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2019 | Buch

Eco-Factories of the Future


Über dieses Buch

This edited monograph presents a selection of research contributions on eco-factories of the future. The topical focus lies on cutting-edge solutions from academia and industry that enable and support companies in their efforts towards sustainable manufacturing. The authors provide an overview over recent developments, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of eco- and cost-efficient manufacturing from machine to factory level. The solutions contributed by leading research institutions and companies have been mostly implemented and evaluated in industrial pilot projects across Europe. The methodological approaches cover topics such as factory planning, manufacturing simulation, energy management as well as life cycle evaluation. The target audience comprises industry experts and decision makers as well as researchers in the field of sustainable manufacturing.


Chapter 1. Towards Eco-Factories of the Future
One-third of the global greenhouse gas emissions is caused by combusting fossil fuels to manufacture products and goods. Contemporary initiatives to lower the emissions chiefly focus on eco-efficiency, seeking for minimized energy demand and to a smaller extend also for minimized resource consumption. In addition to that, new technologies, a demographically changing workforce and the desire for new individualized products put further pressure on manufacturing companies. To encounter all those new trends and challenges successfully, various perspectives of a factory have been proposed to improve the understanding of all involved interdependencies between the factory elements. However, most of those perspectives lack to take all contemporary challenges and trends into account. Therefore, this chapter provides an extended perspective on the elements of a future factory.
Denis Kurle, Sebastian Thiede, Christoph Herrmann
Chapter 2. Integrating Variable Renewable Electricity Supply into Manufacturing Systems
Expanding renewable energy (RE) generation has been increasingly recognized as a central strategy for climate change mitigation. A substantial share of renewable energy generation comes from variable renewable energy sources (e.g.  wind and solar), which are increasingly installed in decentralized structures. As such, integrating decentralized, variable RE generation into existing supply and demand structures is required to successfully further increase their share. Several different approaches and technologies are available for overcoming intertemporal and spatial demand and supply mismatches. Among them are conventional energy storage technologies as well as implicit energy storage options such as embodied energy in products, enabled through load shifting of energy-flexible production and manufacturing systems. This contribution begins with an overview of current challenges toward RE integration, followed by a discussion of available large-scale grid integration measures. Within the following, a focus is set on options for integrating decentralized variable RE. A promising approach is storing embodied energy in products. Its enabling method, energy flexibility of manufacturing systems, is detailed. A method to improve energy flexibility is discussed and its potential application demonstrated in a case study.
Jan Beier, Sebastian Thiede, Christoph Herrmann
Chapter 3. Development of a Sustainability Assessment Tool for Manufacturing Companies
Regarding the increasing global population and the related demand for natural resources, the societal and political demand for a sustainable development has increased significantly over the last decades. Although the traditional definition of a sustainable development “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, Our Common Future (the Brundtland Report), Oxford, 1987) appears comprehensible, it still poses a challenge to actually assess a sustainable development. As a result, sustainability assessment is becoming a rapidly developing area with a growing number of frameworks and tools with a wide range of different focus levels. Despite the variety, many of these tools are not adaptable for manufacturing companies. They are, for example, too general or focus only on specific elements. Furthermore, the existing tools usually require a lot of effort and insight data in order to be applied. Against this background, the development of a tool at the level of manufacturing companies is presented. Based on existing integrated sustainability assessment tools, a set of indicators is compiled and integrated into a framework that calculates an overall composite index combining different indicators. The developed tool distinguishes itself from other tools because it can be used from an external as well as from an internal perspective and it allows the assessment of a manufacturing company’s overall and relative sustainability with minimal time effort.
Nadine Madanchi, Sebastian Thiede, Manbir Sohdi, Christoph Herrmann
Chapter 4. Sustainability Assessment in Manufacturing and Target Setting in Highly Automated Production
The interest in sustainability in manufacturing is growing. The European Commission elaborated in collaboration with the European Factories of the Future Research Association (EFFRA) a road map until 2030. The revised ISO 14001 standard, released end of 2015, emphasizes the integration of a life cycle perspective in production. External stakeholders like the Carbon Disclosure Project are striving for very detailed sustainability-related information. Therefore, this chapter will describe the latest approaches of how to assess sustainability in manufacturing, how production planning works in automated production and how sustainability thinking might be integrated in a feasible way. Additionally, a new framework is described which is able to link and allocate the product-related life cycle emissions in a consistent way from the large context down to the individual machine tool level in manufacturing. In essence, this chapter points out that efforts in manufacturing improvements need to be done with a view on entire systems rather than with a view only on single “island solutions”—and it shows a way how to do this.
Jan-Markus Rödger, Niki Bey
Chapter 5. Piloting Comprehensive Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement in a European Rolling Stock Factory
A major share of the primary energy consumed globally has to be accounted to manufacturing, as well as related emissions have to. Improvement of energy efficiency in factories is therefore a key driver to support the achievement of the European 20/20/20 goals. Hence, industry has to rethink current approaches about design and management of manufacturing systems to take a significant step towards energy-efficient factories.
Nils Weinert, Rafael Fink, Christian Mose, Friedrich Lupp, Florian Müller, Jan Fischer, Ingo Bernsdorf, Alessandro Cannata
Chapter 6. Cyber-physical Approach for Integrated Energy and Maintenance Management
Because of nowadays complex and highly automated industrial production lines, every stoppage involves the danger of a massive economic harm. That’s why companies use already various production, quality and maintenance methods to reduce—or at least to handle—unforeseen stoppages. This paper presents a novel approach to improve the reliability of production fields by supporting predictive maintenance under the combination of systems from energy and maintenance management. Wireless sensor networks and mobile devices are integrated into a cyber-physical system to gain real-time transparency of energy demands within production environments. Being aware of challenges introducing cyber-physical systems into the brownfield, the proposed solution considers needs of data standardisations, IT security, staff participation, big data handling, long-term technical risk and cost-benefit estimations. The developed methods are considered by user-oriented design principles to deliver role-specific information. Therefore, the derivation of these informational requirements is based on production unique job activities. Allocating time and component-based energy demands whilst taking machine and environmental conditions into account enables a basis of comparison and a continuous improvement process of energy efficiency and maintenance. These demands are fulfilled by the methods of a continuous energy value stream mapping, an energy efficiency tracker and an integrating energy and maintenance monitoring. This proposed approach is based on the ESIMA project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The project aims for “Optimised resource efficiency in production through energy autarkic sensors and interaction with mobile users”.
Benjamin Neef, Christopher Schulze, Gerrit Posselt, Christoph Herrmann, Sebastian Thiede
Chapter 7. Two Practical Approaches to Assess the Energy Demand of Production Machines
Energy efficiency becomes an increasingly important quality attribute of modern machine tools. In order to stay competitive and in liability toward our environment, the energy consumption of machine tools must be significantly reduced without deteriorating the productivity and the quality of manufacturing. In line with the rising importance, the number of available energy efficiency solutions is increasing. However, a broad application of these solutions does not exist since the hypothetical saving potentials are hard to evaluate. This chapter presents two self-developed software solutions designed for different application levels. The presented assessment tool allows for a quick and easy assessment of the energy demand of a given production machine and is therefore intended for utilization in the procurement process of production machines. In contrast, the production machine simulation tool is designed for an assessment of the energy demand in the early product development stages by providing detailed energy and power demand information for all energy-relevant functional modules as well as for the entire production machine. For both approaches, no additional hardware measurements are required as input.
Eberhard Abele, Philipp Schraml, Martin Beck, Dominik Flum, Christian Eisele
Chapter 8. Analysis of Production Lines with Switch-Off/On Controlled Machines
The implementation of control strategies that reduce energy demand during the machine idle periods is becoming a challenging goal to achieve energy efficiency in production systems. A general policy for switching the machine off/on has been recently proposed in the literature for single machines when a transitory is needed to resume the service. This work analyzes the performance of a production line when a control policy is applied at machine level. In more details, the control of one machine at the time and the control of all machines simultaneously are compared. The considered performance measures are the total energy demanded per part and the system throughput. Numerical results are based on discrete event simulation, and a comparison with the most common practices in manufacturing is also reported.
Nicla Frigerio, Andrea Matta
Chapter 9. Approach for Achieving Transparency in the Use of Compressed Air in Manufacturing as a Basis for Systematic Energy Saving
The increase in energy efficiency in manufacturing and in particular in the area of compressed air is becoming a top issue in the context of factory planning and operation. Facing this development, the European Commission entrusted the Seventh Framework Program, Horizon 2020, to strengthen the research efforts to hit the proclaimed environmental, energetic and economic objectives of the European Union. In this paper, the authors present selected results on how to re-engineer brownfield factories to become clean and competitive factories of the future. Furthermore, the focus is put on energy-efficient generation, preparation, distribution and utilization of compressed air. It provides a systematic and practical approach to re-engineer existing compressed air systems to become eco-efficient. In European industries, around 10% of the final energy utilized is converted into compressed air as a factory internal energy source and hence plays a vital role for various applications such as handling and assembly of parts. When generating compressed air, it is important to use efficient compressor stations with optimized compressed air preparation and appropriately designed compressed air systems for distributing and utilizing the compressed air. However, due to a lack of transparency and knowledge in terms of actual demands and technical dependencies, compressed air systems are often operated inefficiently. The holistic approach described in this article suggests specific improvement strategies and innovative technology solutions based on profound evaluations in industrial cases.
Nico Pastewski, Susanne Krichel, Gerrit Posselt, Johannes Linzbach, Martin Plank
Eco-Factories of the Future
herausgegeben von
Dr. Sebastian Thiede
Prof. Dr. Christoph Herrmann
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