Advances in ICT (Information and Communication Technologies), automation, and collaboration engineering have significantly revolutionized education and training over the past decades. The distributed and ubiquitous nature of Internet-based education and training, as remarkable instances of e-Service (Chapter 9), has transformed the emphasis of conventional education and training systems, from the transmission and acquisition to creation of knowledge, leading to further customized education and training. The emerging education and training systems are then more learner-oriented than instructororiented, i.e., concentrating more on the learning than the education aspect. The ever-increasing needs for knowledge update due to rapid advances in technology, the rising demand for postgraduate/continuing professional education of working adults, and limited capacities of educational institutions, along with high expenses of traditional education further justify the need for emerging e-Learning and e-Training systems. A major benefit of e-Learning and e-Training is the participative and collaborative infrastructure, as well as enabling engineered CCT aspects and functions of the learning process itself; just as in formation transfer in Internet 1.0 was mostly one-directional (from providers to users), Internet 2.0 enables bi-directional and multi-directional interaction and collaboration.
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- e-Learning and e-Training
Shimon Y. Nof
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg