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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on E-Democracy, E-Democracy 2017, held in Athens, Greece, in December 2017.

The 18 revised full papers presented were carefully selected from 44 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on e-democracy; privacy; information dissemination and freedom of expression; social networks; electronic identity authentication; ICT in government and in the economy.





e-Participation Provision and Demand Analysis for Greek Municipalities

Municipalities have acknowledged that improving citizens’ access to online information and services, and engaging them in policy and decision-making enhance local democracy. Electronic participation can empower citizens who are interested in government decision-making and public issues. The objective of this article is to investigate the supply side and the demand side of electronic participation in Greek municipalities. Using content analysis for 325 Greek municipal portals we depict the supply of electronic participation for 2017, by employing the Citizen Web Empowerment Index. A comparison of the index for 2015 and 2017 is presented. Electronic participation demand is estimated using a sample of 212 citizens. The main findings show that municipal electronic participation provision progress is slow paced, although citizens express interest for involvement in local government issues. Municipalities should focus on well-designed electronic participation tools and services, taking into account citizens’ needs to engage them in public affairs.
Constantina Costopoulou, Filotheos Ntalianis, Maria Ntaliani, Sotiris Karetsos, Evagelia Gkoutzioupa

Zonal Constructed Language and Education Support of e-Democracy – The Interslavic Experience

This article brings the idea of improving the quality of information systems to support democracy and public administration in Slavic countries between Western Europe and Russia through the use of a zonal constructed language that can successfully replace English and improve the overall quality of ICT used for e-Democracy assignments. The connection with education, from which everything begins, is also emphasised. This article describes the results of public research in the form of surveys and the first practical experiences of the authors. The idea of improving computer translations between national languages is also mentioned. It is assumed that language, education and e-democracy create a developing triad. Finally, this article describes the future development of this idea.
Maria Kocór, Lina Yordanova, Jan van Steenbergen, Vojtěch Merunka



Using Personalization Technologies for Political Purposes: Privacy Implications

A growing body of literature has recently focused on the adoption of personalization methods and tools traditionally used in e-commerce, in the area of political marketing and communication. However, the impact of adopting personalization applications for political purposes has not been studied yet. This paper contributes to filling this gap, by analyzing privacy threats stemming from the use of personalization tools for political purposes and identifying their impact on individuals and society. This paper also identifies issues that need further research, as big data, individual targeting, the development of behavioral science and sophisticated personalization techniques are reshaping political communication and pose new privacy risks.
Paola Mavriki, Maria Karyda

Transparency-Enabling Systems for Open Governance: Their Impact on Citizens’ Trust and the Role of Information Privacy

Several governments and citizens embrace information systems that are designed to enable transparency of public expenses and discourage corruption in the public sector. The objective of this paper is to examine the capacity and value of information systems designed to enhance transparency, from a citizens’/users’ perspective. Our purpose is to address research questions associated with the actual impact of transparency-enabling systems and openness on citizens’ trust, as well as on uncertainty towards governmental policies and actions. We also explored the impact of privacy requirements and personal data protection regulations on the system and citizens’ willingness to access public data. To the best of our knowledge, these are largely unexplored issues in the related literature. Our study involves the design of a web survey and the execution of an empirical study with citizens who have used such a system in Greece. In particular, we focused on the Greek system ‘Diavgeia’, which is the national transparency and anti-corruption system.
Aristomenis Gritzalis, Aggeliki Tsohou, Costas Lambrinoudakis

Default OSN Privacy Settings: Privacy Risks

Empirical privacy evaluation in OSNs may provide a better under standing of the effectiveness and the efficiency of the default privacy controls and those customized by the users. Proper user perception of the privacy risk could restrict possible privacy violation issues by enabling user participation in actively managing privacy. In this paper we assess the current state of play of OSN privacy risks. To this end, a new data classification model is first proposed. Based on this, a method for assessing the privacy risks associated with data assets is proposed, which is applied to the case where the default privacy controls are assumed. Recommendations on how the resulting risks can be mitigated are given, which reduce the risk.
Alexandra Michota, Sokratis Katsikas

“I Have Learned that I Must Think Twice Before…”. An Educational Intervention for Enhancing Students’ Privacy Awareness in Facebook

Social Network Sites have doubtless become part of our lives, facilitating communication and interaction between social actors. Within this frame users disclose personal information for several reasons while at the same time they express privacy concerns. “Privacy Paradox” reveals that despite privacy concerns, users, most of the times, fail to protect their privacy within SNSs, putting thus themselves and other users to risk. In this respect, several researches have shown that users’ privacy awareness increase is of major importance, focusing on the crucial role of education towards this. This research aims to explore the effects of a long-term University-based educational intervention for enhancing students’ digital knowledge and skills in order to protect their privacy in SNSs efficiently. The educational intervention centered on a semester course of a Greek University, provides encouraging findings regarding students’ privacy awareness enhancement.
Maria Sideri, Angeliki Kitsiou, Eleni Tzortzaki, Christos Kalloniatis, Stefanos Gritzalis

A Conceptual Model of Decision-Making Support for Opening Data

The trend of open data has spread widely in the government nowadays. The motivation to create transparency, accountability, stimulate citizen engagement and business innovation are drivers to open data. Nevertheless, governments are all too often reluctant to open their data as there might be risks like privacy violating and the opening of inaccurate data. The goal of the research presented in this paper is to develop a model for decision-making support for opening data by weighing potential risks and benefits using Bayesian belief networks. The outcomes can be used to mitigate the risks and still gain benefits of opening data by taking actions like the removing privacy-sensitive data from dataset. After the taking of actions the process can start over again and the risks and benefits can be weighed again. The iteration can continue till the resulting dataset can be opened. This research uses health patient stories dataset as an illustration of the iterative process. This shows how the decision-making support can help to open more data by decomposing datasets.
Ahmad Luthfi, Marijn Janssen

Information Dissemination and Freedom of Expression


Monitoring Media Scrutiny of EU Official Information and Documentation. A Content Analysis of the European Online News Coverage (January–May 2017)

This paper discusses the media coverage of the European Union official information and documentation (press release, EU summits press conference communiques, etc.) released by the European Union official newsroom and disseminated using the online press in the period January–May 2017.
The paper reveals the inner-patterns of the EU online information dissemination while challenging the most important public events of the Europeans during this period: i.e. celebration of the sixty years of the EU existence, Dutch elections of March 2017, French elections of April/May 2017. The paper scrutinizes European and international online media platforms such as:,,, using the content analysis methodology. The paper analyses media coverage by exploring the following dimensions:
Targeting the main European Union (EU) themes in online media-coverage
Labelling the framing of online news articles
Determining the tone of journalists and issues
Pinpointing the most influencing issues in media coverage
Cătălina Maria Georgescu, Anca Parmena Olimid, Daniel Alin Olimid, Silviu Dorin Georgescu, Cosmin Lucian Gherghe

Is EU Copyright Law a Danger to Online Freedom of Expression?

The present paper discusses recent evolutions in jurisprudence on online copyright law enforcement in Europe, emphasizing consequences for freedom of expression. It debates whether free speech is menaced by application of this case law. First, reference is made to the relevant case law at the European level. Secondly, the author refers to injunctions against intermediaries and concludes that the danger to freedom of expression has been identified and taken in account by the court. Finally, the author refers to the parallel jurisprudential evolution of copyright law related to hyperlinks and demonstrates that here the issue of freedom of expression has not been taken enough into consideration, something that may have disastrous consequences.
Philippe Jougleux

Internet Censorship Capabilities in Cyprus: An Investigation of Online Gambling Blocklisting

This paper presents the initial findings of an open and collective effort towards a cross comparison study of web-content blocking regulations and practices, in different parts of Cyprus. Our analysis is based on network measurement data collected by volunteers in Cyprus, using a custom OONI probe and open DNS resolvers, from five residential ISPs; Callsat (AS 24672), Cablenet (AS 35432), Cyta (AS 6866), MTN (AS 15805) and Multimax (AS 197792). We were able to identify a number of unreported Internet censorship cases, non-transparently implemented blocking regulations, and collateral damage due to blocking of email delivery to the regulated domains by the National Betting Authority of the Republic of Cyprus. These results indicate the presence of at least two distinct regimes on the island.
Vasilis Ververis, Marios Isaakidis, Chrystalleni Loizidou, Benjamin Fabian

Social Networks


On the (Non-)anonymity of Anonymous Social Networks

The anonymity provided by the so-called anonymous social networks is studied in this paper. In particular, five popular anonymous social networks - namely, Social Number, Anomo, Whisper, Candid and the Yik Yak - are being analysed, in terms of investigating the data that are being processed by the corresponding mobile applications on Android systems. The results show that there is personal data processing in place which in some cases may result in tracking or even identification of the users and, thus, anonymity is not ensured.
Vasileios Chatzistefanou, Konstantinos Limniotis

Fostering Active Participation of Young People in Democratic Life: A Case Study Using the #ask Dashboard

In many democratic countries, including the European Union Member States, it is increasingly important that policy makers are aware of young people’s opinion. In this respect, the European Union prioritizes the discovery of new forms of participation in democratic processes and access to political decision-making through online and offline tools. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and evaluate the idea of promoting young people’s participation in political decision-making by brokering discussions on Twitter. Towards this end, we present a case study that utilizes and makes a preliminary evaluation of the #ask Dashboard, a software solution for brokering and analyzing discussions on Twitter between policy makers and young people. In terms of the case study, we discovered Twitter handles of 74 policy makers and 229 young people interested in ten topics. We used the #ask Dashboard to broker more than 275 discussions about these topics. So far, we have achieved 367 replies, 15 retweets and 105 likes mostly from young people. Students who participated in brokered discussions for a month performed the evaluation of the case study. Although students believe that the case study gave them the opportunity to be active on political issues, they were sceptical on whether Twitter discussion brokering successfully reaches young people and policy makers.
Areti Karamanou, Eleni Panopoulou, Vibor Cipan, Darko Čengija, David Jelić, Efthimios Tambouris, Konstantinos Tarabanis

Electronic Identity Authentication


Electronic Authentication for University Transactions Using eIDAS

The lack of a comprehensive European Union cross-border and cross-sector framework for secure, easy-to-use and authenticated electronic transactions has led to the electronic IDentification and Authentication Services (eIDAS) Regulation. This can be applied to student mobility programs that require authentication. The main objective of this article is to describe the connection of existing student services of the Agricultural University of Athens to the national eIDAS node. It describes the working progress of the connection of the Erasmus exchange student identification service to the node. Specifically, the upgrade of the existing service processes and the development of automated Web services based and compatible with the eIDAS Regulation are presented. These Web services speed up the process of student identification and facilitate uploading of documents needed for registration.
Konstantinos Gerakos, Michael Maliappis, Constantina Costopoulou, Maria Ntaliani

The FICEP Infrastructure

How We Deployed the Italian eIDAS Node in the Cloud
The EU Regulation No 910/2014 imposes to each EU Member State to notify its electronic identification scheme and to recognize the ones notified by the other Member States by 29 September 2018. In this process, Italy will notify SPID, an authentication scheme that allows citizens and business entities to access online services provided by the public administration and private bodies with a unique set of credentials. Technological and operational aspects related to the infrastructure that will allow the SPID notification represent the core business of the FICEP project. This paper offers an overview of the architectural and technological aspects that made possible the deployment of the FICEP architecture in the cloud.
Paolo Smiraglia, Marco De Benedictis, Andrea Atzeni, Antonio Lioy, Massimiliano Pucciarelli

ICT in Government and in the Economy


Secure Document Exchange in the Greek Public Sector via eDelivery

This paper describes how eDelivery specifications and technologies can be implemented in order to show how Document Management Systems used by the Greek Public Authorities can be connected in a common interoperability infrastructure for establishing communication with stakeholders (namely national and cross-Border Public Authorities, citizens and businesses) in a structured, secure, legal binding and accountable way. The action is conducted by the Hellenic Ministry of Administrative Reconstruction and it takes into account the eIDAS regulation’s provisions on Electronic Registered Delivery Systems and on Trust Establishment and the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) eDelivery specifications. The action includes the establishment of interoperability nodes (Access Points) and of infrastructure for discovery of the recipients (Service Metadata Publisher), the development of connectors for the integration of the backend Document Management Systems, the generation and exchange of evidences for ensuring authenticity and non-repudiation and the establishment of trust between the communicating points by using digital certificates. As communication is necessary not only at national but also at cross-border level, the Ministry has cooperated with Greek and European Public and Private Bodies, in order to ensure fulfillment of all requirements and integration with all possible stakeholders. The connection of the Document Management System used by the Hellenic Ministry of Administrative Reconstruction serves as a proof-of-concept.
Antonios Stasis, Loukia Demiri

Towards an Integrated and Inclusive Platform for Open Innovation in the Public Sector

The growing adoption of the open innovation paradigm in the public sector poses a set of research challenges related to the particularities of the domain and the technologies required to manage the associated knowledge flows among diverse types of stakeholders. This paper aims to shed light on how the proper combination of existing ICT tools can support and advance the implementation of open innovation practices in the public sector. Towards this aim, it first presents a non-exhaustive taxonomy of these tools, which is also associated with the open innovation phase they primarily support. Paying particular attention to the issues of collaboration support and sophisticated data collection and analysis, the paper also proposes an open, inclusive and sustainable web-based platform that builds on the synergy between human and machine intelligence to address the important challenges of public sector open innovation. An indicative application scenario, concerning a contemporary societal problem, showcases the potential of the proposed solution.
Aggeliki Androutsopoulou, Nikos Karacapilidis, Euripidis Loukis, Yannis Charalabidis

The Penetration of Robotics into the Administrative Function of the State - Pre-economy of Citizenry’s Benefit

Today’s digital robots could become tomorrow’s public servants containing algorithms as integral components of their computer program system. This is how we would slowly slip into the automated society, transforming many facets of life more basically our relationship with governmental branches. The fundamental principle in the constitutional Charter of …e-administration becomes not surprisingly an algorithm. Robot and human mind reveal a difference between perceivability and impassioned perceptivity. Legality and a “Supreme widespread Constitutionality” form inserted data provided to robot in order to calculate upon. For this feedback eliminates unlawful activity of Administration. Robot is charged with a duty of transmitting the request of the administered to the Natural Correspondent of the person who is a superior officer, probably robot’s manipulator. It can also receive a hearing by citizens according to their right for a due process. The robot is in principle not a subject itself, but an interject (=it confronts the citizen but also the State). It also contains both legislation and jurisprudence. The law that is kind of the robot’s heart and guides it is also the product of state will. Correspondingly, jurisprudence, which is the blood with which the heart produces pulsating responses, is the guarantor of the freedoms of the individual. Thus, the robot - civil servant is an autonomous and anarchist guardian of the state organization. At last, all - both citizens and Government - are happy with the robot’s operating as a public servant.
Despoina Kotsi

Factors Explaining ICT Expenditure Behavior of Greek Firms During the Economic Crisis 2009–2014

The financial and economic crisis of 2008 affected negatively investment in general, and investment in ICT was not left unchanged, with negative consequences for firms’ future performance and competitiveness. So this paper aims at investigating factors explaining firms’ crisis behavior with respect to ICT investment and ICT operational expenditures, i.e. their crisis vulnerability of ICT expenditures, for the crisis period 20092014. To this end, we examine the effects of six groups of factors on firms’ ICT investment and expenditure behavior during the crisis 20092014: three groups of internal factors and three groups of external factors. We focus our analysis on the internal ICT-related factors; we need all other factors in order to be able to appropriately specify two econometric models, one for ICT investment expenditures and a second one for ICT operational expenditures, and avoid omitted variable bias. The analysis of the factors that may influence the likelihood of a reduction of ICT investment and operating expenditure as a consequence of the crisis is primarily explorative, thus driven by available data and economic intuition. Our study is based on Greek firm data from the manufacturing, construction and services sector that have been collected in 2015/2016. We find that all six groups of variables contribute significantly to the explanation of both ICT investment and ICT operational expenditures during the crisis period 20092014, even if not to the same extent and not for each of the two dependent variables.
Spyros Arvanitis, Euripidis Loukis


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