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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

4. Einstellungen verändern

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Zusammenfassung

Marketing und Content-Marketing sollen Einstellungen verändern. Einen wichtigen theoretischen Rahmen einer solchen Einstellungsveränderung liefern das in der Psychologie weitverbreitete Elaboration-Likelihood-Modell (ELM) sowie das dem ELM nicht unähnliche Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM). Beide gehen dabei davon aus, dass Einstellungen einerseits durch aktives Nachdenken (bewusste kognitive Verarbeitung von Kommunikationsinhalten), aber auch von Prozessen mit wenig kognitiver Aktivität (oft unbewusst) gebildet und verändert werden. So bilden diese Modelle eine wichtige psychologische Grundlage, wie Content-Marketing seine Werbewirkung enthalten kann.
Fußnoten
1
Im engl. Original: „When the idea of two routes to persuasion was first proposed (Petty 1977), the literature on attitude change was in a state of disarry, to say the least.“
 
2
Im engl. Original: „The assumption is, that peope have neither the ability nor the motivation to evaluate everything carefully.“
 
3
Im engl. Original: „The central route is characterized by extensive cognitive processing of the message, whereas the peripheral route is characterized by minimal, if any, cognitive processing.“
 
4
Petty et al. beschreiben diese Tatsache so: „Note that the ELM does not hold that a given peripheral process (e.g., invocation of a heuristic; Chaiken 1980) is less likely to occur as the elaboration likelihood is increased, but only that the peripheral process is likely to account for less variance in the attitude adopted. Because central and peripheral processes affect attitudes with different probabilities along the elaboration continuum, attitudes are sometimes influenced in part by both central and peripheral processes“ Petty et al. 1993, S. 337–338.
 
5
Im Original: „[…] paying careful attention to the relevant information in the message, relating that information to previous knowledge stored in memory (e.g. is the message consitent or inconsistant with other facts that I know?), and generating new implications of the information (e.g. what does this mean to my life?).“
 
6
Im Original: „[…] people carfully attend to the arguments presented, examine the arguments in light of their relevant experiences and knowledge, and evaluate the argument along the dimension they perceive to be central to the merits of the object.“
 
7
Im Original: „One type of peripheral process occurs when a person retrieves from memory a particular decision rule that can be used to evaluate the message (e.g. ‚Experts are usually correct, so I’ll go along‘). This is referred to as heuristic processing (Chaiken 1987).“
 
8
Im engl. Original: „… some cues will do this because they trigger relatively primative affective states that become associated with the attitude object. Other cues work, however, because they invoke guiding rules or inferences.“
 
9
Im Original: „According to the ELM, attitudes formed or changed by way of the peripheral route are less accessible, persitent, resistant, and predictive of behaviour than are attitudes formed or changes by way of the central route.“
 
10
Im engl. Original: „Perhaps the most important variable affecting the motivation to process a persuasive message is the personal relevance of the advocacy.“
 
11
Im engl. Original: „Petty and Cacioppo (1979, 1990) hypothesized that when people think that a message is on a topic of high personal relevance or importance (i.e., the message is relevant to a person’s important outcomes, goals, vlaues, groups, possessions, and so forth), they engage in greater message scrunity than when the message is perceived to be of little relevance or importance.“
 
12
Für weitergehend am Thema Involvement Interessierte zeigt Thomsen et al. 1995, S. 193 eine zusammenfassende Übersicht zu Quellen von Involvement und den in verschiedenen Studien verwendeten Taxonomien.
 
13
Im Original: „For example, if a person was unable to realize the full implications of a message with just one exposure, a few additional exposures might be beneficial for message elaboration.“
 
14
Diese Erkenntnis, dass eine mehrfache Exposition einer Botschaft sinnvoll sein kann, darf aber in der Praxis nicht fälschlicherweise zu einem „viel hilft viel“ umgedeutet werden. Denn Wiederholung kann auch zu negativen Effekten von „langweilig/schon wieder“ bis „aufdringlich“ führen. Hier gilt es, immer verschiedene Wirkungen gut abzuwägen.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Bongard, Joachim (2002): Werbewirkungsforschung. Grundlagen – Probleme – Ansätze. Zugl.: Münster (Westfalen), Univ., Diss., 2000. Münster: Lit-Verl. (Publizistik, 7). Bongard, Joachim (2002): Werbewirkungsforschung. Grundlagen – Probleme – Ansätze. Zugl.: Münster (Westfalen), Univ., Diss., 2000. Münster: Lit-Verl. (Publizistik, 7).
Zurück zum Zitat Chaiken, Shelly (1987): The heuristic model of persuasion. In: Mark P. Zanna (Hg.): Social influence: The Ontario Symposium. Papers from the Fifth Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology, held at Waterloo, August 21–23, 1984. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (The Ontario symposium, 5), S. 3–39. Chaiken, Shelly (1987): The heuristic model of persuasion. In: Mark P. Zanna (Hg.): Social influence: The Ontario Symposium. Papers from the Fifth Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology, held at Waterloo, August 21–23, 1984. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (The Ontario symposium, 5), S. 3–39.
Zurück zum Zitat Chen, Serana; Chaiken, Shelly (2000): The Heuristic-Systematic Model in Its Broader Context. In: Shelly Chaiken und Yaacov Trope (Hg.): Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York [etc.]: Guilford Press, S. 73–96. Chen, Serana; Chaiken, Shelly (2000): The Heuristic-Systematic Model in Its Broader Context. In: Shelly Chaiken und Yaacov Trope (Hg.): Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York [etc.]: Guilford Press, S. 73–96.
Zurück zum Zitat Gigerenzer, Gerd (2007): Gut feelings. The intelligence of the unconscious. Old Saybrook, CT: Tantor Media. Gigerenzer, Gerd (2007): Gut feelings. The intelligence of the unconscious. Old Saybrook, CT: Tantor Media.
Zurück zum Zitat Johnson, B. T.; Majo, G. R.; Smith-McLallen, A. (2005): Communication and Attitude Chance: Causes, Processes and Effects. In: Dolores Albarracín, Blair T. Johnson und Mark P. Zanna (Hg.): The handbook of attitudes. New York, London: Psychology Press, S. 617–670. Johnson, B. T.; Majo, G. R.; Smith-McLallen, A. (2005): Communication and Attitude Chance: Causes, Processes and Effects. In: Dolores Albarracín, Blair T. Johnson und Mark P. Zanna (Hg.): The handbook of attitudes. New York, London: Psychology Press, S. 617–670.
Zurück zum Zitat Petty, Richard E. (1977): a cognitive response analysis of the temporal persistence of attitude changes induced by persuasive communications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University. Petty, Richard E. (1977): a cognitive response analysis of the temporal persistence of attitude changes induced by persuasive communications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.
Zurück zum Zitat Petty, Richard E.; Cacioppo, John T. (1986): Communication and Persuasion. Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. New York, NY: Springer New York. Petty, Richard E.; Cacioppo, John T. (1986): Communication and Persuasion. Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. New York, NY: Springer New York.
Zurück zum Zitat Petty, Richard E.; Cacioppo, John T.; Schumann, David (1983): Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement. In: Journal of Consumer Research 10 (2), S. 135–146. Petty, Richard E.; Cacioppo, John T.; Schumann, David (1983): Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement. In: Journal of Consumer Research 10 (2), S. 135–146.
Zurück zum Zitat Petty, Richard E.; Wegener, Duane T. (2000): The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Current Status and Controversies. In: Shelly Chaiken und Yaacov Trope (Hg.): Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York [etc.]: Guilford Press. Petty, Richard E.; Wegener, Duane T. (2000): The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Current Status and Controversies. In: Shelly Chaiken und Yaacov Trope (Hg.): Dual-process theories in social psychology. New York [etc.]: Guilford Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., Strathman, A. J., & Priester, J. R. (2005): To Think or Not to Think: Exploring Two Routes to Persuasion. In: Timothy C. Brock und Melanie C. Green (Hg.): Persuasion. Psychological insights and perspectives. 2. ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, S. 81–116. Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., Strathman, A. J., & Priester, J. R. (2005): To Think or Not to Think: Exploring Two Routes to Persuasion. In: Timothy C. Brock und Melanie C. Green (Hg.): Persuasion. Psychological insights and perspectives. 2. ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, S. 81–116.
Zurück zum Zitat Petty, R. E., Haugtvedt, C. P., & Smith, S. M. (1995): Elaboration as a determinant of attitude strength: Creating attitudes that are persistent, resistant, and predictive of behavior. In: Richard E. Petty und Jon A. Krosnick (Hg.): Attitude strength. Antecedents and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (Ohio State University series on attitudes and persuasion, 4). Petty, R. E., Haugtvedt, C. P., & Smith, S. M. (1995): Elaboration as a determinant of attitude strength: Creating attitudes that are persistent, resistant, and predictive of behavior. In: Richard E. Petty und Jon A. Krosnick (Hg.): Attitude strength. Antecedents and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (Ohio State University series on attitudes and persuasion, 4).
Zurück zum Zitat Schuhmann, David W.; Kotowski, Michael R.; Ahn, Ho-Young, Haugtvedt, Curtis P. (2012): The Elaboration Likelihood Modell. A 30-Year Review. In: Shelly Rodgers (Hg.): Advertising theory. 1. ed. New York, NY: Routledge (Routledge Communication Series), S. 51–68. Schuhmann, David W.; Kotowski, Michael R.; Ahn, Ho-Young, Haugtvedt, Curtis P. (2012): The Elaboration Likelihood Modell. A 30-Year Review. In: Shelly Rodgers (Hg.): Advertising theory. 1. ed. New York, NY: Routledge (Routledge Communication Series), S. 51–68.
Zurück zum Zitat Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Borgida, Eugene; Lavine, Howard (1995): The Causes and Consequences of Personal Involvement. In: Richard E. Petty und Jon A. Krosnick (Hg.): Attitude strength. Antecedents and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (Ohio State University series on attitudes and persuasion, 4), S. 191–214. Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Borgida, Eugene; Lavine, Howard (1995): The Causes and Consequences of Personal Involvement. In: Richard E. Petty und Jon A. Krosnick (Hg.): Attitude strength. Antecedents and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (Ohio State University series on attitudes and persuasion, 4), S. 191–214.
Metadaten
Titel
Einstellungen verändern
verfasst von
Thomas Hörner
Copyright-Jahr
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-37015-2_4