All organizations pursue resource productivity to differing degrees. By optimizing the overall use of resources, such as the reduction of energy consumption and waste, companies can also reduce the costs associated with them and, consequently, become more competitive. However, as emphasized in Chapter 2, even if resource productivity is conducive to higher competitiveness, it cannot be considered a strategy per se. Resource productivity is part of the overall operational effectiveness that companies need to adopt in order to remain competitive. If this is the case, why then is Eco-efficiency portrayed as a generic type of competitive environmental strategy on p. 30? If resource efficiency is a well-known management practice that every organization should pursue, would it not be just operational effectiveness? Or is there something fundamentally new about ecology-oriented efficiency?
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