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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the Second International Conference on E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training, eLEOT 2015, held in Novedrate, Italy, in September 2015.

The 26 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. They focus on e-learning and distance education in science, technology, engineering and math.



Does Character’s Visual Style Affect Viewer’s Perception of Signing Avatars?

The paper reports a study that aimed to determine whether character’s visual style has an effect on how signing avatars are perceived by viewers. The stimuli of the study were two polygonal characters that presented two different visual styles: stylized and realistic. Each character signed four sentences. Forty-seven participants with experience in American Sign Language (ASL) viewed the animated signing clips in random order via web survey. They (1) identified the signed sentences (if recognizable), (2) rated their legibility, and (3) rated the appeal of the signing avatar. Findings show that while character’s visual style does not have an effect on subjects’ perceived legibility of the signs and sign recognition, it has an effect on their interest in the character. The stylized signing avatar was perceived as more appealing than the realistic one.
Nicoletta Adamo-Villani, Jason Lestina, Saikiran Anasingaraju

Assessing the Usability of Learning Management System: User Experience Study

E-learning is an innovative way of learning that is both symbolic and derivative of ‘the information age.’ When used as part of the learning process, it provides users with greater flexibility in terms of time and location. For an E-learning application to be considered effective, it should provide its users with a certain standard of usability; otherwise, the learning process is likely to become cumbersome and frustrating for the learner. Focusing on this dilemma, this paper aims to assess the usability of the Jusur Learning Management System (LMS) that is used in higher education in Saudi Arabia. Nine factors have been incorporated into a survey to evaluate the system: content, learning and support, visual design, navigation, accessibility, interactivity, self-assessment, learnability, and motivation. The results show that E-learners who use the Jusur LMS tend to find that Jusur is a usable and desirable application in terms of its users’ experiences and perspectives.
Maha M. Althobaiti, Pam Mayhew

A Service-Oriented Distributed Learning Environment for Manufacturing Workplaces

Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are key assets to Europe’s economic future, providing millions of workers with access to technology, skills, and knowledge – often, however, missing a managed approach and appropriate tools for continuous learning and development.
This paper introduces a service-oriented platform – and associated building blocks – developed to implement an operational reference framework (“eMeMO”), tailored to learning and training needs of Blue Collar Workers in manufacturing environments, and built to increase their training and work performance directly at the workplace.
The experiences and results illustrated have been collected during the activities of the research project TELL ME [1], a EU-co-funded initiative held by industry, universities, research labs, technology firms and innovation companies from all over Europe.
Stefano Bianchi, Michele Sesana, Maurizio Megliola, Kaj Helin, Jaakko Karjalainen, Fridolin Wild

Personalization of Foreign Language Education in the LMS Moodle Environment

The paper deals with new processes in e-learning to achieve the most effective path through a course for each student. In order to achieve such an ideal path through an e-learning course (here a course of the English language), a new methodology has been developed and special components have been introduced, which enabled to create an individual study plan for each student individually. New components consist of two blocks. A block consisting in finding out student’s language knowledge and a block of sensory preferences. These blocks provided input values and information for creating a verification e-course. A great benefit is that the proposed methodology used existing possibilities of a conditional progress through a course while introducing the new components enabled to create individual study plans in an automated way. This comprehensive system has been verified on a sample set of students of the bachelor study program Applied Informatics at the Department of Informatics and Computers, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, in winter term 2014.
Vladimír Bradáč, Pavel Smolka, Cyril Klimeš

Automation of Variant Preparation and Solving Estimation of Algorithmic Tasks for Virtual Laboratories Based on Automata Model

In the work a description of an automata model of standard algorithm for constructing a correct solution of algorithmic tests is given. The described model allows a formal determination of the variant complexity of algorithmic test and serves as a basis for determining the complexity functions, including the collision concept – the situation of uncertainty, when a choice must be made upon fulfilling the task between the alternatives with various priorities. The influence of collisions on the automata model and its inner structure is described. The model and complexity functions are applied for virtual laboratories upon designing the algorithms of the variant constructing with a predetermined complexity in real time and algorithms of the procedures of students’ solution estimation with respect to collisions. The results of the work are applied to the development of virtual laboratories, which are used in the practical part of massive online course on graph theory.
Mikhail S. Chezhin, Eugene A. Efimchik, Andrey V. Lyamin

Assessing Students and Teachers Experience on Simulation and Remote Biotechnology Virtual Labs: A Case Study with a Light Microscopy Experiment

With recent trends of using Information and Communication Technologies in education, virtual labs have become more prevalent in classrooms of most schools and universities, especially in South India. The purpose of this paper was to perform a comparative analysis of virtual learning components such as animations, simulations and real-time remotely controlled experiments. As a part of this study, we conducted a series of biotechnology virtual lab workshops for University-level users within India and collected feedback related to the usage of virtual labs via direct approach. The survey amongst the students and teachers suggested simulation-based labs were more preferred in enhancing teaching and learning strategy compared to graphics-mediated animations and remotely controlled experiments. This paper also reports some of the issues faced by virtual lab users. Studies indicated that even though the web-based technologies are a new venture in education, it still poses adaptability issues.
Shyam Diwakar, Rakhi Radhamani, Hemalatha Sasidharakurup, Dhanush Kumar, Nijin Nizar, Krishnashree Achuthan, Bipin Nair

Students’ Acceptance of Peer Review

Peer review technique used in educational context could be beneficial for students from several points of view. Besides of developing students’ writing skills, critical thinking, practising articulation of own knowledge to the others and giving them feedback, it can encourage collaborative learning and boost the students’ interest in the course. In our web design course we successfully introduced peer review activities more than 2 years ago. In this paper we discuss the students’ acceptance of peer review applied on evaluation of other students’ projects.
Veronika Dropčová, Martin Homola, Zuzana Kubincová

Investigating the Digital Literacy Needs of Healthcare Students: Using Mobile Tablet Devices for the Assessment of Student-Nurse Competency in Clinical Practice

This case study investigates the digital attitudes, skills and development needs of nursing students when using mobile tablet devices to assess student-nurse competencies in clinical practice. Participants have been asked to complete a bespoke skills-based digital competence self-assessment questionnaire based on the EU DIGCOMP framework; this enabled a baseline for both individual and group. The individual characteristics of students were further explored through comments and their reflective diaries results show a complex, highly-individual profile for each student while the group exhibits common characteristics. Further work is proposed to investigate intricacies on how students perceive and use technologies in education and daily lives.
George Evangelinos, Debbie Holley

Student Engagement in an Online Environment: Are We Trying to Mimic Contact Education? A South African Perspective

There is no doubt in anyone’s mind that human contact can never be replaced 100 % by any other means. When it comes to higher education it is not different. Graduation rates at contact institutions are higher than distance learning institutions. It is equally true that since the inception of distance education the assumption has been that the greater the duplication of contact education the greater the chance of success. Although the content could be identical in both modes of delivering education, and the difference is contact versus non-contact from there on the differences exceed the similarities.
This study examines existing literature in student engagement and uses post facto research. Then it proposes a framework which could enhance student participation which increases the possibility of graduation of a student in an Open Distance Learning institution.
Sunet Eybers, Apostolos (Paul) Giannakopoulos

The Impact of Mobile Technology in Education: A Focus on Business Information Systems at the International University of Management in Namibia

This paper is about implementing mobile technology to improve teaching and learning. Mobile technologies include laptops, smartphones, tablets, smart devices and PDAs. Research has shown that there appears to be some gains to both lecturer and students when mobile technology is incorporated into teaching-learning. Mobile technology can also be used by teachers as a tool to deliver lectures to students through recorded materials. The assumption is that all students possess a mobile device adhering to minimum standards be it their own or supplied by the institution. A study was conducted to establish the impact of such devices in the teaching and learning situation focusing on Business Information Systems at the International University of Management (IUM) in Namibia. Mixed methods research paradigm and the quasi- experimental method were used based on the positivistic philosophical approach. The results showed that use of mobile technology can have a positive effect on academic performance.
Zanele Mlotshwa, Apostolos (Paul) Giannakopoulos

Making Neuroscience Important and Relevant: Online Learning in an Innovative Bachelor of Dementia Care Program

Neuroscience is an important component of STEM disciplines and fundamental to understanding dementia, a growing worldwide public health issue. Understanding the neuropathology and clinical manifestations of dementia is important for those who need to provide effective daily care for adults with dementia. Dementia care workers form a non-traditional student cohort and the Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre at the University of Tasmania (Australia) has developed a fully online Bachelor of Dementia Care degree to facilitate their educational and professional development. This paper documents the success of 65 adult learners as they completed four neuroscience units in the degree. Adult learners with no previous university experience performed similarly to those with university experience suggesting that this unique online degree is appropriately designed for students with limited educational backgrounds. Analysis of students’ comments on the impact of their neuroscience learning indicated increased understanding and confidence in the care they provided.
Lynette Goldberg, Andrea Carr, Alison Canty, Shannon Klekociuk, David Ward, Lila Landowski, Carolyn King, Fran McInerney, James Vickers

E-learning Project Assessment Using Learners’ Topic in Social Media

A correct assessment of e-learning projects is a complex task because there are several aspects (such as contents, technologies, organizations etc.) that must be considered and many actors (learners, teachers, pedagogues, etc.) each one with specific requirements to be met. In recent years, in order to standardize the evaluation and to define the quality features of an e-learning project, several sets of factors (called Critical Success Factors) have been defined. The Critical Success Factors are focused on many aspects but, in our vision, they don’t consider properly the learners’ opinions. The learner is exactly the main e-learning project stakeholder. Thus, he/she could be considered at the centre of the e-learning system and his/her opinions must be carefully evaluated. In this paper, we describe our idea to support the analysis of the learners’ discussions posted on the web2.0 media (like forums, wikis, etc.) and to support the subsequent evaluation of the lacks and the benefits of e-learning projects.
Adriana Caione, Anna Lisa Guido, Roberto Paiano, Andrea Pandurino, Stefania Pasanisi

Enhancing Student Support with a Virtual Assistant

Effective student support can be seen as a key element in enhancing students’ learning experience and has the potential to improve retention, progression and student achievement. The purpose of this research was to investigate student responses to the idea of using an avatar-based virtual support system and to develop such a system for piloting in a specific university service. A survey was conducted to establish the perceived need for such a system. A prototype system was then implemented in a limited domain, namely student employability and a further survey was conducted to obtain feedback from potential users as to its efficacy. This was generally positive and our intention is now to roll out the system across other university services.
Pirkko H. Harvey, Edward Currie, Padma Daryanani, Juan C. Augusto

Using Augmented Reality to Engage STEM Students with an Authentic Curriculum

This paper reports on the introduction of a set of ‘Augmented Reality’ (AR) tasks, offering an innovative, real world and problem based set of activities for a group of first year University Gaming and Computer Science students. Our initial research identifies a gap in the perceptions of STEM students between the usefulness of discipline based modules and a compulsory ‘Professional Development’ module where more ‘employability’ based skills were delivered. It had a history of poor student engagement and attendance, and failed to provide a compelling narrative/links to the outside world. The AR tasks were designed to facilitate group-working and multi-channel communication, and to engage students through the use of a more creative technology. Framed as a rich case study, insights are captured through student blogs, video interviews and a questionnaire. Initial findings indicate higher levels of satisfaction, enhanced student engagement and a greater awareness of the value of transferable skills.
Mike Hobbs, Debbie Holley

Engaging Our School Teachers: An Augmented Reality (AR) Approach to Continuous Professional Development

Currently, trainee teachers in the UK learn about behaviour management strategies from a theoretical perspective at university, through discussions with their school mentors, and by trial and error at their school placement. Existing literature mainly focuses on these issues from the ‘adult’ viewpoint, not the voice of the child. This paper reports on work-in-progress developing a range of Augmented Reality (AR) resources, drawing upon co-design research workshops with children from a Year 6 class (aged 10) in a UK Primary School. Our research informs approaches to classroom management by encouraging reflection and analysis of ‘critical incidents’ identified by the pupils, and explored by trainee teachers in workshops through the medium of AR, giving a reality previously uncaptured in more traditional approaches. Our final resources will be a set of Open Education Resources (OER), offered to the wider community for reuse/repurposing for educational settings through a Creative Commons (cc) licence.
Debbie Holley, Philip Howlett

Self-directed Learning in e-Portfolios: Design Issues and Investigation of Students’ Performance

This paper presents an investigation on students’ learning presence in a blended post-graduate course, designed to promote self-directed learning through e-portfolio activities. The theoretical foundations and the key dimensions of e-portfolio learning activities are outlined, i.e. students’ construction, reflection and collaboration. Following are presented the organizational and the analysis framework of students’ self-directed learning and constructive activities within the e-portfolio. Descriptive analysis and Social Network Analysis of the research data revealed important information regarding individual performance, interaction and collaboration among participants as well as the whole e-portfolio community.
Athanassios Jimoyiannis, Panagiotis Tsiotakis

XML Based Pre-processing and Analysis of Log Data in Adaptive E-Learning System: An Algorithmic Approach

E-learning has become the most popular way of delivering education and learning. Adaptive E-learning systems are the systems that adapt according to the requirements of the user. These systems should be capable of capturing the user preferences in terms of their learning styles and adapt the user interface accordingly. Web log analysis of the usage data can provide useful information regarding the learning styles. This analysis is extremely useful to develop an adaptive environment for the learner and at the same time for instructors to see how often their course contents are being used. In this paper a modified literature based approach is proposed where the learner’s behavior is tracked by capturing the interactions with e-learning portal. The captured behavior will be stored in the form of sessions which will be grouped together to generate the sequence files in the XML formats. The learning styles have been identified by an algorithmic approach based on the frequency and time that the learners spend on various learning components on the portal. The approach is useful to provide an adaptive user interface which includes adaptive contents and recommendations in learning environment to improve the efficiency of e-learning. The learning style model used is Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM) to fit the learning styles into an adaptive environment.
Sucheta V. Kolekar, Radhika M. Pai, M. M. Manohara Pai

Open Badges: Encouraging Participation in Software Development Modules

This paper will discuss the initial steps taken to ascertain the suitability of Open Badges as a motivational and pedagogical tool for students undertaking Software Development modules. The literature reviewed suggests that the Open Badges are a positive motivational tool but that careful design is required to maximize their introduction. Students were surveyed to gauge their knowledge of Open Badges and to ascertain their desire for inclusion.
Bobby Law

MOOCs Scenarios and Learning Recognition. A Step Further?

This paper introduces some pedagogical reflections about the “lights” and “shadows” of the MOOCs in higher education. It presents the main characteristics of those courses and proposes feasible potential scenarios of online learning recognitions. Currently, there are several modality to design the assessment in the massive courses, but the majority of them focus only on summative assessment function.
Luigi Guerra, Maurizio Betti, Luca Ferrari

Big Data and Organizational Learning: Conceptualizing the Link

Organizational learning is key for organizations in creating and enhancing business processes as well as improving decision making to gain competitive advantage. Big data is becoming a source of competitive advantage, productivity growth, agility and innovation for organizations. Harnessing knowledge from big data has the potential to create individual and collective learning within organizations. Conceptualizing the link between big data and organizational learning is thus worth investigating if big data is to contribute to organizational learning. To understand the big data and organizational learning link, the characteristics of big data, the tools associated with big data and how organizations learn needs to be understood. Big data assist organizational learning by using its tools to aid the knowledge conversion process. The characteristics of big data are exhibited through the use of big data tools in the management of knowledge involved in organizational learning.
John Serbe Marfo, Richard Boateng

Fostering Collective Intelligence Education

New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information reality. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education, currently more focused on the individual than in the collective. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration, empowerment and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance in a course. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified. We finally discuss the need to connect research and innovation in this field.
Jaime Meza, Josep M. Monguet, Francisca Grimón, Alex Trejo

Change of Attitude in Class for Creating Slides to Present Product

The creation of product presentation slides using PowerPoint was implemented in order to ensure that students acquire the knowledge and information required to use computers. Students created slides presenting products in which they were interested, inserting animation and recording narration. This class combined evaluation and revision activities and implemented active learning and, along with enhancing computer skills, awareness relating to a variety of skills required for problem solving were enhanced in an attempt to cultivate independent thinking skills. In particular, the aim was not only to enhance PowerPoint skills but also to improve expressiveness, planning ability and ability to make proposals. This paper reports on the class to create product presentation slides, its contents and its learning effects.
Isao Miyaji

Students’ Perception of Privacy Risks in Using Social Networking Sites for Learning: A Study of Uganda Christian University

Although social networking sites (SNSs) present a great deal of opportunities to support learning, the privacy risk is perceived by learners as a friction point that affects their full use for learning. Privacy risks in SNSs can be divided into risks that are posed by the SNS provider itself and risks that result from user’s social interactions. Using an online survey questionnaire, this study explored the students’ perception of the benefits in using social networking sites for learning purposes and their perceived privacy risks. A sample of 214 students from Uganda Christian University in Africa was studied. The results show that although 88 % of participants indicated the usefulness of SNSs for learning, they are also aware of the risks associated with these sites. Most of the participants are concerned with privacy risks such as identity theft, cyber bullying, and impersonation that might influence their online learning participation in SNSs.
Francis Otto, Nurul Amin Badrul, Shirley Williams, Karsten Øster Lundqvist

Using Social Networking Tools for Teaching and Learning: A Perspective of University Lecturers and Students

The use of online social networking tools (SNTs) has become commonplace within higher education. In this paper a definition and a typology of educational affordance of social networking service (SNS) are presented. The paper also explores the educational affordances whilst examining how university lecturers and students use SNTs to support their educational activities. The data presented here were obtained through a survey in which 38 participants from three universities took part; two universities in Uganda and one in the United Kingdom. The results show that Facebook is the most popular tool with 75 % of participants having profiles. Whilst most participants perceived the educational significance of these tools, social affordances remain more pronounced compared to pedagogical and technological affordances. The limitations of this study have also been discussed.
Francis Otto, Shirley Williams, Karsten Øster Lundqvist

Student Action Prediction for Automatic Tutoring for Procedural Training in 3D Virtual Environments

This paper presents a way to predict student actions, by using student logs generated by a 3D virtual environment for procedural training. Each student log is categorized in a cluster based on the number of errors and the total time spent to complete the entire practice. For each cluster an extended automata is created, which allows us to generate more reliable predictions according to each student type. States of this extended automata represent the effect of a student correct or failed action. The most common behaviors can be predicted considering the sequences of more frequent actions. This is useful to anticipate common student errors, and this can help an Intelligent Tutoring System to generate feedback proactively.
Diego Riofrío-Luzcando, Jaime Ramírez

Utilizing LMS Tools to Help with Student Assessment

Feedback is important to student progress. Formative assessments allow the student to adjust or improve their learning progress, but take valuable time. This paper describes how using available LMS tools can assist faculty in assessing student work and provide helpful feedback to students. The research measures the results of formative assessments on students’ grades. The tools available for faculty to use can be set up to save time for the faculty during assessments. Students have the opportunity for multiple attempts at assignments and receive feedback on each to help measure their learning. The rubric tool was used to not only grade student papers but also to provide appropriate feedback for student performance on the levels of achievement. Quizzes can be automatically graded. Results from this study show the benefits of multiple attempts at quizzes and written assignments. Future research is discussed to help further this pedagogical approach.
Dudley Turner


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