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In the course of this chapter, the author investigates the crucial role of education for the knowledge economy in India, and critically examines India’s performance with respect to higher education participation, quality, research capability, resourcing and structure and governance of the system. It is found that India’s higher education performance is patchy and lags other countries in terms of innovation, quality, diversity, employability and internationalisation. Nor is it preparing students particularly effectively for the challenges of the future economically and technologically. The chapter makes a number of key recommendations for a revamped higher education system in India, including one which is connected into the global networks of innovation, and which fosters stronger relations with the labour market and society more broadly.
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The Planning Commission states these factors in the more general context of education.
A number of studies focus on school education, nonetheless these are insightful and instructive and provide pointers to the value of tertiary education.
Wilhem Von Humboldt was the Interior Minister in the Prussian Government in the 19th century. The Humboltdian view is that of unity of teaching and research in a University (Datta 2017).
The demographic dividend typically relates to India’s youthful population which dominates overall share of population.
Approximately 2011 or 2012 to 2016 or latest year.
The UNESCO reference pertains to raw data obtained by the author in 2018 from UNESCO data.uis.unesco.org accessed 20/7/2018 with analysis, inferences, conclusions and commentary from the author.
This may be somewhat overstated because of inclusion of 15–17 year olds in part our calculation rather than the strict adherence to the generally accepted 18–23 year old category for the analysis. Unfortunately the labour force data on which part of these calculations are based do not totally align with population data which does relate to 18–23 year old.
The 2030 GER that we use is in fact the Government target for 2020. To be ultra conservative we have held this same GER figure to 2030, also we consider that a 30% target will not be met by 2020.
Lower Secondary students (ISCED 2) typically enter between ages 10 and 13 (and begins after 4–7 years of primary education), and aim to provide skills from subject/theoretical curriculum and as a basis for lifelong learning. Upper Secondary (ISCED 3) is for completing secondary students to provide skills pertinent for work or tertiary education, with more differentiated options and streams, compared to ISCED 2. Upper secondary students typically enter between ages 14–16 and the programme usually is completed after 12 or 13 years after the beginning of primary (12 years being the most common). Students are typically 17–18 years old when they complete Upper Secondary Source: UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education 2011.
Tertiary comprises ISCED 5 (short cycle tertiary usually between 2 and 3 years and includes vocational), ISCED 6 (Bachelor Degree or equivalent usually 3–4 years), ISCED 7 (Master’s level or equivalent), and ISCED 8 (Doctoral or equivalent). Source: UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education ( 2011).
Data from UNESCO obtained on 20/7/2018 Author interpretations.
There are a few definitions of organised and unorganised sectors. The organised sector is the public sector plus private sector firms that employ more than ten workers. The organised sector is associated with workers having full social security benefits and union representation. Even within the organised sector, formal workers only receive the full social security benefits, which informal workers such as contract workers, may not necessarily receive, and where employment is less secure (Joshi 2016). Other analogous notions to organised sector relate to the formal or registered firms that use electricity and hire more than ten workers and those that do not use electricity but employment twenty or more (Kapoor 2017). For the purposes of this book, we use organised, registered, formal more or less interchangeably, and unorganised, informal and unregistered in the same vein.
Author calculations drawing on data from Government of India Employment-Unemployment Survey 2014.
Author calculations based on ILO data and Government data from the AISHE reports.
Innovation Environment (public investment and support for private investment in research on robotics and automation, policies and regulation towards entrepreneurship, support for technology transfer and adoption, ICT infrastructure, cluster development programs, ethics and safety); Education Policies (early childhood strategy, programmes for 21st century skills, technical skills agenda, career guidance, STEM, lifelong education support, teacher training, use of technology in education delivery, school autonomy, social dialogue in education sector; Labour market policies (workforce and workplace transition agenda, research on the impact of automation, artificial intelligence and robotics, re-training programs, university and labour market dialogue).
The Economic Survey 2017–2018 (Government of India 2018b) speaks of aligning research with Missions.
Our approach is consistent with that proposed by Ernst and Young, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) ( 2013) in having a multi tiered, multi faceted approach by specialisations and functions.
Our approach is consistent with that proposed by the Government in terms of Excellent Universities, but differs significantly in respect of having much stronger lower tiers of education, and co-ordination and pathways emphasising diversity and specialisation. Moreover, performance accountability is much stronger in our case.
At present foreign institutions can operate on a partnership basis with Indian Institutions.
The Know India program is for Indian diaspora youth to spend 3 weeks in India to raise their awareness of India, its progress and potential, and to share views and experiences.
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