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2021 | Buch

Ecosystem-Based Disaster and Climate Resilience

Integration of Blue-Green Infrastructure in Sustainable Development

herausgegeben von: Dr. Mahua Mukherjee, Prof. Rajib Shaw

Verlag: Springer Singapore

Buchreihe : Disaster and Risk Research: GADRI Book Series


Über dieses Buch

This book provides an introduction to the critical role of ecosystem-based disaster risk resilience (Eco-DRR) for building community resilience to multiple environmental risks such as rising heat, water stress, and pollution. Blue-green infrastructure (BGI) is an Eco-DRR tool that is an under-explored paradigm and can respond as one common strategy to targets set by the Sustainable Development Goals (UNDP), Climate Agreements (UNEP), the Sendai Framework (UNISDR), and the New Urban Agenda (UNCHS). Highlighted here in a systematic way is the importance of blue-green infrastructures in resilience building. The purpose is to introduce readers to the challenging context of development and opportunity creation for Eco-DRR. The roles of policy, scientific research, and implementation are presented cohesively. An attractive proposition of the book is a collection of case studies from different parts of the world where integration of BGI is experimented with at various levels of success. It envisages that shared tacit experiences from the realm of practice will further strengthen explicit knowledge. The focus in this book is on need and context building, policy and science (investigation, analysis, and design), case studies, and a road map for the future in four successive parts. Each part is self-sufficient yet linked to its predecessor, successor, or both, as the case may be.


Chapter 1. Uncertainties in Urbanizing World and Nature-Based Resilience Building
Disaster risks and climate change, induced extreme events are spiralling. In urban areas, loss of lives, livelihoods, properties and services are increasing. In this chapter, the authors discuss global urbanization, its process, imperatives and growing impact on nurture and people and uncertain urban living. The history of anthropogenic progress is also an account of inequality and imbalance. Context and need for the concept of sustainable development and dilemma attached with it are corroborated to understand the differential impact of risk on human communities and nature from different societies. Degradation of natural ecosystem is one of the most significant consequences of the development; Climate change scenario agreeably considers the same. The authors introduce the subsequent chapters in the book on “Ecosystem-Based Disaster and Climate Resilience’. The most common thread of these chapters are the nature-based solutions, their relevance in multi-hazard ecosystems, challenges and mainstreaming policy-level strategies. Contribution of science and technology for integrated application of ecosystem-based solutions and experiences from case studies on nature-based risk resilience are reported. The chapter concludes with an optimistic note that this can reach various segments of society and can be of use towards sustainable and resilient society re/development.
Mahua Mukherjee, Rajib Shaw

Policy Analysis, Policy Framing and Recognition of Nature-Based Solution

Chapter 2. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EbA) in the Hindu Kush Himalaya: Status, Progress and Challenges
Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) has been gaining attention in science, policy and practice as an effective way to address climate change and contribute to sustainable development. In Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), EbAs are implemented to enhance resilience of mountain communities to the harsh realities of climate change. However, very little documentation exists on nature and progress of EbA in the region, which are often fragmented and scattered. We analyzed the status, progress, benefits and challenges in EbA implementation. EbAs are focused on restoration (17%), mainstreaming in policy and plans (17%), ecosystem conservation (14%), flood risk management (12%), livelihoods (10%), capacity building (10%) and ecological risks assessment (7%). Though EbA varies across the countries, ecosystem conservation and livelihoods diversification is the focus. Major drivers of changes considered are climate change, floods, drought and landslides. Improved resilience through restoration, capacity building, better networking and better wellbeing are some of the notable benefits. However, awareness and mainstreaming of EbA in policies and plans are limited. Limited cooperation among the countries and stakeholders and short-lived donor-driven agendas are also the challenges. An effective and impactful EbA requires an integrated approach encompassing different sectors with vertical and horizontal cooperation and collaboration at the regional scale.
Sunita Chaudhary, Basant Raj Adhikari, Pashupati Chaudhary, Tashi Dorji, Renuka Poudel
Chapter 3. Evaluation of Ecosystem-Based Approaches for Disaster and Climate Risk Resilience and Policy Perspectives in Pakistan
Pakistan is a country with a diverse topography, biodiversity and it is exposed to a range of disasters and climate risks. This chapter discusses the spatial pattern and trends of ecological zones, forest cover and mangroves along the coastal ecosystem and its role in minimizing the risks of coastal hazards. In mountainous areas, consistent degradation of forest ecosystem has increased the risk of soil erosion, siltation in dams, accelerated the flood frequency, modified the micro-climate and posed serious threats to blue–green infrastructure. The fertile agricultural land that was once the food basket land for the local population, is no more meeting the local demand. Primarily, the farmland converted into a built up environment. In changing climate scenario, most of the rivers in Pakistan on which life depends are recharged by springs, rainwater and melting of snow/glaciers are under constant pressure. In urban areas, the increase in population and soil sealing have put tremendous pressure on groundwater aquifers and calls for sustainability in blue–green infrastructure. In conclusion, the chapter suggests approaches for sustainable utilization of blue–green infrastructure in ecosystem-based disaster, climate risk resilience and sustainable development.
Muhammad Barkat Ali Khan, Atta-ur Rahman, Rajib Shaw
Chapter 4. Ecosystem-Based Approaches and Policy Perspectives in Nepal
Mountain ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to climate change since increasing temperatures and disruptive precipitation patterns have led to floods, droughts and other natural disasters. Ecosystem-based approaches to disaster risk resilience (Eco-DRR) and Adaptation (EbA), is a nature-based method for climate change adaptation (CCA). That can reduce the vulnerability of the ecosystem to extreme events enhancing sustainability in various sectors, including but not limited to agriculture, forestry, energy and water. Similarly, by increasing the resilience of vulnerable communities, EbA helps countries to meet the goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. This study reviewed the existing Eco-DRR/EbA approaches and its integration into policy and planning in Nepal. Literature suggests that EbA approaches (1) enhance community adaptive capacity or resilience, (2) help ecosystems to produce goods and services for local communities and (3) is financially and economically viable in Nepal. However, EbA is not in mainstream for CCA so far in the country. Existing policies, institutional and political obstacles are the major challenges for the effective implementation, despite EbA has a high potential in Nepal. Policymakers should bring it into the mainstream of development that could make significant progress in mitigating the climate impact at local, provincial and national scales.
Shobha Poudel, Bhogendra Mishra, Rajib Shaw
Chapter 5. Ecosystem-Based Approaches and Policy Perspective from India
Ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaption (EbA) and disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) utilise the opportunities created by sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystem assets and services. These are not just cost-effective and flexible but can also deliver multiple benefits. These approaches have been widely recognised and accepted in the backdrop of increasing disaster risks which are known to be exacerbated due to environmental changes, viz. climate change, land use changes and ecosystem degradation. Integration of ecosystem-based interventions into developmental planning and actions can significantly contribute towards achieving developmental and economic efficiency. Over the years, there has been an evolution in India’s policy frameworks across various strategically important thematic areas and sectors, which has offered number of suitable pathways for mainstreaming of these ecosystem-based approaches into developmental planning and practice. Present paper makes a diagonal review of ecosystem-based strategies and interventions for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation through the existing policy environment across key themes and sectors. A systematic discussion of key policies for their present strengths, opportunities and customization required to foster integration of ecosystem approaches, is presented with detailed case analysis of climate change, disaster management and sectoral developmental policy contexts in India.
Shweta Bhardwaj, Anil Kumar Gupta
Chapter 6. Ecosystem-Based Approaches and Policy Perspectives: Towards an Integrated Blue–Green Solutions in Vietnam
Vietnam’s international economic integration is strongly promoted through various forms, following a roadmap for the proper adoption of international principles and standards of the global economy and market. The country is constantly striving to move from a brown economy to a blue and green economy, for which the ecosystem-based approaches have been employed as critical factors. The National Vision for Socio-Economic Development to 2020 has emphasised on nature-based solutions for environmental protection, creating an essential basis for policies and practices emerging areas of interest in ecosystem-based approaches. Despite the promulgation of laws and decrees, ratification of international agreements, and participation in international initiatives, policy reviews show limited entry points for mainstreaming ecosystem-based solutions in decisions and practices. This chapter provides an analysis of the policy and practices of ecosystem-based approaches with 14 case studies across Vietnam. They were classified into different categories depending on the nature of solutions and level of blue–green integration. The shortcomings and challenges facing those models are also analysed in order to contribute to the efforts of bringing opportunities for further integration of blue–green infrastructure at both national and local levels.
Thi My Thi Tong, Ngoc Huy Nguyen
Chapter 7. Turning Blue, Green and Gray: Opportunities for Blue-Green Infrastructure in the Philippines
Nature-based solutions represent a critical concept that harnesses natural systems to provide essential services for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. As a nature-based solution, blue-green infrastructure takes advantage of nature’s innate ability to substitute for or strengthen infrastructure systems by preserving, enhancing, or restoring a natural system's elements to build high quality, resilient and lower-cost infrastructure. The chapter describes how ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction, ecosystem-based adaptation, and blue-green infrastructure are implemented in the Philippines, including the policies that support them, the status of implementation, and through a case study in Polillo, Quezon, Philippines. Findings show that despite policies in place to support and advance the mainstreaming of nature-based solutions in the country, the environment's cross-cutting nature as a sector makes enforcement and implementation of programs, plans, and activities extremely challenging. Implementing nature-based solutions in the Philippines has so far been undertaken as a response to environmental challenges. More than being reactive, a proactive focus on nature-based solutions for prevention, mitigation, and rehabilitation is needed. The science and evidence for blue-green infrastructure would need to be strengthened to inform decision-making better, gain political commitment at all levels, secure funding and private sector engagement, and ultimately advance its implementation.
Noralene Uy, Chris Tapnio
Chapter 8. Making Resilience a Reality: The Contribution of Peri-urban Ecosystem Services (BGI) to Urban Resilience
The pressure on urban development to meet the needs of growing populations heavily influences spatial planning priorities. Ecosystem-based approaches (EBA) to development, which incorporate blue and green infrastructure (BGI), allow growth to balance ecocentrism with anthropogenic aspirations. This is particularly evident in peri-urban areas (PUA). The ill-defined nature of PUA gives rise to opportunities for ecosystem services to urban centres. However, the current land value favours development models. The disconnect between land value and ecosystem services does not consider the benefits of EBA to urban centres. Law, engineering and planning frameworks result in inflexible responses to changing risk. The planning of PUAs can facilitate beneficial growth strategies for ecosystems services that may include urban farms, allotment gardens and agricultural parks. The adaptability of PUA zones creates opportunities for residents to innovate and sustain their livelihoods as their environment undergoes change from urban pressures. Planning policy is lacking for PUA and as a result development outcomes are poor with ad hoc, developer-led approaches to growth. Strengthening links between urban and rural areas through considered PUA planning creates opportunities for the preservation of natural environments and the capacity of these environments to effectively reduce the negative effects of human development.
Celeste Norman, Akhilesh Surjan, Miranda Booth
Chapter 9. Innovations to Reduce Disaster Risks of Water Challenges
There is increasing realisation over the world about the necessity to manage the ecosystems responsibly in a sustainable manner to reduce both risk and impact of disasters. Sustainable developments demand that various ecosystems such as wetlands, coastal zones, river valleys etc. are managed effectively and efficiently to achieve sustainable and resilient development. India is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world due to its distinctive geo-climatic and socio-economic conditions making it vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes, urban flooding, landslides, avalanches and forest fire. The disaster risk is further compounded as India is also one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. India is facing several water challenges related to water availability, quality and management. There have been several initiatives to integrate sustainable solutions into disaster risk reduction approaches, which include natural water management and treatment approaches and have resulted in provision of water of desired quality in required quantity. The chapter will present the framework of the innovation system, key policy objectives and methodologies for fostering innovations on reducing disaster risks. The approach to funnel innovations into implementation is also being discussed citing few case studies.
Piyalee Biswas, Neelima Alam, Sanjay Bajpai

Science Investigation, Technology and Planning Intervention

Chapter 10. Future Heat Risk in South Asia and the Need for Ecosystem Mitigation
Cities in South Asia commonly experience high heat events. These so-called heat waves, however, are increasing in intensity and are projected to increase in frequency, as the climate continues to change. Given the large and growing urban population in the region, urban planners need information on the state and trends of urban heat, the risk of this heat to human wellbeing, and ways to modify heat within the city. This chapter attempts to broadly address these issues by providing an overview of the state and trends of urban heat, urban heat-island formation, urbanization, climate change-related future heat, human risk to heat waves, and the potential for ecosystem mitigation in South Asia. The chapter complements other chapters in this volume by providing the background to the importance of future heat shock events and the potential for blue-green infrastructure to address these hazards.
Peter J. Marcotullio, Michael T. Schmeltz
Chapter 11. Urban Risk Assessment Tools and Techniques for Ecosystem-Based Solutions
Urbanization has picked up rapid pace since the dawn of the industrial revolution. This unprecedented and unplanned urbanization has brought about an integral change in natural fabric influencing climate at the global and the local level and has led the urban areas to become more prone to climate risk. The chapter is subdivided into three parts. The first part introduces and discusses various facets of heat and flood risks in urban areas and explores the causes and impacts of various parameters associated with them. The second part discusses the concept of indices and explores the tools for quantitative estimation of the multiple risks associated to the urban area. The third and final section introduces various tools and techniques that can be used for risk assessment and investigation. It discusses various datasets (Remote sensed data, In Situ measurement, Numerical Modelling (CFD)) and methodologies to identify hot spots and specific problems associated with them. This chapter introduces various tools and techniques to identify the susceptible hot spots, investigate the intensity and possible reason and check the potential of ecosystem-based solutions for risk attenuation.
Aditya Rahul, Siva Ram Edupuganti, Vickyson Naorem, Mahua Mukherjee, Talbot Brooks
Chapter 12. Scaling-up Nature-Based Solutions for Mainstreaming Resilience in Indian Cities
Rapid growth of urban areas has attracted foremost global attention in the last few decades. By 2050, India is expected to be the center of urbanization with 68 Indian cities having population of around a million. Rapid urbanization has resulted in huge loss of urban blue-green infrastructure (BGI) resulting in loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. There is growing need of disaster proofing fast expanding Indian cities. It is fundamental to explore, customize and integrate Nature-based Solutions (NbS) based resilience planning by restoring existing BGI in Tier I Indian megacities to curb the growing risks within acceptable limits. There is huge scope for exploration and mainstreaming of NbS in Tier II and Tier III cities that have space to plan BGI as per the growing population requirements and anticipated future risks. Scientifically planned NbS can help towards building resilience by maintaining the socio-cultural, economic, and ecosystem sustainability. The present chapter provides an overview of BGI as an efficient NbS and mainstreaming of nature-based interventions to ensure sustainable habitat in Indian megacities and growing small cities. The chapter highlights the factors that determine the use of urban NbS and underlines the problems associated with the implementation of NbS.
Shalini Dhyani, Rudrodip Majumdar, Harini Santhanam
Chapter 13. Incorporation of BIM Based Modeling in Sustainable Development of Green Building from Stakeholders Perspective
Building information modeling (BIM) is a set of tools that represent the physical and functional properties of a building digitally. BIM is used to document building designs or simulate construction and operation of new facilities. The emerging model is information-rich and object-based, where data can be inserted, extracted, updated, modified, and analyzed to improve the design of facility. Owners initiate and finance building projects. By selecting service providers and deciding on the type of delivery process to be used, owners make very strategic decisions in the facility delivery process. The effectiveness of BIM on an integrated project depends on these conclusions and decisions. Nowadays, construction projects are also moving towards sustainability through owners being committed to having green-rated buildings and infrastructure. This paper focuses on building information modeling with an owner’s perspective since owners being committed to having green-rated buildings and how this approach and interpretation of BIM may differ from that of an engineer, or contractor. This paper involves a study of the performance of a construction project in which BIM was implemented by the owner in the project from a later stage and a comparative earned value analysis between the two stages.
Raju Sarkar, Karan Narang, Abhinav Daalia, Vidushi Gautam, Ujjawal Nathani, Rajib Shaw
Chapter 14. Road to Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Comprehensive Approach for Smart Urban Areas Management
This article starts from the history of flood management policy in Japan. Then the present trend of Eco-DRR activities in Japan would be discussed. Finally, the land use planning scheme to adapt to the future climate change will be discussed. It should start from understanding the future impact of disaster and society. The techniques used for pre-disaster recovery planning can be used. It also starts from understanding the future impact of disaster and society. The possibility of using pre-disaster recovery planning techniques for the land use planning of climate change adaptation and Eco-DRR would be discussed.
Norio Maki

Case Studies

Chapter 15. Path Towards Sustainable Water Management: A Case Study of Shimla, India
About four billion people around the world experience severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. These issues have also begun to surface in Shimla city, located in hilly terrains of India. While the city draws its water from its peripheral rural areas, the declining freshwater availability has recently caused severe unrest among the local natives. To address this issue, land use and land cover of Shimla district were analysed for the year 2005–2006 to 2015–2016. It has been found that rapid urbanisation and change in cropping pattern has largely impacted the water resources of Shimla city. Based on the study results, this chapter emphasises the nature-based solutions for integrated and comprehensive management of water resources in Shimla city.
Kamakshi Thapa, Chetna Singh, Sameer Deshkar, Rajib Shaw
Chapter 16. Application of Remote Sensing Image in ECO-DRR for Dehradun City
The case study of Dehradun city is an example to show the applications of remote sensing in Eco-DRR. Geographically the town is located in the Doon Valley, which is prone to multi hazards, rapid and unplanned urbanization in the city is adding the concern of high risk for the communities and people. Combined with inadequate land-use planning and the inability of local authorities to control building standards, the unplanned growth of cities raises insecurity in all dimensions. This study tries to map Blue-Green infrastructure in the municipal boundary of the town using the space-based application and suggest an Eco-DRR map that can help identify location and hazard existence and contribute to sustainable development. The imagery of freely available or low-cost satellite is used to develop indices for Vegetation, water bodies and build-up and analyzed Blue-Green infrastructure and physical component of the urban ecosystem for the municipal boundary of the city. The geospatial information generated using remote sensing imagery is georeferenced and calibrated for further actions that led to the integration with the existing LULC map and city master plan. Finally, integrated maps use to suggest a holistic approach of Eco-DRR in the urban area for sustainable development.
Atul Kumar, Jeevan Madapala, Mahua Mukherjee, Shirish Ravana, Sandeep Sharma
Chapter 17. Ecosystem-Based Approaches for Water Stress Management—Lessons from Nagpur Metropolitan Area, India
Urban areas around the world are today witnessing remarkable development transformations, paralleled by the growing influx of populations. The expanding city boundaries and their associated development activities are, however, altering the surrounding ecosystems. Against the growing water demands in urban areas and its declining availability, water stress is becoming a global concern. While the drinking water needs in urban areas are often met on priority, the co-dependent rural areas are disproportionately affected, and the anticipated change in climate is bound to further exacerbate the urban–rural water conflicts. To address these concerns, the importance of ecosystem-based approaches is increasingly being realized as they generate additional environmental, economic, and social benefits. To further understand their significance, this chapter discusses the case of Nagpur Metropolitan Area in Central India, which has recently experienced severe water stress. The chapter underlines the rising concerns in Nagpur due to rapid urbanization, changing climate, and transboundary developments. It mainly puts forward the key lessons derived through the India–Japan Bilateral Research Project (2018–2020), which worked toward developing new paradigms in urban–rural linkages and fostering collective resilience. Acknowledging the need for integrated management of shared water resources, the chapter emphasizes on implementing ecosystem-based approaches through transboundary cooperation at regional level.
Vibhas Sukhwani, Kamakshi Thapa, Rajib Shaw, Sameer Deshkar, Bijon Kumer Mitra, Wanglin Yan
Chapter 18. Challenges in Decision-Making for Building Resilience to Climate Risks
Climate risk to something of value is not uniform even in the same geography despite exposure to the same climate-related events or trends or their impacts. Therefore, decision-making on climate resilience is challenged by multiple variables. In the wake of a devastating event or a creeping process, decision on whether to rebuild and persist in situ or relocate people may be necessary. This paper explores mechanisms to enhance resilience to climate risks through ‘accommodate’, ‘protect’ and ‘strategic and managed retreat’ approaches and analyses the outcomes using a three criteria framework. We argue that where non-diminishing socio-economic wellbeing can be assured, in-situ adaptation is the option, provided the cost of in-situ adaptation is lower than the value of the business-as-usual economy; the occurrence of an event or a creeping process is not expected to become more likely in future; and political risk of the climate resilience option is lower than the climate risk. The framework was tested using the case of the Indian Sundarbans. It revealed that decision-making on climate resilience options involves challenges beyond the immediate climate risk. Effective policy development requires due consideration of political risks in the absence of which retreat options are unlikely to be implemented
Anamitra Anurag Danda, Nilanjan Ghosh, Jayanta Bandyopadhyay, Sugata Hazra
Chapter 19. A “Greener” Alternative: The Sri Lankan Experience of Eco-DRR
With increase in number, frequency and intensity, and its link to climate change, natural hazards are becoming complicated to manage. As a solution, ecosystem-based approach has gained much attention in many parts of the world. Sri Lanka is no exception. Being a tropical island nation Sri Lanka is vulnerable to a variety of disasters with many socioeconomic and environmental impacts. This chapter provides context for ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) approaches and experiences in Sri Lanka. It also highlights how fully functioning natural habitats increase disaster resilience especially to cope up with extreme weather events. Examples from good practices and ancient wisdom are discussed with a special reference to traditional home gardens and protected area management. Recent case studies on wetland management and coastal disaster resilience through mangrove restoration are stressed. How community resilience, especially in rural areas, is enhanced through ecosystem services is explored with examples. Finally, this chapter addresses the issues and challenges in mainstreaming Eco-DRR into national policy and action agendas to offer a “greener alternative” for better disaster management.
Deepthi Wickramasinghe
Chapter 20. The Watarase Retarding Basin—A Historical Example of Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction in Japan
The Watarase Retarding Basin, located 60 km north of Tokyo, is the largest retarding basin in Japan. The retarding basin was constructed at the beginning of the twentieth century to store toxic pollution from the nearby Ashio Copper Mine. The copper mine is located in the upper stream of the Watarase River and is the best known example of environmental pollution in Japan. We analyzed land use changes over the past 100 years in the area. At the time construction began in 1907, ponds, grassland, and marshes were evident. By 1979, the Watarase Retarding Basin was a wetland or water area. A large part of the retarding basin had become arid after that. In 2001, the land use in the retarding basin was a mosaic of wetlands with common reed (Phragmites australis) and amur silver grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus). Most of the area became a Ramsar site in 2012 because the area is representative of a reed-dominated low moor wetland in Japan and has a high level of diversity of wetland flora and fauna. Typhoon Hagibis struck eastern Japan on 12–13 October 2019. The Watarase Retarding Basin stored 250 million m3 of water and prevented flooding downstream in the Edo River.
Tomohiro Ichinose, Jun Ishii, Ikuko Imoto
Chapter 21. Self-efficacy for EbA and Human Health in a Post-disaster Recovery Phase
This part discusses the relationships between residents’ health conditions and their self-efficacy for greenspace management in a post-disaster recovery phase in rural communities, which are environmentally vulnerable to natural disasters. Self-efficacy of residents is crucial to enhance local communities’ inherent capabilities to build such a resilient living environment by promoting residents’ participation in green activities. The prioritized issue is to restore post-disaster environments. Residents’ health would be the key to enhance their self-efficacy and manage their neighboring living environment. Thus, this study aimed to examine residents’ health conditions and self-efficacy for managing a post-disaster environment in Japan. Results showed no significant association of self-efficacy with physical activity or self-reported health (SRH). In contrast, good SRH was significantly associated with a higher rate of self-efficacy. Additionally, weeding experience and higher awareness of Eco-DRR had a positive association with self-efficacy. This study highlights how residents’ good SRH influences self-efficacy for green environmental management at the individual level. If the residents who conduct community-based management are unhealthy, they would not feel confident about managing their green environments. This study implies the importance of integrating public health approach into post-disaster environmental management based on EbA strategies in a post-disaster rural context.
Ai Tashiro
Chapter 22. Freshwater Biomonitoring: An Ecosystem-Based Approach (EbA) for Building Climate Resilience Communities in Fiji
To establish climate resilience indigenous communities in rural and remote areas of Fiji, a pilot freshwater biomonitoring project was conducted in six villages of the Vanua Levu island using an innovative, user, age, education and gender friendly community-based river health assessment tool—‘Traffic Light Bioindicator Guide’ (TLBG). This project was aimed at developing local community practitioners for conducting bioassessment and implementing riverine ecosystem-based conservation. To achieve this, a workshop and riverine field training were conducted to educate the villagers on the riverine biophysical structure, river health bioindicator taxa identification, TLBG use and river mapping for identification of catchment threats. Site-specific rapid bioassessment results are discussed. The social empowerment gained through field assessments and workshops resulted in (a) indigenous community-based plans for water source safeguarding (b) establishment of a village specific river monitoring committee (c) establishment of banana circle bio-filter for wastewater treatment (d) local community rubbish pit construction (e) proper toilet construction and (f) the development of a modified TLBG post-pilot field trial. The annual freshwater biomonitoring results complementing the implementation of community-initiated mitigation measures (a–e) were published as a proof of the successful trial of the TLBG in the Fiji RiverCare Toolkit.
Bindiya Rashni
Chapter 23. Forward-Looking Lens to Mainstream Blue-Green Infrastructure
Healthy natural ecosystem can provide resilience and ecosystem services with socio-economic and environmental benefits. Strategic deployment through systematic connected open spaces, water bodies and vegetated spaces through spatial and fiscal planning can develop blue-green infrastructure (BGI). Performance of any BGI can be designed for targets to achieve. This chapter explores pertinent aspects which influence planning, implementation and maintenance of BGI. The pandemic COVID-19 brought challenges to development; yet, stakeholders agree on preservation and conservation of nature in the form of utilitarian use like BGI to attenuate anthropogenic interventions. Next-generation built environment will look for greater integration of building, services, surrounding open areas, and engineered (grey) and nature-based blue-green infrastructure. An innovative attempt on understanding future climate change scenario with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), Shared Climate Policy Assumptions (SPAs) and RCP–SSP–SPA framework using lens of Eco-DRR and EbA is discussed for developing future climate policy at country and sub-national levels. To propagate the BGI for Eco-DRR and EbA to arrest surface transformation and fragmentation, adaptive governance through participatory implementation can empower communities. The BGI, no-regret strategy for the leaders, authorities and communities, shall be part of sustainable resilient development schemes globally.
Mahua Mukherjee, Rajib Shaw
Ecosystem-Based Disaster and Climate Resilience
herausgegeben von
Dr. Mahua Mukherjee
Prof. Rajib Shaw
Springer Singapore
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