Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Under the leadership of Barack Obama, Egyptian–US relations have experienced an acute crisis, unseen in many decades. This chapter argues that the US-espoused values of liberty, democracy and human rights had frequently come into the way of Washington’s pursuit of a purely realist and pragmatic foreign policy. This irreconcilable conflict between interests and values poisoned US–Egyptian ties at two defining moments in Egypt’s recent history—January 2011 and July 2013—when the US stance was perceived by Cairo as unfavorable at best, plainly hostile at worst. At these two moments, Cairo’s ruling elite saw everything through the parochial perspective of this raison d’état. There was little room for compromise or maneuver. US–Egyptian relations, as a result, got strained. Members of Egypt’s ruling elite breathed a sigh of relief when President Barack Obama left the White House in January 2017.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Clinton, Hillary, Hard Choices, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014, p. 333.
Shannon, Vaughn, and Joshua Cummins, “US-Egyptian Relations since the Arab Spring: Balancing Interests and Values,” The DISAM Journal (2014). Accessed May 13, 2016. http://www.disamjournal.org/articles/usegyptian-relations-since-the-arab-springbalancing-interests-and-values-1354
Indyk, Martin, Kenneth Liberthal and Michael O’Hanlon, Bending History: Barack Obama’s Foreign Policy, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2012, p. 6.
Carothers, Thomas. US Democracy Promotion During and After Bush, Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2007, p. 7.
Rieffer-Flanagan, Barbara Ann, “Democratic Dreams Neglected in the Land of the Pharaohs: US Democracy Assistance to Egypt,” Human Rights Review, Vol. 15 (August 2014), p. 441; Selim, Gamal, “The United States and the Arab Spring: The Dynamics of Political Engineering,” Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 35 (2013), p. 258.
Rieffer-Flanagan, “Democratic Dreams Neglected,” pp. 441–2.
In a cable released by the whistleblower website WikiLeaks, US ambassador to Egypt Margaret Scobey wrote that Mubarak viewed Bush as “naïve, controlled by subordinates, and totally unprepared for dealing with post-Saddam Iraq, especially the rise of Iran’s regional influence” (cited in Gardner, Lloyd, The Road to Tahrir Square: Egypt and the United States from the Rise of Nasser to the Fall of Mubarak, New York: The New Press, 2011, p. 183).
Abu al-Gheit, Ahmed, Shahadaty (My Testimony), Cairo: Nahdet Misr, 2013, p. 157.
“US Urges Restraint in Egypt, Says Government Stable,” Reuters, January 25, 2011. Accessed May 16, 2016. http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE70O0KF20110125
Murphy, Dan, “Joe Biden Says Egypt’s Mubarak No Dictator, He Shouldn’t Step Down,” Christian Science Monitor, January 27, 2011. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0127/Joe-Biden-says-Egypt-s-Mubarak-no-dictator-he-shouldn-t-step-down
For more details on the US foreign policy decision-making process towards the Egyptian uprising of January–February of 2011, see Clinton, Hillary, Hard Choices; Cooper, Helene, Mark Landler and David Sanger, “In US Signals to Egypt, Obama Straddled a Rift,” The New York Times, February 13, 2011; Dyer, Geoff, and Heba Saleh, “Clinton and Obama: An American Rift over an Egyptian Despot,” Financial Times, October 27, 2016. Accessed December 4, 2016. https://www.ft.com/content/38aead1a-9614-11e6-a80e-bcd69f323a8b; and Hirsh, Michael, “Obama Tries Nation-Building in Egypt,” National Journal, February 19, 2011.
Clinton, Hard Choices, p. 340.
Ibid., p. 341.
“Remarks by the President on the Situation in Egypt,” The White House. Accessed December 4, 2016. www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/02/01/remarks-president-situation-egypt
Koring, Paul, “Now Means Yesterday, US Says of Push to Get Mubarak to Quit,” The Globe and Mail, February 2, 2011. Accessed May 27, 2016. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/now-means-yesterday-us-says-of-push-to-get-mubarak-to-quit/article564685/
Al-Mamlouk, Mahmoud, “Al-Youm Al-Sabea Exclusively Runs the Most Important Three-Hour Audio Recording for Mubarak,” Al-Youm Al-Sabea, September 15, 2013. Accessed May 30, 2016. http://tinyurl.com/hz7yu8z. Mubarak’s remarks about the role of the United States in toppling him could be heard here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-8Eoy__xfk (in the minutes 11:30–12:22) [accessed December 4, 2016].
WikiLeaks revealed a secret memo sent to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in February 2012, in which a senior general with close ties to SCAF expressed his belief that Field Marshall Hussein Tantawi (head of SCAF) thinks that “he must accept the possible loss of American aid, if that is the price of maintaining control of the security situation in Egypt.” Accessed October 12, 2016. https://wikileaks.org/clinton-emails/emailid/12228
According to the Foreign Assistance Act, first enacted in 1961, aid must be stopped to “any country whose duly elected head of government is deposed by military coup d’état or decree” or is toppled in “a coup d’état or decree in which the military plays a decisive role.”
Just like in January 2011, a simmering rift occurred among Obama’s aides regarding how to deal with the developing situation in Egypt. It was motivated by where these aides stand on the question of interests and values, and resulted in an inconsistent approach towards Egypt. For instance, it was reported that Susan Rice, Obama’s national security advisor, advised Secretary of State John Kerry to make “strong statements” about the trial of Morsi during his Cairo visit. Kerry instead “made a deliberate and conscious decision” not to follow her advice, and instead accused the MB of stealing the Egyptian Revolution [Higgins, Michael, “Tensions between John Kerry and Susan Rice may be at Core of ‘Muddled’ US Policy on Egypt,” National Post, November 22, 2013. Accessed June 7, 2016. http://news.nationalpost.com/news/tensions-between-john-kerry-and-susan-rice-may-be-at-core-of-muddled-u-s-policy-on-egypt].
Hamid, Shadi, “Rethinking the US-Egypt Relationship: How Repression Is Undermining Egyptian Stability and What the United States Can Do,” Brookings, November 3, 2015. Accessed June 23, 2016. http://www.brookings.edu/research/testimony/2015/11/03-us-egypt-relationship-hamid
Wroughton, Lesly and Shaimaa Fayed, “Kerry Sees Signs Egypt Moving Back Towards Democracy,” Reuters, November 3, 2013. Accessed June 5, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-kerry-idUSBRE9A203K20131103
Miller, Judith, “Obama Meeting with Putin Snubs Ally Egypt,” The Washington Times, September 27, 2015. Accessed May 22, 2016. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/sep/27/obama-meeting-with-vladimir-putin-snubs-ally-egypt/?page=all
Goldberg, Jeffrey, “How Obama Views the Men and Women Who (Also) Rule the World,” The Atlantic, March 18, 2016. Accessed May 22, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/03/obama-goldberg-world-leaders/473367/
Weymouth, Lally, “Rare Interview with Egyptian Gen. Abdel Fatah al-Sissi,” The Washington Post, August 3, 2013. Accessed May 22, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/rare-interview-with-egyptian-gen-abdel-fatah-al-sissi/2013/08/03/a77eb37c-fbc4-11e2-a369-d1954abcb7e3_story.html
Fick, Maggie, “Egypt-US Relations in Turmoil: Egyptian Foreign Minister,” Reuters, October 16, 2013. Accessed June 11, 2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-usa-idUSBRE99F07220131016
Stephens, Bret, “Islam’s Improbable Reformer,” Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2015. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-weekend-interview-islams-improbable-reformer-1426889862
Aly, Abdel Monem Said and Shai Feldman, “Resetting US-Egypt Relations,” Middle East Brief no. 79, March 2014. Accessed June 9, 2016. http://www.brandeis.edu/crown/publications/meb/MEB79.pdf
Abu al-Gheit, My Testimony, p. 137.
Trager, Eric, “Hillary: I’m Done with Crazy Egyptian Conspiracy Theories,” Washington Post, June 11, 2014. Accessed December 4, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/06/11/hillary-im-done-with-crazy-egyptian-conspiracy-theories/?utm_term=.e57fc48878d5
The statements of Egypt’s Interior Ministry’s spokesperson could be seen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dIH2xlbEGw (Accessed December 4, 2016).
The statement of Egypt’s minister of culture could be seen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIEP0Ld8d4M (Accessed October 3, 2016).
“Global Indicators Database: Opinion of the United States,” Pew Research Center. Accessed June 16, 2016. http://www.pewglobal.org/database/indicator/1/survey/16/; Cullen, Terence. “Egypt, Jordan, Turkey Top List of Countries that Dislike the US the Most: Survey,” Daily News, July 15, 2014. Accessed June 16, 2016 http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/egypt-jordan-turkey-top-list-countries-dislike-u-s-survey-article-1.1868199
- Egypt and Obama: Turbulent Times, Bouncy Relations
- Chapter 5
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Rombach Rechtsanwälte/© Rombach Rechtsanwälte