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01.05.2013 | Original Article | Ausgabe 1/2013

Environmental Earth Sciences 1/2013

Effects of natural and calcined poultry waste on Cd, Pb and As mobility in contaminated soil

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 1/2013
Autoren:
Jung Eun Lim, Mahtab Ahmad, Adel R. A. Usman, Sang Soo Lee, Weon-Tai Jeon, Sang-Eun Oh, Jae E. Yang, Yong Sik Ok

Abstract

The reuse of waste materials as soil additives could be a welcome development in soil remediation. The mobility of Cd, Pb and As in a contaminated soil was investigated using natural and calcined poultry wastes (eggshell and chicken bone), CaCO3 and CaO at different application rates (0, 1, 3 and 5 %). The chemical composition accompanied with mineralogical composition indicated that CaCO3 and CaO were the major components in natural and calcined eggshells, respectively, while hydroxyapatite (HAP) dominated the natural and calcined chicken bones. The results showed that soil pH tended to increase in response to increasing application rates of all soil additives. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing Cd, Pb and As mobility was assessed by means of chemical extractions with 0.1 N HCl for Cd and Pb or 1 N HCl for As, according to Korean Standard Test (KST) method. Both calcined eggshell and chicken bone were equally effective with CaO or CaCO3 in reducing the concentration of 0.1 N HCl-extractable Cd from 6.17 mg kg−1 to below warning level of 1.5 mg kg−1, especially at the highest application rate. The application of calcined eggshell, CaO and CaCO3 also decreased the concentration of 0.1 N HCl-extractable Pb from 1,012 mg kg−1 to below warning level of 100 mg kg−1. The Pb concentration decreased significantly with an increasing application rate of chicken bone, but remained above warning level even at the highest application rate. On the contrary, natural and calcined chicken bones led to a significant increase in the mobility of As when compared with the control soil. These findings illustrate that calcined eggshell in particular is equally effective as pure chemical additives in stabilizing Cd and Pb in a contaminated agricultural soil. The presence of As in metal-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration when applying phosphate-containing materials as soil additives, because phosphate can compete with arsenate on adsorption sites and result in As mobilization.

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