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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training, eLEOT 2016, held in Dublin, Ireland, August 31 – September 2, 2016.
The 25 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. They focus on topics as augmented reality learning, blended learning, learning analytics, mobile learning, virtual learning environments.



General Track


A Social Metric Approach to E-Learning Evaluation in Education

The use of e-learning in education is an ever-increasing practice. E-learning could generate effective learning for education. There are several factors affecting the creation of successful e-learning for education as well as several criteria possibly applied to evaluate the effectiveness. The “traditional” way (questionnaire, interview, information system analysis) to measure effectiveness is not enough in e-learning measure of effectiveness because part of the information, that coming from social networks, will be lost. This paper, after identifying the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of a synchronous e-learning system, and identifying the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), proposes an approach for evaluation based on the analysis of information derived from social aspects. The paper proposes a set of CSFs and KPIs to study the students’ perception and highlights how to measure the KPIs using social software information.
Adriana Caione, Anna Lisa Guido, Roberto Paiano, Andrea Pandurino, Stefania Pasanisi

A Technique for Applying RLCP-Compatible Labs on Open edX Platform

The paper describes an approach of implementing interaction between Open edX platform and AcademicNT LMS that is used as an external assessment tool. AcademicNT provides Open edX with additional features, such as support of RLCP-Compatible Labs. Features of RLCP-Compatible Labs and an example of such lab are given. Structure of courses in Open edX platform and corresponding structure of AcademicNT supportive course are described, as well as interaction scheme. Described approach allowed reusing content of AcademicNT in courses on Open edX platform, in particular National Platform of Open Education of Russian Federation ( and ITMOcourses ( This paper may be of interest to those who is going to develop project based on Open edX or course compatible with this platform.
E. A. Efimchik, D. A. Ivaniushin, D. S. Kopylov, A. V. Lyamin

Active Learning and ICT in Upper Secondary School: A Possible Answer to Early School Leaving

The paper outlines the first phase of a three-year research activity on active learning in the core curriculum subject, intended as a possible solution to student disengagement in secondary schools. The paper presents the problem the research intend to attack - school failure, school unsuccess, student disengagement and early school leaving - and describes the context of the research, its originality, and the remedial measures put in place by the research team and policy makers. Among those, Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of teachers and structural measures to involve several stakeholders, including students. Then, the research design is given and the research tools presented, showing what dimensions are investigated. Finally, it provides some preliminary results as for one of the four qualitative case studies being carried out and future research perspectives.
Silvia Panzavolta, Chiara Laici

An Approach to Development of Practical Exercises of MOOCs Based on Standard Design Forms and Technologies

The paper describes an approach to the development of interactive practical exercises of the MOOCs on the basis of the standard design forms and technologies and the results of its application in the MOOC “Methods and algorithms of graph theory”, first run of which took place in 2015 on a National Platform of Open Education of the Russian Federation. The features and examples of standard design forms of applied practical exercises are given. The results of the application of the course, which confirms the efficiency of the proposed approach, are provided. Analysis of records of assignments in this course points to a tendency of reduction of time spent on exercises throughout the course. It was found that the reduction of time spent on exercise is significantly affected by situational awareness training that provided by the using of standard technologies and design forms to develop interactive practical exercises.
L. S. Lisitsyna, E. A. Efimchik

Creating Inspiring Learning Environments by Means of Digital Technologies: A Case Study of the Effectiveness of WhatsApp in Music Education

One of the most interesting challenges that many schools are facing today is the introduction of the most recent digital technologies in the learning process. These technologies also turn out to be efficient for the students in terms of motivation. Motivation and the nature of the learning experience are important factors for all students, but particularly for students with dyslexia. This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a course titled “Sound Recording” in Music Technology. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students’ knowledge management. Results showed that students with dyslexia compensated for their processing deficits by relying on learning strategies and help seeking.
Michele Della Ventura

Digital Competence and Capability Frameworks in the Context of Learning, Self-Development and HE Pedagogy

The paper explores and compares digital competence (DigComp) framework, published by EU in 2013 and updated in 2016, with digital capabilities (DigCap) framework introduced within the UK higher and further education context in 2009 and updated in 2015. The similarities found between the updated versions are in the increased focus on data in the context of privacy and overall literacy, as well as in the inclusion of wellbeing into the key areas. The main difference between the digital competence and capabilities frameworks is in the DigComp’s neglect of life-long learning and self-development. The paper further discusses the frameworks, their similarities and differences, through a single UK institution case study of a technology enhanced learning toolkit for HE. It then concludes by arguing for a human-centered approach to digital competence and capability frameworks, in which learning, self-development and wellbeing should play a vital role.
David Biggins, Debbie Holley, George Evangelinos, Marketa Zezulkova

Holographic Signing Avatars for Deaf Education

The paper describes the development and initial evaluation of an Augmented Reality (AR) system aimed at improving deaf children’s competence in mathematics. The system allows for creating 3D animated avatars that translate from spoken English to Signed English (SE) in real time. The virtual sign language interpreters, displayed as 3D holograms in a mixed reality environment, can be used in the classroom to translate in real time the math lessons delivered by the teacher, at home to facilitate communication between hearing parents and deaf children, and at home or in the lab when children interact with math digital learning materials. An initial formative evaluation with deaf students, parents and educators supports the usability and usefulness of the AR system.
Nicoletta Adamo-Villani, Saikiran Anasingaraju

How to Apply Gamification Techniques to Design a Gaming Environment for Algebra Concepts

Applying game-like mechanics in non-game software is a technique known as gamification. Gaming environments have been used to teach mathematical topics such as addition and division in a fun manner. However, given the difficulty of mathematical concepts, especially at the college level, it is very difficult to make software that can be considered both a video game and a teaching tool. Past game work in mathematics has mainly been the creation of puzzle games for primitive concepts such as addition. Our aim with this work is to show how we can build a type of entertainment software that allows users to learn mathematical concepts through play and investigate whether this type of game can help reduce players stress.
Usef Faghihi, Donald Aguilar, David Chatman, Nicholas Gautier, Jeffrey Gholson, Justin Gholson, Melvin Lipka, Robert Dill, Philippe Fournier-Viger, Sioui Maldonado-Bouchard

Intelligent Tutoring Systems

The importance of intelligent tutoring systems has rapidly increased in past decades. There has been an exponential growth in the number of end users that can be addressed as well as in technological development of the environments, which makes it more sophisticated and easily implementable. In the introduction, the paper offers a brief overview of intelligent tutoring systems. It then focuses on two types which have been designed for education of students in the tertiary sector. The systems use elements of adaptivity in order to accommodate to as many users as possible. They serve both as a support of presence lessons and, primarily, as the main educational environment for students in the distance form of studies – e-learning. The systems are described from the point of view of their functionalities and typical features which differentiate them. The authors conclude with an attempt to choose the best features of each system, which would lead to the creation of an even more sophisticated intelligent tutoring system for e-learning.
Vladimír Bradáč, Kateřina Kostolányová

Online Distance Education Materials and Accessibility: Case Study of University College of Estate Management

Distance education is accessible to those who have restricted access to more traditional forms of education due to their geographical location, employment, caring duties or disabilities. Therefore, it is important that online distance education providers seriously consider the accessibility of their materials. However, accessibility measures may limit the scope of interactive learning resources and may result in less dynamic and eye-catching materials, unless alternative accessible content is offered. If the content is not designed with accessibility in mind, there is also the financial cost of additional time and resources required to make reasonable adjustments. This case study examines the development of a comprehensive approach by University College of Estate Management to make its materials more accessible. Awareness-raising amongst staff and gaining senior management support are important factors that determine the success of accessibility initiatives. Weaving accessibility into an institutional culture is a long-term project that requires dedication and thorough planning.
Tharindu Rekha Liyanagunawardena, Asma Hussain

Raising Engagement and Motivation Through Gamified e-Portfolio in Kolej Profesional MARA (KPM), Malaysia: A Preliminary Survey

The gamification of e-portfolio is an educational approach to motivate students to learn by using game elements in online portfolios. The goal is to increase enjoyment and engagement through capturing the interest of learners and encouraging them to continue learning. This preliminary survey is important to better understand the intended users in a Malaysian institution, find out their readiness, and identify the infrastructure and facilities currently in place. The work in progress investigates students’ demographics information, students’ current styles in organizing their learning material, their prior experience with portfolio creation and development, their prior experience in using game applications and their current knowledge of ‘gamification’. The outcome of this survey shows that there are currently acceptable levels of current infrastructure and facilities provided at the institution with a satisfactory knowledge of portfolios and game elements. However, there is an interesting misconception of what ‘gamification’ is from the student’s perspectives.
Monisa Abdul Wahab, Mike Joy

Student Choice: Blends of Technology Beyond the University to Support Social Interaction and Social Participation in Learning

This paper presents an overview of a blended collaborative learning design driven by assessment and feedback. To extend class based activities students were provided with a private group space on the university managed learning environment. They chose to supplement this using technologies beyond those provided by the University to support their social interactions and participate in their learning. Qualitative data analysis of student’s reflections provides insights into the students own blends of technology including Skype, What’s App, Facebook amongst others and accessed via their hand held mobile devices such as Smartphones and laptops. These were used by the students to connect and collaborate with their peer group to complete the set tasks throughout the module and the final group based assessment.
Martina A. Doolan, Theo Gilbert

Teaching Syllogistics Using E-learning Tools

This paper is a study of various strategies for teaching syllogistics as part of a course in basic logic. It is a continuation of earlier studies involving practical experiments with students of Communication using the Syllog system, which makes it possible to develop e-learning tools and to do learning analytics based on log-data. The aim of the present paper is to investigate whether the Syllog e-learning tools can be helpful in logic teaching in order to obtain a better understanding of logic and argumentation in general and syllogisms in particular. Four versions of a course in basic logic involving different teaching methods will be compared.
Peter Øhrstrøm, Ulrik Sandborg-Petersen, Steinar Thorvaldsen, Thomas Ploug

The Effective of Learning by Augmented Reality on Android Platform

In this paper, we present the effective of Learning system based on Android operating system in Physics. The objective of this system is to advice student to learn Physics more convenient through mobile platform. The design approaches and functional components of this system were described and this application was developed on Knowledge. A quasi-experimental design of the pretest, posttest for non-randomized control group design was employed for this project. And, it was divided the result by the research purposes into 2 parts: developing the Mobile application for students and testing and evaluating the system. Black box technique was used to evaluate application performances and Questionnaires were applied to measure user satisfaction with system usability by experts and students.
Kunyanuth Kularbphettong, Nutthawut Limphoemsuk

The Use of Physical Artefacts in Undergraduate Computer Science Teaching

This paper describes the introduction of the use of physical artefacts in the teaching of the undergraduate curriculum in the Department of Computer Science at Middlesex University. The rationale for the change is discussed, together with a description of the various technologies and the areas in which they were deployed. We conclude with a discussion of the outcomes of the work and the conclusions reached, prime amongst which are that the policy has been successful in motivating and engaging students, with a resultant improvement in student progression.
Edward Currie, Carl James-Reynolds

ThesesDB – Single-Source of Information and Workflow Support for Students’ Work

e-Learning can be seen as service creation process including core, enabling and enhancing services. We focus on enhancing services for managing thesis and seminar processes at our university in order to support transparency, track-ability, communication, and success for our students and lecturers. We analyze the processes for bachelor, master, and PhD theses and bachelor and master seminars. Consequently, we suggest process templates to cover these processes. The process templates are implemented as an enhanced IT web application, named ThesesDB, utilizing modern web technologies and used in our lectures. We evaluate our approach by the Computer System Usability and USE Questionnaire.
Fabian Ball, Thomas P. Hummel, Andreas C. Sonnenbichler, Victoria-Anne Schweigert

Validation of Course Ontology Elements for Automatic Question Generation

Recent research has led to the emergence of ontology-based question generation and aims to benefit instructors by providing support and intelligent assistance for the automatic generation of questions. However, existing ontologies are not designed mainly for this purpose and the concern is that an ontology will not be competent enough to act as a semantic source for the question generation process. Therefore, the aim of this work is to validate how well the elements represented in a course ontology can be used for the purpose of automatic question generation. In this work, we choose to validate Operating System ontologies and identify related question sources from textbooks on this subject as competency questions. Finally, the result shows that the evaluated ontologies need more modification if they are to be used for question generation and we also suggest a list of concept naming patterns that need to be considered for such ontology modification.
Noor Hasimah Ibrahim Teo, Mike Joy

Online Track


CIR: Fostering Collective Creativity

Nowadays, society and organizations face an accelerated innovation that requires of professionals with new skills and attitudes, especially those related to collective creativity. However, educational environments are slowly integrating emerging paradigms limiting the contribution to the development of key skills related to innovation. Multiple investigations claim that teachers have conservative attitudes toward collaborative schemes, while employers generally recognize the effectiveness of creativity at work. Management of ideas is the core of creativity in innovation processes in the industry and in production and service management. This depends largely on the collective work and individual social skills, as well as on the capabilities that information technology and communication ICT provide. This article presents a process of collective ideas refinement CIR. This process combines paradigms of swarm creativity and social skills as a means to capture the participants’ emotions and evaluate the acceptability of ideas. We believe that it is necessary to use new forms of teaching and learning based on swarm creativity paradigms, on individual social skills, and on the use of ICT. Therefore, CIR is a tool that could become an effective way to encourage creativity in individuals.
Jaime Meza, Oswaldo Ortiz, Mónica Vaca-Cardenas, Sonia Roman, Josep M. Monguet

E-Learning Authoring Tool for Reusing Web Multimedia Resources

Reusing web multimedia resources for instruction can help a great deal instructors in authoring e-courses. These resources are interesting as they promote non-linear learning which fits the needs and constraints of learners. This paper presents an e-learning authoring tool which reuses web multimedia resources and integrates them into learning objects to be used in e-learning.
Norah Aldaij, Jawad Berri

Experience in a Blended Learning Course – A Case Study

Owing to the expansion of information and communication technologies (ICT), both teaching and learning have tremendously changed in the past two decades. The most suitable and popular teaching methodology nowadays seems to be blended learning. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the benefits and limitations of the blended learning approach in one of the blended courses run by the Faculty of Informatics and Management in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Moreover, the author of this article emphasizes the importance of the teacher’s/tutor’s role in blended courses and provides a few suggestions for the improvement of blended learning in practice.
Blanka Klimova

Private Cloud with e-Learning for Resources Sharing in University Environment

Most existing e-Learning platforms are unable to share learning resources between cloud platform and public network, and normally need additional cost to deploy the environment. This paper presents a new e-Learning model based on the virtual private network and private cloud, which could help the student to easily setup and configure his own e-Learning environment with less cost for efficiently sharing resources in universities. Firstly this paper describes the academic private cloud tool that offers a simple environment to experiment cloud computing concepts. Based on this private cloud, e-Learning system can be easily installed by using standard local computing resources, without the need of different hardware or external resources. Hence, this paper illustrates the framework of VPN and Private Cloud Integration, aiming at resource sharing in the university environment. The e-Learning platform is also scalable and capable to interconnect other multi-platform developed in different locations. This proposed framework solves the various challenges faced by e-Learning, and increases the availability, reliability and scalability of cloud based e-Learning systems.
K.P.N Jayasena, Huazhu Song

Research and Trends in the Studies of Collective Intelligence from 2012 to 2015

The interaction between groups of people and machines supports the transfer of knowledge and strengthen Collective Intelligence (CI) making it robust. The CI with the support of technology progresses through platforms and computer systems including ontology, clusters, agents and Web intelligence among others. This research consists of a content analysis of recent studies 2012-2015 on CI. After an extensive search of publications on electronic databases, two hundred and fifteen one papers were selected and exposed to a document analysis following the approach of Zott. In this research we identified three categories to consider: learning, technology and decision-making. The analysis revealed that CI is strongly related with technology, supporting the processes of training people and promoting collaborative learning as a new form of literacy. Another result of the analysis of literature indicates that the methods of decision-making and consensus foster collaboration and competition between individuals in order to achieve better results. Our review of the literature provides a contribution in the area of CI.
Francisca Grimon, Jaime Meza, Mónica Vaca-Cardenas, Josep M. Monguet

Student Track


Comparative Study of the Mobile Learning Architectures

With the emergence of mobile devices (Smart Phone, PDA, UMPC, game consoles, etc.), and the growth of offers and needs of a company under formation in motion, multiply the work to identify relevant new learning platforms to improve and facilitate the process of distance learning. The next stage of distance learning is naturally the port of e-learning to new mobile systems. This is called m-learning (mobile learning). Because of the mobility feature, m-learning courses have to be adapted dynamically to the learner’s context. Several researches addressed this issue and implemented a mobile learning environment. In this paper, we compare a list of mobile learning architectures with methods presented in the literature. The evaluation presents a set of criteria specifically identified to qualify m-learning architectures dedicated to the context-change management.
Sameh Baccari, Florence Mendes, Christophe Nicolle, Fayrouz Soualah-Alila, Mahmoud Neji

Social Microlearning Motivates Learners to Pursue Higher-Level Cognitive Objectives

With the advent of the smart phone, technology enhanced learning ultimately became mobile. The combination of small devices and ubiquitous availability promoted a certain type of informal learning called microlearning. Unfortunately, micro-learners tend to focus on the lower level cognitive objectives remembering and understanding. Social microlearning seeks to engage the learners in activities of higher cognitive levels – such as analyzing, evaluating and creating – by using successful strategies of social software. Early results confirm the assumption that learners’ activities evolve towards higher cognitive levels over time spent on a particular subject in a social microlearning environment. Consequently, social micro-learners gain deeper insights by progressing through an upwards spiral of competence development.
Bernhard Göschlberger

Strategy Simulation Games: The Student Perspective and an Investigation of Employability Competencies Gained Through the Use of Strategy Simulations in Higher Education

The use of business simulations continues to grow in higher education business schools. The perspective of a key stakeholder, the student, is presented in this paper. A key to student buy-in is evidence of the competencies acquired through the use of simulations. The Higher Education institutions, the lecturers, the students and the future employers are all seeking enhanced student employability competencies; a demonstrable link between the use of simulations and key employability competencies would present a win for all stakeholders. The second phase of research presented is the students view on employability competencies currently achieved via a case study assessment. Finally this paper presents a high level overview of the proposed research to assess if the use of a strategy simulation in the teaching of strategic management enhances student employability competencies.
Anne Crowley, Margaret Farren, Gearóid Ó. Súilleabháin


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