’s process to RFID equipment.

Hyerim Bae, Yeong-Woong Yu

Selectivity of EPC Data for Continuous Query Processing on RFID Streaming Events

EPCIS as a component of EPCglobal Architecture Framework provides store and search for RFID event data such as EPC, time and location information. EPCIS provides onetime query (poll) interface and continuous query (subscribe) interface. An existing sequential matching technique for continuous query processing makes a heavy load when the number of registered queries is being increased. To solve this problem, multi-dimensional query index technique was been proposed. But it is not appropriate for a 13-dimensional domain condition of EPCIS, an optional condition of event domains, and an optional condition of query domains. So this paper proposes a scheme of query index with multiple 1-dimensional indexes as a basic approach. However, the basic approach also makes a heavy load of processing when wrong query execution procedure is being executed. Therefore, this paper proposes dynamic query execution plan technique considering selectivity of each domain. Through the proposed technique, we measured performance improvement of continuous query processing.

Mikyung Choi, Byungjo Chu, Gihong Kim, Bonghee Hong

Criticality Based Decentralised Decision Procedures for Manufacturing Networks Exploiting RFID and Agent Technology

To solve the problem of control system complexity of manufacturing networks they may be modelled as Hausdorff Spaces and respective tangent spaces. Exploiting specific mappings as well as the criticality principles, all control and decision processes may be improved and sped up. Multi Agent Systems in combination with RFID technology are synthesised for a general decision procedure set up where the manufacturing execution control level may be seen as one specification of a generic decision support cycle, which is valid for complex and dynamic manufacturing systems on all levels.

Hermann Küehnle, Arndt Lüeder, Michael Heinze

The Application of the EPCglobal Framework Architecture to Autonomous Control in Logistics

In this paper, the authors explore the how the EPCglobal Framework Architecture components can be judged to support autonomous control in logistics. Initially, the paper introduces the problem area, being the field of data integration in the context of autonomous control in logistics. It then reflects the motivation for examining the Electronic Product Code family of standards in this context. Subsequently, the paper introduces the relevant standard components, with a focus on describing the mechanisms which are applicable to the unique identification of logistics entities, the discovery of software services relevant to that identification and the standardised storage of and access to data connected to that identification. It then discusses criteria from literature towards the appraisal of the information layer of autonomously controlled processes as well as differentiating different types of logistics objects required to be considered by that layer. A critical appraisal of the application of the EPCglobal Framework Architecture within the context of autonomous control in logistics concludes the paper.

Karl A. Hribernik, Carl Hans, Klaus-Dieter Thoben

Design of Middleware Architecture for Active Sensor Tags

RFID sensor tag has been widely adopted in many domains, especially in the environment sensitive applications. RFID middleware plays an important role in processing RFID tag data. It collects the raw data from heterogeneous data sources and provides RFID related services for user applications. EPCglobal has defined a standard RFID middleware—Application Level Events (ALE) for filtering and collecting RFID data. However it does not support active sensor tag, as well as the manipulation of sensor data and tag configuration. In this paper, we propose an extended middleware architecture which is based on the standard ALE middleware. Our middleware can support both passive and active sensor tag, as well as provides extended functions for processing RFID events and sensing events.

Haipeng Zhang, Bonghee Hong, Wooseok Ryu

Production Logistics


Investigation of the Influence of Capacities and Layout on a Job-Shop-System’s Dynamics

The logistic performance of a production system is reflected by its dynamics in operational condition. Both, internal and external factors influence the dynamic behaviour. While the influence on external factors, including for instance changing market conditions, is generally rather small, the internal factors are subject of factory planning and production planning and control. Especially job-shop-systems are often characterised by complex dynamic behaviour which is caused by their complex material flows. This paper describes an approach to analyse the role of dimensioning and structuring as subtasks of the factory planning process for job-shop-systems on the dynamics and therefore the influence on the logistic performance. By the combined application of simulation and data analysis within a generic model it is expected to identify general principles for the design of job-shop-systems. The results of the described undertaking are expected to improve standard planning methods for job-shop-systems by taking dynamic effects into account on an early basis.

Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Christian Toonen, Jan Topi Tervo

Modelling Packaging Systems in the Furniture Industry

Packaging systems of the furniture industry have become very complex because of the large variety of products, the short product life cycles and the small batch sizes. At the same time the competitive pressure grows and the companies are forced to find weak points in order to optimize their packaging system. There are a lot of well known methods for analyzing




systems in general, but no one for


systems. This paper presents a general model of a packaging system in the furniture industry for the first time. The model contains a value stream analysis on its

packaging system level

. Additionally, two more detailed levels are introduced: the

packaging process level


the packaging item level


Dennis Reinking, Hans Brandt-Pook

Monitoring Methodology for Productive Arrangements (Supply Chain)

It was observed that there are not any systems to productive arrangement monitoring. This monitoring is very important because it indicates how the supply chains are developing over the time. Due to this concern, it was developed a system to do this work based on management subsystems. It was identified seven subsystems which contemplate the management systems inside the organizations. When these systems are monitored, it can be observed where there are opportunities to improve all supply chain links. The methodology is being tested in seven regional production chains and has shown promising results.

Breno Barros Telles do Carmo, Marcos Ronaldo Albertin, Dmontier Pinheiro Aragão, Nadja G. S. Dutra Montenegro

Complexity-Based Evaluation of Production Strategies Using Discrete-Event Simulation

Today’s networks of production and logistics are often characterized by a large structural and dynamical complexity. As a consequence of their nonlinear and potentially unstable dynamics, an efficient planning and control is hardly possible, resulting in economic risks. The solution of the corresponding problems requires an overall understanding of the complex behavior of such systems. For this purpose, discrete-event simulation is applied to study networks consisting of only a few cooperating manufacturers. Based on these simulations, it is possible to identify dynamical mechanisms which make the dynamics of inventory levels strongly irregular even without the presence of stochastic factors. Many of the underlying dynamic instabilities can be attributed to an imperfect logistic synchronization, which emerges due to an improper mutual adjustment of lot sizes, transportation and processing times. In order to approach more quantitative results, a combination of different concepts from nonlinear time series analysis (such as symbolic time series analysis and recurrence quantification analysis) is suggested that provides characteristic measures for the complexity of inventory variations. The corresponding methods allow a systematic evaluation and potential improvement of the performance of different concepts and strategies for the control of material flows in manufacturing networks.

Reik Donner, Uwe Hinrichs, Christin Schicht, Bernd Scholz-Reiter

Converting Knowledge into Performance Within Global Production and Logistic Systems

Material and information flows across process, firm and context boundaries have increased the strategic relevance of global production and logistic systems. In this paper, the adaptation to tomorrow’s challenges within these systems is explored by addressing the transformation of context-related knowledge into performance. Which aspects would have to be considered in a contextualisation process so that it supports the international venturing within production and logistics? Suitable prior knowledge leads to better managerial interpretation and thus enhanced awareness to opportunities. An application-oriented process for assembling internal knowledge and expertise in order to enhance the performance of global production and logistic systems is proposed.

Enzo Morosini Frazzon, Bernd Scholz-Reiter

Dynamic Scheduling of Production and Inter-Facilities Logistic Systems

This paper addresses the integrated production and transportation scheduling problem (PTSP) along global supply chains. An optimal solution for the PTSP requires solving simultaneously the production scheduling for all production facilities and the routing problems for the inter-facilities transportation of intermediate products. Moreover, in dynamic environments information concerning logistic capabilities and employment level has to be appropriately utilised to determine most effective production plans. Since the underlying mathematical programs are NP-hard, an excessive computational effort is required even for dealing with small problems. In this paper we present a decentralised approach for the PTSP, where the supply chain is featured as a sequence of planning entities. Each of these entities consists of one production facility and is responsible for its production scheduling as well as for the transport routing to the subsequent planning entities. The scheduling is performed on the basis of an optimisation model that takes current capabilities of the inter-facility transportation and the production system into account. The analysis of computational results demonstrates the need for developing heuristics for suitably dealing with this kind of complex problem.

Bernd Scholz-Reiter, Antônio G. N. Novaes, Thomas Makuschewitz, Enzo Morosini Frazzon

Ports, Container Terminals, Regions and Services


How can Electronic Seals Contribute to the Efficiency of Global Container System?

The dynamics inside the global container system and increased post 9/11 security requirements from the government’s side force all companies involved in container transportation processes to provide more efficient and cost-effective services. How to balance security and business efficiency in container logistics system? Smart technologies like RFID e-seals on containers have the potential to add the required level of security to global shipping lines as well as generate a new business value. In this paper we give an overview of new advantages of e-seals implementation in global container system for service logistics providers, ports and container terminals, container shippers.

Kateryna Daschkovska, Bernd Scholz-Reiter

Resolution of the Berth Allocation Problem through a Heuristic Model Based on Genetic Algorithms

This article is characterized by approaching one of the problems encountered in port systems known as the berth allocation problem. As the operational activities require a high degree of time to be carried out and, in most cases they are done manually, it becomes necessary to use an optimization tool. To obtain a good solution with a small amount of computational effort, a heuristic model, based on concepts of genetic algorithms (GA), is proposed, allowing this concept to be learnt. Prepared generically, with some minor adjustments in the data, the method can be applied to solve the problem in any port, as the ports use a similar management system. Finally, a numerical experiment examines and evaluates the results, noting their effectiveness in the aid the improvement and refinement of the management system.

Vanina Macowski Durski Silva, Antônio G. Novaes, Antônio Sérgio Coelho

Development of a Genetic Algorithm for the Maritime Transportation Planning of Car Carriers

Many researches have been made in order to solve global logistic problems, and especially in case of maritime transportation, much more studies have been made compared with other transportation fields because of its weight in terms of international logistics. However, little study has been made on the car carrier’s transportation, due to its relatively small weight in the maritime transportation market. For this reason, this study has tried to develop an algorithm for the maritime transportation planning of car carriers, so that they can not only reduce logistics costs but also improve competitiveness. Car carriers are usually depending upon manual work, and concerning the routing of car carriers, however, many changes are frequently taking place in the car production schedule and ship’s arrival schedule. Because of this, this study has developed a genetic algorithm for car carrier’s routing so as to make an optimal transportation planning with minimum costs. The genetic algorithm in this study has been compared with the solution results of integer programming in an effort to test its performance.

Jae Un Jung, Moo Hong Kang, Hyung Rim Choi, Hyun Soo Kim, Byung Joo Park, Chang Hyun Park

A Model of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Opportunistic Routing in Logistic Harbor Scenarios

Collection of information for management in logistics is of great importance today. Many applications in logistics are currently starting to use modern technologies such as RFID. However, these technologies have not provided enough information for management such as the real-time condition of goods or online item tracking during transport. In this paper, a model for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in logistics is proposed under the consideration of mobility and multiple WSN domains. With the use of WSNs, relevant information can be monitored down to the level of individual logistic items. For the communication reliability of sensor networks, a high packet reception ratio (PRR) is desired. To achieve this high PRR, many techniques are used in our model to conserve energy and to improve the reliability. The results show that a PRR of 90% can be reached in our simulation scenarios using the proposed model. Moreover, a logistic scenario in a harbor is examined as an example to investigate the capability to connect automatically in multiple sensor networks.

Vo Que Son, Bernd-Ludwig Wenning, Andreas Timm-Giel, Carmelita Görg

Logistics Service Providers in Brazil: A Comparison Between Different Developed Regions

This paper evaluates the logistics market in a less developed region of Brazil, allowing for the identification of significant differences in comparison to the characteristics of those logistic service providers who operate in more developed regions. This exploratory study characterizes logistics services providers in the region and identifies a pattern of competition known as “low profile”. This pattern differs greatly from that treated in literature in general, which is the most advanced stage of development of the logistics services industry. The differences between companies in the Northeast region, known as one of the least developed, and those that operate in the most developed part of Brazil, show the differences in the evolution of the Logistics Industry. Such differences should be considered in strategy formulation among those companies who operate or intend to operate in those markets as well as government institutions which promote and regulate sector activities.

Mônica Maria Mendes Luna, Carlos Erani Fries, Dmontier Pinheiro Aragão Júnoir

Adapting Dynamic Logistics Processes and Networks: Advantages Through Regional Logistics Clusters

In order to show how logistics clusters can bring time advantages in adapting dynamic logistics processes and networks to the involved companies, in this paper the approaches of the Porter diamond, in which the national competitive advantages are being deduced and transferred to the regional level, are combined with the bases of the logistics system by Pfohl in one model. It is shown, how the force of assimilation and the increased adaptability of the companies in the cluster lead to a cluster arbitrage over time. The developed model is practically analyzed by the example of the logistics cluster in Bremen.

Ralf Elbert, Hans-Dietrich Haasis, Robert Schönberger, Thomas Landwehr

Quotation Behaviour of Profit Centres for Offers on Dynamic Logistic Services

Model and Govern Corporate Offer Calculation Through an Approach Derived from Poker Game Strategies

Today, freight forwarders are required to provide a global transport network, while at the same time keeping close proximity to their customers. A common way to deal with those opposite goals is to create geographically specialised business units, working together under the umbrella of a holding. Advantages of this structure are superb knowledge of the regional markets, while being able to provide international transport services under one name through cooperation of the units. Although part of the same corporate group, the regional business units operate generally independently from each other as individual profit centres. In this paper, the provision of dynamic logistic services through cooperation of profit centres is described. The ability to prepare competitive bids for international transports is essential for the success of a freight forwarder. The main objective of this paper is therefore to create a model of the decision processes in profit centre quotations. Decision processes of the involved business units in relation to their quotes are modelled in a simplified role gaming approach. Application of strategies derived from Poker gaming, especially the collection of a forced bet from the involved units, is tested as a method to govern the corporate offer calculation towards successful bids, aligning the self-interests of the individual profit centres with the objectives of the corporate group. The results are discussed for their applicability in a real company environment. Further research requirements are identified.

Bernd Pokrandt, Marcus Seifert, Stefan Wiesner

Long Haul Trucks Dynamic Assignment with Penalties

Long haul transportation system operational planning implies to solve a capacitated dynamic network optimization problem, aiming to perform the freight movements in an efficient and effective way, utilizing the available transportation capacity. This work employs an approximate adaptive dynamic programming to solve this kind of problem, introducing a network modeling to manage demands not attended, with the payment of penalties, or the utilization of third parties transportation firms to avoid the payment of such penalties. The proposed methodology employs a dynamic programming model applied to each stage of the problem instead of a network global optimization procedure. A heuristic is used to estimate the value of future state functions transferred from a current stage to future ones. This technique greatly reduces the quantity of involved variables, allowing the utilization of more realistic mathematical models on a longer planning horizon. Results from a successful application of the model with the utilization of the Jensen Network Solver are presented.

Antonio Martins Lima Filho, Nicolau D. F. Gualda
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