Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Food availability and access is a necessary condition for food security. This chapter aims to analyze the state of declining foodgrain availability in India despite record agricultural production and rising food subsidy. In terms of methodology, the data have been procured from the Economic Survey of India and the Annual Reports of the Food Corporation of India. Maximum, minimum, average, standard deviation, and correlation coefficients have been calculated for the pairs of net availability vs. carrying cost, net availability vs. total food subsidy, and food subsidy vs. Public Distribution System (PDS) offtake for analysis. The findings show that the availability of foodgrain ranges from 186.19 to 146.51 kg per person per year and the average 167.14 kg per person per year with a standard deviation of 10.10. Availability declined consistently from its peak of 186.19 kg per person in 1991 to the bottom of 146.51 in 2013. This difference becomes starker when one considers that an average family of five had 198 kg of foodgrain less to eat in 2013 than in 1991. The study found that the correlation coefficient of per capita net availability with subsidy was low at 0.19 but the correlation of subsidy with agricultural production was high at 0.91. The originality and value of this study are derived from its focus on the present government policies and resolutions for food management and the reasons as to why the present policies have not been able to address the problem of food availability in the country.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ahluwalia, D. (1993). Public distribution of food in India: Coverage, targeting and leakages. Food Policy, 18, 33–54. CrossRef
von Braun, J. (2008). The impact of rising food prices and climate change on the ultra poor. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Coady, D. P. (2004). Designing and evaluation social safety nets: Theory, evidence and policy conclusion. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Dev, S. M., & Sharma, A. N. (2010). Food security in India: Performance, challenges and policies. New Delhi: Oxfam India.
Devereux, S. (2006). The new famines. London: Routledge.
Drèze, J., & Sen, A. (1989). Hunger and public action. Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN: 978-0-19-828365-2.
FAO. (2009). Declaration of the World summit on food security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
FAO. (2008). Climate change and food security: A framework document. 107.
FAO, IFAD, WFP. (2013). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2013: The multiple dimensions of food security. Rome: FAO.
FAO, IFAD, WFP. (2015). The state of food insecurity in the world. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: Taking stock of uneven progress. FAO, Rome.
FCI (Annual Reports) http://fci.gov.in/finances.php?view=5.
GoI. (2005). Performance evaluation of Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). New Delhi: Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission, Government of India.
GoI. (2011). The National Food Security Bill, 2011.
GoI. (2013). The National Food Security Act, 2013.
Gulati, A., Gujral, J., & Nandakumar, T. (2012). National food security bill: Challenges and options. New Delhi: Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices.
Gulati, A., Sharma, P., & Kähkönen, S. (1996). The Food Corporation of India: Successes and failures in Indian foodgrain marketing. Center for Institutional Reform and the Informal Sector.
IFPRI. (2012). Global hunger index 2012. Bonn: International Food Policy Research Institute.
IIPS and Macro International. (2007). National family health survey, 2005–06 (Vol. II). Mumbai: International Institute for population Sciences.
Iqbal, F., & You, J.-I. (2001). Democracy, market economics, and development: An Asian perspective. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Kattumuri, R. (2011). Food security and the Targeted Public Distribution System in India. Asia Research Centre.
Ministry of Finance. (2013). Economic survey 2012–2013. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
Ministry of Finance. (2016). Economic Survey 2015–2016. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
New York Times. (2003). Does democracy avert famine? In: N. Y. Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/01/arts/does-democracy-avert-famine.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm. Accessed 16 May 2013.
Ramachandran, N. (2011). Climate change, seasonality and hunger: The South Asian experience. In M. Behnassi, S. Draggan, & S. Yaya (Eds.), Global Food Insecurity: Rethinking Agricultural and Rural Development. Paradigm policy (pp. 201–215). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Ramaswami, B., & Balakrishnan, P. (2002). Food prices and the efficiency of public intervention: The case of the public distribution system in India. Food Policy, 27, 419–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-9192(02)00047-7. CrossRef
Rao, C. H. H. (1994). Agricultural growth, rural poverty and environmental degradation in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Secretariat of CBD. (2013). Biodiversity for food security and nutrition. UNEP-CBD-FAO.
Sen, A. (1981). Ingredients of famine analysis: Availability and entitlements. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 96, 433–464. CrossRef
Sharma, P., & Gulati, A. (2012). Approaches to food security in Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico and Nigeria: Lessons for developing countries.
Sharma, V. P. (2012). Food subsidy in India: Trends, causes and policy reform options. Ahmedabad: Indian Institute of Management.
Stamoulis, K. G., & Zezza, A. (2003). A conceptual framework for national agricultural, rural development, and food security strategies and policies. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Agricultural and Development Economics Division.
Sunderland, T. C. H. (2011). Food security: Why is biodiversity important? International Forestry Review, 13(3), 265. CrossRef
Sutopo, W., Bahagia, S. N., Cakravastia, A., & Samadhi, T. A. (2010). A buffer stocks model for stabilizing price of staple food with considering the expectation of non speculative wholesaler. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2010 Vol III WCE 2010 June 30–July 2 2010 London, UK.
Swaminathan, M. (1996). Structural adjustment, food security and system of public distribution of food. Economic and Political Weekly, 21, 1665–1672.
Tyagi, D. S. (1990). Managing India’s food economy – Problems and alternatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
United Nations. (1949). United nations universal declaration of human rights 1948. United Nations.
United Nations. (1975). Report of the world food conference, Rome, 5–16 November 1974. New York: United Nations.
United Nations. (2011). The millennium development goals report 2011. New York.
United Nations. (2014). United Nations millennium development goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/poverty.shtml. Accessed 17 Aug 2014.
USAID. (1992). Food security. http://www.usaid.gov/guatemala/food-security. Accessed 14 May 2013.
Virmani, A., & Rajeev, P. V. (2002). Excess food stocks, PDS and procurement policy. New Delhi: Planning Commission.
WFP. (2013). WFP Strategic plan (2014–2017). Rome: World Food Programme.
World Food Summit. (1996). WHO|Food Security. In: WHO. http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story028/en/. Accessed 14 May 2013.
- Dynamics of Food Security in India: Declining Per Capita Availability Despite Increasing Production
Raj Kumar Gupta
- Chapter 6
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen