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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries, AFRICOMM 2015, held in Cotonou, Benin, in December 2015.
The 25 papers were carefully selected from 51 submissions and cover topics such as communication infrastructure, access to information, green IT applications and security, health.



Communication Infrastructure


TV White Space Networks Deployment: A Case Study of Mankweng Township in South Africa

The role of cheap and easy access to various telecommunication facilities is crucial for further community development. Such an observation is of particular importance for the developing countries all over the world since reliable and open access to communication systems can fasten the reduction of the development gap. In this work we analyze the benefits that can be obtained by application of TV White Space network, i.e. the network that operates in vacated TV band in a cognitive manner. The whole analysis is conducted based on specific use-case, i.e. the test network deployed in the Mankweng Township.
Millicent T. Ramoroka, Moshe T. Masonta, Adrian Kliks

Exploring TV White Spaces for Use in Campus Networks

University campuses are busy places for wireless client traffic coming from Wi-Fi connections and other wireless devices that contend for the 2.4 GHz frequencies space that most campus Wi-Fi networks use currently. This is making the 2.4 GHz frequency unsuitable for Wi-Fi connection due to too much interference from other devices as well as from Wi-Fi connections themselves. TV white space could provide a suitable alternative to campus Wi-Fi networks because of its better signal propagation characteristics as compared to 5 GHz frequencies, which is currently being used as an alternative. As a first step towards white space management to prepare Africa’s university campuses networks for the migration from analog to digital TV, this paper presents the results of an investigation that was conducted to look at the spatial distribution of white spaces frequencies around two university campuses in Cape Town-South Africa to assess if they are useful enough to be used for university campuses to complement Wi-Fi networks.
Hope Mauwa, Antoine Bagula, Marco Zennaro

Impact of Small-World Effect on the ip-level Routing Dynamics

Running periodically traceroute-like measurements at suite frequency from a given monitor towards a fixed set of destinations allows observing a dynamics of routing topology around the monitor. This observed dynamics has revealed two main characteristics: the topology evolves at a pace much higher than expected and the occurrence of observed ip addresses provides a pattern of the ip-level routing dynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide some explanation of these characteristics through the small-world effect, observed on most complex networks. We are able to reproduce the observed dynamics by modeling the measurement on small-world graph. Thus, we show by simulation the influence of the coefficient clustering and the average path lengths on the dynamics.
Frédéric Tounwendyam Ouédraogo, Tegawendé Bissyandé, Sawadogo Daouda, Didier Bassolé, Abdoulaye Séré, Oumarou Sié

A Voice Over IP Deployment Solution for Public Social Institutions of Burkina Faso

Classically, social institutions are provided with a PABX-based unified and shared telephony service. With the mobile communications development, the organization of the telephony service is disrupted in favor of individual use. Mobile terminals capacities and usage development increase this trend. These terminals are more convenient in a social context which requires the ability to communicate anytime and anywhere. One non negligible perverse effect of this individual use of telephony service is the use of workers’ private resources for their work. To face this practice, we analyzed Voice over Internet Protocol opportunity for low-budget institutions, designed a low-cost solution which offers a unified and shared access to GSM networks and made propositions about quality of service and security challenges.
Pasteur Poda, Tiguiane Yélémou

Access to Information


BJNet: Another Way to Build a NREN

This paper presents the way a gigabit NREN (National Research and Education Network) covering the whole country of Benin and that will connect over twenty university centers is being built using mainly local unused infrastructures and local permanent staff already paid by the State of Benin (predominantly personnel from the Université d’Abomey-Calavi, UAC, in Benin and from Benin Armed Forces). The necessary additional equipments were provided by a relatively modest ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States Organization) project mainly funded by the EU. The necessary expertise was mostly provided by a Belgian university, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), a Beninese university, Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC), signal officers from Benin Armed Forces (FAB) and the Belgian NREN, Belnet.
Marc Lobelle, Norbert Hounkonnou, Firmin Donadje, Victor Oyetola

Deployment of an e-Infrastructure for Academic Research

One of the greatest problems researchers in Africa face, according a 2007 UNESCO report is a chronic lack of investment in facilities for research and teaching. This has both affected the quality and quantity of research output from institutions of higher learning, with the ripple effect of stagnating industrialization and R&D processes. This paper presents the design and implementation of an e-infrastructure, which is made up of cloud and grid computing clusters domiciled in University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN). The project has objectives, such as to deploy an Identity Provider (IdP) based on Simple Access Markup Language (SAML) that uses robot certificates to authenticate users on the cloud and grid infrastructures, deploy a Web 2.0 based Science Gateway application server that enables researchers have access to simulation, and modeling applications in their research domains on the infrastructure. As well as implement a Virtualized cluster for big data analytics. Results from one of the applications developed and deployed on the infrastructure show over 60 % predication accuracy while participation database in the infrastructure has reached up to 350 users.
Collins N. Udanor, Florence I. Akaneme, Stephen Aneke, Blessing O. Ogbuokiri, Assumpta O. Ezugwu, Chikaodili H. Ugwuishiwu, Carl E. A. Okezie, Benjamin Ogwo

Possible Challenges of Integrating ICTs into the Public Transportation System in the Free State Province, South Africa

There is need for ICT in the Free State public transportation system and for its implementation to be successful, information is needed on the needs of the various stakeholders and assessment of whether those needs are possible to fulfill using ICT solutions. The conventional and traditional poor quality transportation system needs to be improved. ICTs have shown to be the ultimate solution to most public transport problems. For successful ICT integration, implementation and operation of these ICT solutions to improve the public transportation system challenges may be encountered which has to be addressed. This study investigates the challenges which are likely to be faced by the different stakeholders at the different levels of the integration process.
Ndakhona Bashingi, M. Mostafa Hassan, Muthoni Masinde

On the Internet Connectivity in Africa

This study measures growth of Internet connectivity in Africa from 2010 to 2014 with a focus on inter-country relationships. An initial analysis reveals a modest increase in the number of participating countries but an explosive increase in the number of routers and network links. We then form the first country level topology maps of the African Internet and evaluate the robustness of the network. We study raw connectivity, pairwise shortest paths, and betweeness centrality, suggesting how improvements can be made to the inter-country African connectivity to enhance its robustness without reliance on paths traversing multiple continents.
Assane Gueye, Peter Mell, Desire Banse, Faical Y. Congo

Proof of Concept of the Online Neighbourhood Watch System

Potential digital evidence captured by an onlooker at a crime scene when stored in a repository can be used during criminal investigations, or as admissible evidence in a court of law. However, to employ the captured and stored potential digital evidence (PDE) some challenges are required to be dealt with, such as, retaining the forensic soundness of the captured PDE, adequate measures to secure the PDE and measures to protect the privacy rights of the PDE uploader (citizens).
In previous work, the authors proposed a conceptual model termed online neighbourhood watch (ONW). The ONW model allows community members to use their mobile devices in capturing PDE, store the captured PDE to a repository to be used in neighbourhood crime investigation in South Africa. But, the focus of this paper is to present a proof of concept of the ONW model. The proof of concept outlines the functional and architectural requirements specifications of the ONW system and evaluates the performance of the underlying functional requirements using mathematical proofs in testing the forensic soundness of the captured and stored PDE. Furthermore, using the information security services mechanisms, the forensic soundness indicators (FSI) are generated. The FSI ensures originality, authenticity and admissibility of PDE from the ONW system.
Stacey Omeleze, Hein S. Venter

Optimal Advertisement Strategies for Small and Big Companies

Many small and big companies in developing countries struggle to make their products or services known to the public. This is especially the case when there are new or have a new product. Most of them use publicity through radio, tv, social networks, billboard, SMS... Moreover, they also need to decide at what time to display their publicity for maximal effects. The companies which have more money typically used a simple strategy which consists in doing the publicity at many sources at different time or at a time such as to maximize the number of viewers. The smaller ones typically target the best popular programs.
However, this strategy is not the best as many users listening to your publicity might not be interested in it. So, you are more likely to miss the interested readers. Moreover, there will be many other competing publicities.
We propose a strategy by using the Multi-Armed bandit problem to optimally solve this problem under realistic assumptions. We further extend the model to deal with many competing companies by proposing the use of a time-division sharing algorithm.
Tossou Aristide, Christos Dimitrakakis

Innovation Factory: An Innovative Collaboration and Management Scenario

The Open Innovation model has its foundations on a very basic theoretical ideas: it is necessity to combine ideas internal to your enterprise and, at the same time, draw information and resources from the outside, i.e. from users, competitors, partners or others, who belong to the same market segment. This approach is well established and widely supported globally. However, in recent years, the technological solutions proposed have tried to provide cutting-edge solutions, which are able to channel resources from disparate sources to our businesses. But Open Innovation is not only this: its challenge is to break barriers, even if located within a single organisation hierarchy or geographical locations. Our work goes in this direction, introducing the concept of the Innovation Factory, where various new collaborative features are merged together into a consistent innovation management process.
Paolo Ceravolo, Ernesto Damiani, Fulvio Frati, Jonatan Maggesi, Riccardo Mainardi, Francesco Zavatarelli

A Framework for Accurate Drought Forecasting System Using Semantics-Based Data Integration Middleware

Technological advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has made it become an invaluable component of a reliable environmental monitoring system; they form the ‘digital skin’ through which to ‘sense’ and collect the context of the surroundings and provides information on the process leading to complex events such as drought. However, these environmental properties are measured by various heterogeneous sensors of different modalities in distributed locations making up the WSN, using different abstruse terms and vocabulary in most cases to denote the same observed property, causing data heterogeneity. Adding semantics and understanding the relationships that exist between the observed properties, and augmenting it with local indigenous knowledge is necessary for an accurate drought forecasting system. In this paper, we propose the framework for the semantic representation of sensor data and integration with indigenous knowledge on drought using a middleware for an efficient drought forecasting system.
Adeyinka K. Akanbi, Muthoni Masinde

Green IT Applications and Security


Prospect of Reduction of the GreenHouse Gas Emission by ICT in Africa

In recent year, reducing global warming is becoming one of the most challenging research topics in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) because of the overwhelming utilization of electronic devices and of Petroleum products.
Current solutions mainly focus on energy efficiency for saving power consumption by virtual machine consolidation on one hand, and on the on the other hand, by minimization of the consumption of petroleum products through Teleservices. The latter that must be used via data center whose we try to reduce energy consumption.
In this paper, we propose a dynamic consolidation method of virtual machines (VMs) using the alive migration and the switching of nodes idle and allowing to the suppliers of Cloud to optimize the use of the resource and to reduce the energy consumption. Furthermore, we show how Teleservices can participate in the reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa.
Telesphore Tiendrebeogo

Vulnerabilities of Government Websites in a Developing Country – the Case of Burkina Faso

Slowly, but consistently, the digital gap between developing and developed countries is being closed. Everyday, there are initiatives towards relying on ICT to simplify the interaction between citizens and their governments in developing countries. E-government is thus becoming a reality: in Burkina Faso, all government bodies are taking part in this movement with web portals dedicated to serving the public. Unfortunately, in this rush to promote government actions within this trend of digitization, little regards is given to the security of such web sites. In many cases, government highly critical web sites are simply produced in a product line fashion using Content Management Systems which the webmasters do not quite master.
We discuss in this study our findings on empirically assessing the security of government websites in Burkina Faso. By systematically scanning these websites for simple and well-known vulnerabilities, we were able to discover issues that deserved urgent attention. As an example, we were able to crawl from temporary backup files in a government web site all information (hostname, login and password in clear) to read and write directly in the database and for impersonating the administrator of the website. We also found that around 50 % of the government websites are built on top of platforms suffering from 14 publicly known vulnerabilities, and thus can be readily attacked by any hacker.
Tegawendé F. Bissyandé, Jonathan Ouoba, Daouda Ahmat, Fréderic Ouédraogo, Cedric Béré, Moustapha Bikienga, Abdoulaye Sere, Mesmin Dandjinou, Oumarou Sié

Paying with a Selfie: A Hybrid Micro-payment Framework Based on Visual Cryptography

In developing countries, the mobile revolution is happening in these days, and technology is now improving life conditions and providing new opportunities for the developing of the economies. In this paper, we provide a micro-payment framework that can be used to conclude everyday financial transactions. The novelty of the approach relies on the usage of techniques of easy understanding and application, even for uncultured people. The security of the system is also ensured by exploiting visual cryptography schemes, whose reconstruction phase requires no particular technical skills and relies only on human activities. The description of usage scenarios and the prototypal architecture of the framework are provided together with the initial plan for the experimental deployment.
Stelvio Cimato, Ernesto Damiani, Fulvio Frati, Joël T. Hounsou, Judicaël Tandjiékpon

Are the Days of Field-to-Laboratory Analysis Gone? Effects of Ubiquitous Environmental River Water Quality Assessment

As the human population growth and industry pressure in most developing countries continue to increase, effective water quality assessment has become critical for river waters. A major challenge, however, faced in water quality assessment is the process of data capturing and chemical laboratory approaches, which could be expensive and time consuming. This work develops ubiquitous particle swarm optimization (PSO) made-easy framework for mobile networks. The framework experimentally assesses water health status of Southern Africa river waters. Simulation results show that the proposed framework is able to obtain good results with economical solution when compared with assessment results obtained by the state of the art.
K. B. Goodman Makojoa, Isaac O. Osunmakinde

Health and Communication Infrastructure


Healthcare Systems in Rural Areas: A Cloud-Sensor Based Approach for Epidemic Diseases Management

The recent advances in wearable and integrated sensing devices, such as Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), have enabled a wide range of advanced and real-time sensing and monitoring issues. However, as stand-alone systems, WBANs are likely to face many challenges in terms of communication range, data security and privacy, storage and processing of the huge amount of data collected. In this context, we propose in this paper a novel healthcare system that relies on a cloud-sensor based approach for epidemic disease management in rural areas. The proposal tries to optimize epidemic diseases detection and tracking through the management of alerts generated by WBANs carried by individuals and belonging to public and private clouds. It also tries to report on the evolution of particular diseases and implement a query management system allowing cooperative answers from the aggregated clouds.
Sarra Berrahal, Noureddine Boudriga, Antoine Bagula

Managing Personal Health Records in an Infrastructure-Weak Environment

There are currently more than half a million diabetes cases in Cameroon and the deaths caused by diabetes complications will double before 2030. Diabetes complications mostly occur due to a bad follow-up of patients. In this paper, we propose a new IT architecture for diabetes follow-up and introduce the bases of a new distributed computation protocol for this architecture. Our approach does not require any preexisting support communication infrastructure, can be deployed at low cost, and provides strong privacy and security guarantees. This work envisions an experiment in the field we plan to conduct under the authority of the Cameroonian National Center for Diabetes and Hypertension, with a potential for generalization to other diseases.
Nicolas Anciaux, Sébastien Guillotton, Luc Bouganim, Sergio Ilarri, Alain Kamgang, Abraham Ngami, Christophe Nouedoui, Philippe Pucheral, Maurice Tchuente

Simulated Annealing Approach for Mesh Router Placement in Rural Wireless Mesh Networks

A critical issue in the planning of Wireless Mesh Networks is the determination of the optimal number and location of mesh router nodes. In this paper, we consider a network model in which the area to cover is decomposed into a set of elementary areas which may be covered; where a node may be placed; and which may be an obstacle for the connectivity. The aim is therefore to determine an optimal number and the positions of mesh router nodes which maximize the coverage of areas of interest, minimize the number of routers while ensuring the connectivity of the network. To achieve this, an approach based on Simulated Annealing algorithm is proposed. It is evaluated on different region instances. It provides area of interest coverage around 98 % with an optimal number of routers 1.3 times the minimum number of router corresponding to the ratio between the area to cover and the area covered by a router.
Jean Louis Fendji Kedieng Ebongue, Christopher Thron, Jean Michel Nlong

A Public Safety Wireless Sensor Network: A Visible Light Communication Based Approach

This paper investigates the design of a wireless sensor network that employs visible light communication technology to ensure an indoor public safety application intended for toxic gas detection within critical locations such as airports. To this end, a specific architecture for the VLC-based WSN was proposed which supports mobility of sensors inside the building. Moreover, an optical encoding scheme that can provide multiple access and quality of service differentiation was developed by combining both OCDMA and WDM techniques to reduce intra and inter cell interference. The quality of service provision is based on a dynamic allocation of optical code-words with variable lengths that depend on the transmission rate requirements of different classes of sensors. To reduce interferences the allocated code-words must be orthogonal. To this end, an appropriate orthogonal code-words generation approach was presented. Finally, a simulation work was conducted to evaluate the proposed network architecture.
Dhouha Krichen, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga, Antoine Bagula


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