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2008 | Buch

Efficient Management of Wastewater

Its Treatment and Reuse in Water-Scarce Countries

herausgegeben von: Ismail Al Baz, Ralf Otterpohl, Claudia Wendland

Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg


Über dieses Buch

Water in the MEDA region is a crucial issue, with regard to the availability of ren- able water resources in the MEDA countries most will face even more serious pr- lems in the management of their limited water resources in the near future. This will require a lot of efforts to be made for more efficient management of water, in order to secure the economic and social development of the coming generations. According to the FAO (2006) the average of renewable water resources in the MENA region is below the limit of 1000 CM per Capita and Year, for Egypt for example is this 794 CM, for Algeria und Tunisia 481 CM, for Jordan 180, Yemen 234, and Palestine 100 which are far below the limit of 500 CM that classify these countries as the most water stressed countries worldwide. The alarming aspect is the fact that the limited renewable available water resources development have been decreasing in the last thirty years, between 1974 – 2000 we had 66% decrease for Jordan and 64 % for Yemen, due to the increasing population growth and the increase of water demands for agriculture, industrial and domestic use. These figures underline the importance of the topics of this book that shall give help to experts and decision makers to over come the future water resources problems in the region.


1. The 2006 WHO Guidelines for Wastewater and Greywater Use in Agriculture: A Practical Interpretation
The World Health Organization (WHO) published the third edition of its guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture in September 2006. These new guidelines are intended to support the establishment of national standards and regulations. However, it is not straightforward for policymakers or practicing engineers to translate them into numerical values that are easy to implement. This chapter presents a practical interpretation of the main concepts of the new WHO guidelines and provides guidance on how to apply them in national settings.
Duncan Mara, Annika Kramer
2. EMWater Guide and Recommendations on Wastewater Treatment and Water Reuse
EMWater Guide: Improving wastewater treatment and reuse practices in the Mediterranean countries–A Practical Guide for Decision-Makers has been developed for the MEDA region within the EMWater Project, which is funded by the EU MEDA Water Programme and InWEnt Capacity Building International, Germany. The overall objective of the EMWater Guide is to provide guidance on taking decisions in wastewater management. The target groups are officials and decision makers mainly on municipal level, including people without engineering background and NGOs and consultants, active in the wastewater field. The EMWater Guide shall encourage its users to take into account all relevant framework conditions and alternative solutions when selecting appropriate technologies for wastewater treatment and reuse. It shall enable decision makers in the field of wastewater treatment and reuse through an easy-to-understand, concise manual. The Guide does not replace in-depth analysis of specific conditions and expert consultation once the decision to start a wastewater project has been taken.
Julika Post, Luigi Petta, Annika Kramer, Ismail Al Baz
3. Integrated Wastewater Management: A Review
In this chapter, aspects of wastewater management are explored with integrated perspective. This chapter shows that a holistic view of the entire wastewater system is required for proper wastewater management, starting from the wastewater generation until the ultimate disposal schemes. The functional elements of integrated wastewater management system are generation and composition, collection, treatment (including sludge treatment) and disposal and reuse. A successful wastewater management decision requires a comprehensive, impartial evaluation of centralized and decentralized treatment systems. However, centralized systems should be evaluated based on the investment of the associated collection sewers and their operation and maintenance (O&M). Selecting appropriate technology for wastewater treatment should be based on area-specific integrated factors such as land availability, wastewater quality, desired finished water quality, socio-economic factors and local and provincial regulations.
Bassim Abbassi, Ismail Al Baz
4. Egyptian Effluent Standards for Treated Sewage: Evaluation and Recommendations
The characteristics of sewage discharged from four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities were determined. The results showed that the sewage of the Egyptian villages is a concentrated wastewater with chemical oxygen demand (COD) as high as 1100 mg/L. Moreover, the experiments indicated that the filtered COD after aerobic biodegradability ranged between 50 and 70 mg/L for the sewage of villages and 40 and 60 mg/L for the sewage of the cities. Therefore, it is difficult to achieve the Egyptian effluent standards (EES) for COD (80 mg/L), especially for the sewage of the villages. Accordingly, the EES of the treated sewage are evaluated. Moreover, applicable recommendations for the EES and recommended treatment systems are presented. For the sewage of Egyptian cities, stringent effluent standards (class 1) should be applied, as compared to that of the rural areas and small communities (classes 2, 3 and 4). The EES is proposed to be in classes and phases to guarantee achieving the required effluent standards in short and long term. The required time for reaching the target effluent standards (in the last phase) should be selected based on the development in Egypt.
T. A. Elmitwalli, A. Al-Sarawey, M. F. El-Sherbiny
5. Groundwater Contamination as Affected by Long-Term Sewage Irrigation in Egypt
The use of treated sewage water for irrigating the desert sandy soil in Egypt has been practiced in Cairo. Abu-Rawash sewage farm is one that was established in 1944. The farm is irrigated by the flood system. Seepage water beneath the irrigated land is a result of the continuous use of sewage irrigation. Such seepage water, or so-called “groundwater,” is the only source for daily domestic use, including cooking, for the farmers. The physical and chemical characteristics ofs ewage irrigation water as well as fecal coliform and level of heavy metals werestudied extensively. The quality of the resulted groundwater was also investigated through 36 samples to investigate level of the level contamination. Results showed that the total dissolved solids (TDS) of groundwater samples vary from 306 to 9,808 mg/L. The minor constituents in these samples include phosphates, nitrates, nitrite, ammonia and sulfide, which exhibited high levels. About 88 and 92% of these samples were over the permissible level in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, respectively. For the fecal coliform count, around 60% of the groundwater samples and 45% of the canal water samples were over the permissible limits for drinking water. The suitability of the studied groundwater for human risk consumption was, therefore, evaluated.
Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy, Khaireya A. Guindi, Nevien S. Tawfik
6. Effluent and Sludge Management in Yemen
Yemen has rapidly declining water resources as a result of over-exploitation of groundwater for crop irrigation and the incidence of water-borne diseases is high due to the low provision of sanitation services. Significant improvements to public health are being made by the construction of sewerage systems and wastewater treatment plants in some towns, but none of the wastewater projects have considered how effluent and sludge should be reused safely, and farmers in particular are highly exposed to risks of infection through uncontrolled reuse practices. This chapter describes the strategy that was developed by MHW Arabtech Jardaneh, in association with GKW Consult, to achieve sustainable reuse of effluent and sludge in Yemen by adopting simple and pragmatic measures that ensure maximum recovery of the agricultural resource value of wastewater while protecting human health within limited financial and institutional resources.
J. E. Hall, R. Ebaid
7. Fate of Pathogens In Tomato Plants and Soil Irrigated With Secondary Treated Wastewater
Pathogenic indicators, namely total coliform, E. coli and Enterococcus were measured on harvested tomato fruits and leaves and in soil irrigated with fresh water, effluent of extended aeration wastewater treatment plant and effluent of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-rotating biological contactors integrated pilot treatment system. Plantation was taking place in a greenhouse during summer in Jordan. A drip irrigation system was applied in which laterals were covered with mulch to minimize contact between irrigation water and plants. Results showed that total coliform and Enterococcus counts in all tomato fruit samples (except one) and E. coli count in all harvested tomato fruit samples were less than 1 MPN/g dry plant. Although secondary treated wastewater had indicator pathogenic counts of 2 to 5 log units, a considerable reduction was noticed in the collected soil samples after 10 days of the last irrigation. All soil samples contained less than 1 MPN/g dry soil of E. coli, while total coliform counts ranged from less than 1 to 19.23 MPN/g dry soil. The results suggest that disinfection of the reclaimed wastewater may not be necessary with respect to the measured indicator pathogens when proper agricultural practices are applied.
Maha Halalsheh, Lina Abu Ghunmi, Nivin Al-Alami, Manar Fayyad
8. Alleviation of Salinity Stress Imposed on Broad Bean (Vicia faba) Plants Irrigated With Reclaimed Wastewater Mixed With Brackish Water Through Exogenous Application of Jasmonic Acid
Farmers in Palestine suffer from a continuous shortage of water due to its scarcity. It is important to note that both brackish water and reclaimed wastewater represent major sources, although both resources are problematic, as they impose stress to growing plants. Consequently, alleviation of these stresses is required, particularly salt stress, imposed by the use of brackish water or reclaimed water. The aim of this study is to search for the means to alleviate stress through irrigation with reclaimed wastewater mixed with brackish water (mix). Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant growth regulator, proved to be efficient in alleviating various types of stresses, such as chill and drought stress. JA was tested in this study to determine whether it would alleviate salt stress imposed through irrigation of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants by a mix of reclaimed wastewater and brackish water (Electrical conductivity [EC] = 7 dS/m). Broad beans plants are considered sensitive to salinity. Results showed that treating plants with JA lessened, although only slightly, the negative impact of mix. Moreover, applying treated wastewater using drip irrigation in addition to cultivating plants in pots prevented the contamination of fruits with the pathogens. Treating plants with JA enhanced the plant's tolerance to stress conditions imposed through irrigation of plants with alternative water resources.
Nesreen Mansour, Ziad Mimi, Jamil Harb
9. Response of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf) Cultivar Acsad 1107 to Sewage Sludge Amendment Under a Semi-Arid Climate
The use of sewage sludge on a large scale and at relatively low rates can contribute to the husbandry of urban wastes. This is interesting since this utilization in agriculture appeared to increase crop production. The results of the present investigation, whose objective was to study the response of a rain-fed cereal crop to organic amendment with sewage sludge showed an increase in grain yield and yield component, mainly spike fertility and straw production. 30 t/ha of sewage sludge dry matter were as efficient as 66 kg/ha of mineral nitrogen.
L. Tamrabet, H. Bouzerzour, M. Kribaa, M. Makhlouf
10. Waste Stabilization Ponds: A Highly Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology for Mediterranean Countries
This chapter describes waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems for wastewater treatment. WSP systems comprise a series of anaerobic and facultative ponds and sometimes maturation ponds. Rock filters can be used instead of maturation ponds and they can be aerated to remove ammonia and to improve biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids removals. Effluent quality is high, and properly designed and well maintained WSP systems produce effluents that can be safely used for both restricted and unrestricted crop irrigation.
Duncan Mara
11. Sustainable Sanitation by Constructed Wetlands in the Mediterranean Countries: Experiences in Small/Medium-Size Communities and Tourism Facilities
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are efficient treatments for various types of wastewater. A strict relationship between the CWs treatment performances and the local climatic conditions have been widely demonstrated. This chapter focuses on the treatment strategies, adopted designs and obtained performances in different CW facilities currently operating around the Mediterranean basin. Several CW treatment systems operating in Italy for small- or medium-size communities are described in deeper detail and compared to the foreign experiences. In general, the Mediterranean CWs systems seem to obtain better results, probably due to the more constant and warmer climatic conditions, in comparison to most of the other European experiences. The operating experiences generally show a high rate of efficiency in the removal of organic content (BOD, COD), nitrogen (Ntot, NH+4, NO3), total suspended solids (TSS) and pathogens (EC, FC, TC), both in secondary and tertiary treatment plants.
Fabio Masi, Giulio Conte, Nicola Martinuzzi
12. Effect of Depth on the Performance of Algae-Based Wastewater Treatment Ponds
A pilot-scale treatment plant consisted of a UASB-septic tank followed by three parallel pond systems each consisting of three stabilization ponds of equal depth and with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 28 days. The setting was intended to investigate the effect of pond depth on the performance of algae-based ponds (ABPs). The depth of the ponds in the first, second and third systems were 90, 60 and 30 cm, respectively. The average ambient temperature throughout the experimental period was 24.5 °C. The influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the UASB was 1275 ± 84 mg/L and the influent COD concentration to each pond system was 331 mg/L ± 69 mg/L. The results reveal that the performance of the ABPs was inversely proportional to the depth. COD removal efficiencies for the shallowest and deepest ponds were 54.0 ± 1.1% and 51.6 ± 3.2%, respectively. Higher ammonium (NH4+) removal efficiencies were achieved in the shallowest pond instead of the deepest pond. The removal efficiencies of shallowest and deepest ponds were 64.5 ± 2.8% and 51.2 ± 1.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) in the shallowest and deepest ponds were 45.4 ± 3.1% and 61.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Negative removal efficiencies for total suspended solids (TSS) were observed in ABPs.
Ashraf A. Isayed, Omar R. Zimmo
13. Adapting High-rate Anaerobic Treatment to Middle East Conditions
High-rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for sewage treatment in the Middle East and Palestine in particular. The sewage characteristics in Palestine are quite different from the values elsewhere and show solids contents of more than 1000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)ss/L and total COD values exceeding 2000 mg/L. While summer temperatures exceed 25 °C, temperatures may drop to below 15 °C in winter. Simple model calculations indicate that conventional upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor should be dimensioned on hydraulic retention times (HRTs) approaching 1 day to ensure methanogenic conditions in all seasons. Consequently, reactor volumes are three times the size of similar reactors in the tropics while the feasibility of the hydraulic flow patterns at such reduced rate are questionable. In an alternative approach, the UASB reactor was amended by incorporating a parallel digester unit for enhanced sludge stabilization and generation of active methanogenic sludge to be recirculated to the UASB reactor. The digester operational conditions were assessed by operating eight completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed with primary sludge. The results showed a high degree of sludge stabilization in the parallel digesters at a solids retention time of ≥10 and 15 days at process temperatures of 35 and 25 °C, respectively. The technical feasibility of the UASB-Digester combination was demonstrated by continuous flow pilot-scale experiments. A pilot UASB reactor was operated for 81 days at six hours HRT and 15 °C and was fed with raw domestic sewage. This period was subsequently followed by an 83 days operation period incorporating a parallel digester unit, which was operated at 35 °C. The UASB-Digester combination achieved removal efficiencies of total, suspended, colloidal and dissolved CODs of 66, 87, 44 and 30%, respectively. Preliminary model calculations indicated that a total reactor volume (UASB-Digester) corresponding to 8.6 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT) might suffice for sewage treatment in Palestine.
Nidal Mohmoud, Grietje Zeeman, Jules B. van Lier
14. Options for Improving the Effectiveness and Potentials for a Sustainable Resource Recovery in Constructed Wetlands
This chapter is divided into two parts, one presenting the options to improve the effectiveness of constructed wetlands (CWs) by focusing into their associated problems and one investigating the potentials of sustainable resource recovery. To deal with the problematic septic tank, one particular system initiated in France aims to treat raw household wastewater solely by CWs. It has been proved to function efficiently and hence there is no need to install a septic tank. Clogging is among the major operational concerns of CWs, which its likelihood of occurrence could be reduced by incorporating earthworms into the CWs. Earthworms were also found within real-scale CWs. The treatment efficiency could even be increased if the synergy of earthworms and the biological communities can be established. On the resource side, one should make use of the plants more effectively so that they will not be wasted. Instead of using the conventional plants, which are usually burnt after harvest, an alternative plant could be applied. Several plants such as bamboo or even the system of so-called wastewater garden can be used. Further, one might think about changing the paradigm of how one perceives wastewater by applying the ecological sanitation concept. CWs can provide a key to treat grey water. These options exhibit high potentials and can be adapted to the Mediterranean region.
Nathasith Chiarawatchai, Ralf Otterpohl
15. Integrated Anaerobic–Aerobic Treatment of Concentrated Sewage
The limited per capita share of fresh water in many Mediterranean countries has resulted in the production of concentrated sewage with average total chemical oxygen demand around 1,500 mg/L. The concentrated sewage exerts high energy demand for aeration on conventional activated sludge treatment systems. It can be calculated that aeration requirements needed for treating certain flow of concentrated sewage are three times higher than those needed for treating the same flow produced in most other countries in the world. Moreover, higher excess sludge amounts are produced, which results in extra operational costs. Therefore, concentrated sewage requires special attention and non-traditional management considerations. Integrated anaerobic–aerobic treatment of sewage is recognized as a sustainable and cost effective option. Anaerobic pretreatment can be used for upgrading existing overloaded centralized conventional treatment plants. It can also be applied when compact decentralized treatment systems are required. The present article shows that anaerobic pretreatment of concentrated sewage will reduce energy costs needed for operating wastewater treatment plants. Energy produced by anaerobic processes is surplus of aeration needs for activated sludge post treatment system. Moreover, 40% reduction in the total amount of excess sludge production can be obtained. The article also discusses the potential of applying constructed wetlands as a low-cost option for post-treatment of anaerobically treated effluent that can be applied (e.g., in rural areas).
Maha Halalsheh, Claudia Wendland
16. Aerobic and Anaerobic Biotreatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater in Lebanon
Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW), known in Lebanon as Zibar, is one of the two by-products obtained during olive oil extraction. OMW represents a serious environmental pollution problem especially for underground and surface water. Aerobic and anaerobic OMW biotreatment processes were developed and improved and showed promising success. A bacterial mixture of 10 strains (Aquaspirillum dispar, Bacillus cereus/thuringiensis, Brevibacterium otitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus penneri/vulgaris, Pseudomonas fluorescence biotype F, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas mendonica, Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas viridilivida) and five yeast cultures (Candida boidini, Candida memodendra, Candida mogii, Pichia haplophia and Sacharomyces ludwigii) were isolated from OMW, purified and reused in OMW aerobic biotreatment. Pilot- (5,000 L) and industrial-scale (25,000 L) biotreatments were performed. After 14 days of pilot-scale biotreatment, a 69.6% in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a 68.3% reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were achieved, while a 71.0% BOD and a 66.9% COD reduction were scored after 31 days of industrial-scale biotreatment. Anaerobic OMW biotreatment done at the experimental laboratory scale using omasomal juice as microbial starter achieved a reduction of 67.4% BOD and 65.9% COD with 37.2 L of biogas production per liter of Zibar after six weeks of incubation. The employed aerobic and anaerobic OMW biotreatment processes, developed at the LAU Biotechnology Labs, that achieved acceptable BOD and COD reduction rates and produced biogas, are low cost technologies and suitable for possible application in small rural olive mills in Lebanon and in the Middle East.
Faud Hashwa, Elias Mhanna
17. Cost-Efficiency in Water Management Through Demand Side Management and Integrated Planning
In the context of regional planning for efficient management of water and wastewater, it is crucial to assess the specific local situation. This consists of measures for water demand side management, comparison of different scenarios of water and wastewater systems based on dynamic cost–benefit analysis for the decision of central, communal or decentral structures and the decision on technological approaches. There are extremely resource efficient solutions available, however, they are not very well known yet. In regions with a smaller population density, well designed onsite systems for wastewater management in combination with safe local reuse for irrigation can be very competitive. It has to be stated that decentral solutions require professional operation and management, as experience around the world shows that they fail otherwise.
Ralf Otterpohl
18. The LooLoop-Process: The First “Waterless” Flushing Toilet
The environmentally open disposal of fecal contaminated wastewater flows from flushing toilets has caused and is causing a broad variety of qualitative threats and problems. Additionally, the extraction of freshwater for domestic uses from long-term renewable water resources, like ground water, and the following disposal into short-term renewable water resources, like rivers, which flow finally into the oceans within days up to a few months, is intensifying the decrease of continental fresh water resources. With this de-central concept innovation, most of this threats and problems can be solved, and the water demand for flushing of toilets can be reduced down to zero at the same time. Thereby, a closer look at the different types of buildings is essential to developing specific technologies according to the characteristics and amounts of their partial-stream separated wastewater flows. A characterization of different domestic buildings types is presented in this paper and a holistic approach is introduced, of how to reuse fecal contaminated flows, as well as how to reclaim valuables, like biogas, mineral fertilizer and soil-conditioner by simultaneously eliminating all pathogens and hazardous substances, like pharmaceuticals, hormones and multi-resistance plasmids.
U. Braun, B. Lindner, T. Lohmann, J. Behrendt, R. Otterpohl
19. Contribution of Sewage Sludge to the Fertility of the Soil and the Growth of Barley (Hordium Vulgare L) Variety Jaidor
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at the Ben M'hidi University Centre during the year 2002/03 to study the effects of different levels of sewage sludge on soil properties and yield of barley (Hordium Vulgare L) Variety Jaidor. The treatments consisted of 20, 40, 60 t ha−1 of organic fertilizer (sewage sludge); 35 and 70 kg ha−1 of mineral fertilizer (urea) and a check (without fertilization).
The results showed that the response of the crop for most variables was very well expressed at the application rate of 40 t ha−1 of sewage sludge. A significant increase in the number of tillers, kernels per spike (KN/S) and spikes was found in the sewage sludge treated soils.
An improvement in soil physical and chemical properties was noticed with increasing addition of sewage sludge. The amendment effect was highly significant At 40 t ha−1, the sewage sludge produced the best results in carbon content of the soil with 2.50%. The soil porosity and the hydraulic conductivity near saturation were significantly improved by the addition of sewage sludge.
S. Boudjabi, M. Kribaa, L. Tamrabet
20. The Use of a Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor in Treating Domestic Wastewater with Variable Characteristics for Potential Water Reuse on a University Campus
The aerobic treatability of domestic wastewater from a university campus area with diurnally and seasonally variable characteristics was investigated using a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) operated for eight months. Operating conditions including sludge retention time (SRT), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, permeate flux and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were varied during the operation to investigate their impacts on overall treatment performance, water production and membrane fouling. Although the influent characteristics were highly variable, including sudden sharp increases in total dissolved solids (TDS) and organic matter concentrations and wastewater temperatures were as low as 6 °C during winter months, the MBR system performed well throughout its operation. The treatment performance was not negatively influenced by variations in food to microorganism ratio, MLSS and dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, SRT, organic loading rate, specific substrate removal rate and permeate flux. Sustainable nitrification and organic carbon removals were achieved even during periods with extreme conditions. Irreversible fouling of membranes did not occur during the eight months of operation. No chemical cleaning was performed during the six months of operation at normal flux (23 to 25 L/m2-h), except routine back-pulsing with permeate. For the high flux operation (36 to 39 L/m2-h), chemical maintenance cleaning was employed two times over two months, which consisted of back-pulsing membranes with chlorine dosed (250 mg/L) permeate for five minutes without draining the MBR tank. No further intensive chemical cleaning was necessary even at high flux conditions. Overall, eight months of pilot-scale tests indicated the robustness of MBR process in terms of achieving very high quality of treated water without any operational limitations including fouling and permeability reduction problems. This study will guide the decision on a potential full-scale MBR application and reuse of the treated wastewater for irrigation in the campus area.
N. O. Yigit, I. Harman, G. Civelekoglu, H. Koseoglu, N. Cicek, L. Yilmaz, R. Arviv, M. Kitis
21. Socioeconomic Aspects of Wastewater Treatment and Water Reuse
Wastewater treatment is an essential prerequisite for water reclamation and reuse. Proper treatment and disinfection of wastewater is also a public health necessity in human communities. Treatment and distribution of recycled water involves great expenditure of resources, which in many developing countries is either lacking or is devoted to more urgent national priorities. Also, an appropriate valuation of water and its benefits to society is often lacking due to a misperception of abundance and taking water for granted—a gift of nature, to be used at will. This attitude must be changed with proper educational tools if the relatively constant amounts of water now available are to be sufficient for increasing populations of the future.
Water reuse projects face additional impediments. One major impediment is that the agreement of two or more governmental entities is required before a project can be implemented. These institutional barriers are not insurmountable, but they involve lengthy negotiations and much give-and-take on the part of the involved entities. Ideally, a single entity would be managing all matters related to the entire water cycle, but this is rare. Pricing of recycled water is another issue complicating the ability of water managers to pay the costs of implementing water-recycling projects. Recycled water is often priced significantly below the price of potable water.
Public attitude toward the reuse of reclaimed water for non-potable applications is generally positive. However, there have been several instances in California and Australia where resistance to indirect potable reuse has derailed a few otherwise excellent projects. Fortunately, public outreach and educational programs have been devised by professionals in the field for early public involvement and prevention of dissemination of misinformation by project opponents. The effects of global warming on future water supplies is not expected to be uniform everywhere, but it will be drastically limiting in certain parts of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Already, the continent of Australia is experiencing a 10-year drought, attributed to global warming. This increases the urgency for development of water use efficiency measures, such as water recycling in these regions.
Bahman Sheikh
22. Cost–Benefit Analysis for Centralized and Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System (Case Study in Surabaya-Indonesia)
Around 3 million inhabitants of Surabaya, the second biggest city in Indonesia, still dispose their wastewater to water bodies. This is mainly caused by lack of adequate wastewater treatment system. However, large-scale centralized wastewater treatment is not an economical option particularly for people living in low-income urban areas. Decentralized wastewater treatment systems that are more affordable are being developed.
To have a sustainable wastewater treatment system, an integrated assessment of each alternative based on its economical, environmental, social, health and institutional aspects is necessary. This study explores the economical aspects of three scenarios of wastewater treatment system, with Kalirungkut subdistrict, a densely populated urban area in Surabaya, as a case study area. The costs and benefits of alternative interventions are evaluated using the cost–benefit analysis (CBA) method to support the decision making process by bringing elements of transparency and objectives.
The results of CBA in this study showed that the decentralized system was more feasible economically for this case study, since the centralized wastewater treatment system had the highest net present value cost and the lowest cost—benefit ratio (C/B ratio). To support decision making regarding the sustainable wastewater treatment system for this area, further assessment on environmental, health, social and institutional aspects are recommended.
Maria Prihandrijanti, Almy Malisie, Ralf Otterpohl
23. Sustainable Community Water Project Implementation in Jordan
From 1998 to 2004 the authors participated in a water management project in the central Jordan Valley focused on community participation in the design and installation of an integrated zero effluent septage treatment facility and farming operation. This chapter begins with a summary of the water management context in Jordan and internationally. The participatory methodology employed in the project, including the sustainable community model guiding the project, is outlined and the major activities associated with the project and the community outcomes achieved, are discussed. Finally, the lessons learned, including participation in project design, management and facility ownership and operation; water privatization, pricing and valuation; women and water, cultural versus technical approaches to water management and the role of the professional in community water management are discussed. Our experience suggests the need to adopt a new paradigm in water management whereby all actors—engineers and technicians, community process facilitators, local authorities, other levels of government and the community—work in partnership. To date, decentralization has focused on the technical requirements and economic advantages of decentralized technologies. This project highlights the equally important cultural, social and political dimensions of successful water management decentralization.
Samira Smirat, Stan Benjamin, Noel Keough
24. Waste Water Reuse for Agriculture Pilot Project at the Jordan University of Science and Technology
Because of water scarcity in Jordan, marginal water (treated wastewater in particular) use in agriculture is highly required. However, this needs to be done with precautions to avoid harming the valuable agricultural soils and to prevent any consumer health risk.
The Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) has a large campus (11 km2) and has reused water from the university treatment plant for almost 20 years. The campus plant has a design capacity of 2,500 m3/d but is currently operating at about 600 m3/d. The other source of effluent water is located off campus at Wadi Hassan area about 4 Km south of the university campus. The design capacity of this plant is 2,200 m3/d and it has been in operation since September 2001. There are two storage lakes on campus: a 132,000-m3 lined pond and a 110,000-m3 capacity reservoir. These sources of effluent water and the existing infrastructure have encouraged the University to irrigate additional portions of the campus and to support the production of cash crops, field crops and forest trees by reclaimed wastewater. There is also a desire to have local community involvement and to train local farmers in the management and use of reclaimed water.
JUST pilot has been involving researchers and students in the water reuse activities. Local farming communities and other stakeholders have also been exposed through visits and field days to the reuse activities at JUST so that more positive attitudes can be created about reuse. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded water reuse activities at JUST are of great value also for JUST as a university and for the country due to the research and demonstration value of this activity. JUST water reuse pilot continues its activities to demonstrate and document safe reuse of reclaimed water and reaching at a wider social acceptance of this valuable resource for Jordan.
The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate the efficacy and economics of growing new types of crops in the northern area of Jordan utilizing the flow from the existing JUST wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as well as the Wadi Hassan WWTP. The crops for the pilot study are selected based on their applicability to the climate and soils of JUST, as well as their marketed value.
Ziad Al-Ghazawi, Jumah Amayreh, Laith Rousan, Amal Hijazi
Efficient Management of Wastewater
herausgegeben von
Ismail Al Baz
Ralf Otterpohl
Claudia Wendland
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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