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This book focuses on the latest emerging technologies in electric vehicles (EV), and their economic and environmental impact. The topics covered include different types of EV such as hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV), battery electrical vehicle (BEV), fuel cell electrical vehicle (FCEV), plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV). Theoretical background and practical examples of conventional electrical machines, advanced electrical machines, battery energy sources, on-board charging and off-board charging techniques, and optimization methods are presented here. This book can be useful for students, researchers and practitioners interested in different problems and challenges associated with electric vehicles.



Design and Modeling of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Urban Transportation

There is a need of integration between fuel cell (FC) and battery to help electric vehicle to work under cold start, acceleration and deceleration modes, which are problems unique to an electric vehicle application. The dynamics of FC is slower compared with the electric vehicle load dynamics and there is a need to design suitable converters for interfacing auxiliary source during this period. The converters interfacing the auxiliary power source (battery) need to have faster dynamic response so that it can interface the battery with DC bus bar. In the fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV), during cold start mode, the battery supplies to the DC bus bar during the heat up process. In this article, the architecture of FCHEV has been developed using a resonant DAB-IBDC converter with symmetric CLLC. The architecture of FCHEV had analyzed and modeled in this manuscript. The model of FC accounting for material conservation, delay effects due to fuel and oxidant, and losses has also developed to get more accurate FC output voltage. The operation of the FCHEV during cold start, normal, acceleration and deceleration conditions studied in detail. Furthermore, simulation results of the designed 1.4 kW EV verify with theoretical analysis in the four modes for urban transport applications especially for three-wheeler applications like e-rickshaw.
Mallikarjunareddy Bandi, Naveenkumar Marati, Balraj Vaithilingam, Kathirvel Karuppazhagi

Light Electric Vehicles and Their Charging Aspects

Electric two- and three-wheelers are light electric vehicles (LEV), which constitute the largest segment of electric vehicles in terms of stock. These vehicles will be at the heart of electrification efforts in China, India and other Asian countries as their conventional counterparts preferred for last-mile connectivity and considered as a budget-friendly mode of personal transport. However, charging of these without any active cooling systems will be a difficult proposition in the Asian countries with high ambient temperatures. Traditionally, these vehicles were slow charged due to the use of lead-acid batteries. With the adoption of advanced chemistries, faster charging becomes possible but thermal management continues to be the biggest challenge. On the other hand, battery swapping is an option that can assist in reducing the charging time of the batteries. The proposed chapter would cover details on LEV models, and their charging and swapping aspects and possible recommendations.
Chandana Sasidharan, Bhawna Tyagi, Varun Rajah

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are nothing but a mixture of an electric vehicle and a conventional vehicle. Its battery can be charged externally. It has the benefits of both worlds. It is as energy conserving as the electric vehicles and as efficient as the conventional vehicles. But to know more about the plug-in hybrid, we must know when and where it all started. The history of electric vehicles go back to the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. The first model electric vehicle is attributed to various people; in the year 1828, Anyos Jedlik invented an electric motor and created a model car. Thomas Parker built the first practical electric car in the year 1895. The above normal cost, low top speed, and short range electric vehicles saw their decline with the invention of electric starters by Charles Kettering. Henry Ford with the initiation of mass production of gas-powered vehicles brought prices down and ensured their demise. Although the history of PHEVs go way back in time, the development for commercial use took place after 2002. Plug-in electrical vehicles include Toyota Prius, Audi A3 e-tron, Lexus, Tesla Model 3. The plug-in hybrid electric vehicles mainly comprises of four parts—Internal combustion engine, no emission electric motor, high performance series of rechargeable battery, and transmission system. In a plug-in hybrid electrical car, electrical motor and combustion engine work in perfect harmony to fulfill the needs of the vehicle. There can either be a single large battery or a series of Li-ion battery. The series of Li-ion battery ensures a bigger life span and increases the overall efficiency of the electric motor. As far as the working is concerned, the PHEVs use both the ICE and the electric motor. The electric motor works alone to provide the torque required to move the vehicle. This mode is called charge depletion mode where the battery is depleted. When the battery is no longer able to provide the motor, the internal combustion engine takes over control and the vehicle runs on fuel. An electric motor and ICE can work simultaneously to supply the demand. During all this, the kinetic energy developed while moving is used to charge the battery. This is called regenerative braking. PHEVs are not only environment friendly but also cost efficient. They are an upgradation to conventional hybrids. The battery can be charged by the grid. Although today the initial cost is high, which can be a disadvantage, but as the market grows the cost will eventually come down. For now, consider this as a day-to-day LED which is expensive in the beginning but helpful, efficient, and cost-friendly in the long run.
Himanshu Singh, A. Ambikapathy, K. Logavani, G. Arun Prasad, Saravanan Thangavel

Power Electronics—EV Battery Charging

Growing worldwide demand of electric vehicles (EV) to curtail air pollution and steep fuel price rise is drawing prime attention of EV manufacturers towards improving the performance of EV battery chargers. Modern EV chargers are intended to be small sized, lightweight, efficient and cost effective. Bidirectional chargers have the additional provisions of feeding the battery stored energy back to the grid to meet the power demand in peak hours. All EV battery chargers essentially use power electronic converters as the main power processing unit. Power electronic researchers are therefore trying to develop new topologies of power electronic converters to meet the demands of modern EV battery chargers. This chapter elaborates power system layouts of EV battery charging systems, different categories of power electronic converters for such applications and working principles of basic power electronic converters. At last, several new topologies of recently developed power converters with many of the features mentioned above have been presented and explained briefly.
Biswamoy Pal, Shib Sankar Saha, Papun Biswas

An Overview of Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging in Vehicular Adhoc Network

With the rise of EVs, the demand of charging has necessitated the inclusion of renewable energy sources to supplement the grid. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) provides safety and comfort to the connected vehicle. Design of charging strategy to obtain optimal energy utilization poses the challenge to the researchers when both electric vehicle (EV) and charging stations are considered together in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Here, we first introduce the VANET environment in which the communication between EVs on the road, road side unit (RSU), and a traffic server takes place. Then, the overview of solar PV integration with grid to meet the demand in peak hour has been discussed.
Farooque Azam, Neeraj Priyadarshi, Harish Nagar, Sunil Kumar, Akash Kumar Bhoi

Study on Electric Vehicle (EV) and Its Developments Based on Batteries, Drive System and Charging Methodologies in Modern World

In recent times, earth is suffering from huge pollution, which is caused due to traditional IC engine vehicles. So the entire world is moving to a new trend of electric vehicles, which is pollution-free and higher efficient over traditional vehicles (IC engine vehicle). Transport electrification is one of the most significant areas of study by the industrialists over the past years. Electric vehicles (EVs) are taking over market share of traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. The growing attractiveness of EVs contributes to a higher number of charging stations, with significant grid impacts. Innumerable operational approaches, as well as methods of grid integration, are being developed to reduce the negative effects of EV charging and to optimize the benefits of EV grid integration. In this study, the developments on electric vehicles and its customization over a period of time till now have been delivered. This research work is based on numerous batteries used in Electric Vehicles (EV), several drive systems with its benefits and charging methodologies in recent time has been made along with its Cons to provide better knowledge for researchers to promote substantial augmentation of EV.
V. Dhinakaran, R. Surendran, M. Varsha Shree, Parul Gupta

An Overview on the Prominence of Phase Change Material Based Battery Cooling and Role of Novel Composite Phase Change Material in Future Battery Thermal Management System

Electric vehicle (EV) demand has increased, therefore the use of lithium batteries is enormous. In these circumstances, huge heat is also produced from the battery cell. Battery cells are highly susceptible to repeated changes in temperature and battery life is also affected, which is the reason why it is essential to improve efficient thermal management systems for batteries to enhance heat dissipation rate from battery cells. So far several researchers have been working on different Battery Thermal Management Systems (BTMS) to satisfy constraints like rapid charging speeds, high voltage stream, and better efficiency. Such rapid adjustments in the battery had to be closely controlled and managed to prevent thermal and safety-related issues. Active and Passive thermal management is engaged in the battery module to limit the peak battery temperature and peak temperature difference. Phase Change Material (PCM) is employed to dissipate the heat produced in the Passive Thermal Management category, which has a superiority over Active Thermal Management with no power consumption, high heat dissipation density, and isothermal heat transfer. Despite these advances, PCM alone in BTMS is not still easy. The main challenge is to cope up with the low thermal conductance behavior of PCMs. To address this challenge, various high thermal conductive materials are incorporated with PCM. In this chapter, thermal conductivity enhancers are mentioned along with their impact on the performance or efficiency of BTMS.
Jay Patel, Rajesh Patel

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

Battery electric vehicles, otherwise called BEVs, are completely electric vehicles which runs on rechargeable batteries. They utilize energy which is put away in rechargeable battery packs, with no utilization of optional source, for example, gases, hydrogen energy unit, internal combustion engine, and so on. Rather than internal combustion engines (ICEs), BEVs utilize electric engines and engine controllers. During the eighteenth century, the possibility of an electric vehicle began and the advancement began. The principal successful electric car, known as The Electrobat, was created in 1894 utilizing lead batteries. Mechanical designer Henry G. Morris and scientific expert Pedro G. Salom in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania have created it. In 1895, William Morrison of Des Moines built up a six-wheeled electric vehicle (wagon) which was equipped for arriving at the speed of 23 km/h. Later on, the car organization General Motors (GM) in the mid-1960s made their first idea, The Electrovair utilizing a battery of silver and zinc which convey nearly 530 V. Decades later in 2008, Tesla Motors delivered their first battery electric vehicle (BEV), Roadster which utilized lithium-ion battery for traveling in excess of 320 km for every charge upto an extraordinary speed of 200 km/h. A portion of the renowned instances of BEVs are Chevy Bolt, Portage Focus Electric, Hyundai Ionic, Mitsubishi I-MiEV, Volkswagen e-Golf, and so forth. The Battery electric vehicle comprises of different parts which incorporate battery, charge port, DC/DC converter, electric traction motor, power electronics controller, a thermal system, traction battery pack, and so forth. Since these vehicles utilize electric engine rather than the internal combustion engine, along these lines, an enormous battery pack is expected for controlling the electric engine. For the charging of the enormous traction batteries, charging station or outlet is required, which isn't accessible all over the place and henceforth the expansion of BEVs is very troublesome. The working of the BEVs is to such an extent that the helper battery gives energy to control the frill of BEV. The vehicle has the charge port to interface with an external supply to charge the battery pack. The installed charger in it helps in changing over AC power to the DC capacity to charge the traction battery with the goal that it can store and give power to the engine. The vehicle has mounted a DC/DC converter to give a low voltage DC capacity to the components. The power from the battery pack is dealt with the electric engine which moves the wheels of the car. The torque created, and the speed of engine is controlled with the assistance of the power electronics controller, and it additionally manages the energy stream. A thermal system deals with the working temperature of the motor, and the electric transmission aids in moving the mechanical capacity to the drive wheels. This is the manner in which the vehicle moves. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) do not produce any sort of unsafe dangers, not at all like fuel-controlled vehicles or ordinary petroleum/diesel vehicles, and in this manner, they are profoundly condition cordial. Likewise, they have a low running expense of around 33% per kilometer when contrasted with regular vehicles. Considering every one of these variables, battery-worked vehicles are probably going to supplant regular ICE vehicles soon.
Ahmad Faraz, A. Ambikapathy, Saravanan Thangavel, K. Logavani, G. Arun Prasad

Communication Standards for Interconnections of Smart Grid Infrastructure and Intelligent Electric Transportation System

Smart grid technology can be considered as one of the most advanced, revolutionary and challenging technology of the present era. It is an assimilation of an electric grid network with information and communication network. Deployment of smart grid can address many issues such as reliability of power supply, GHG emission, efficiency of power supply, dependence on fossil fuels, integration of renewable energy resources, consumer participation, etc. An intelligent transportation system is the upcoming technology all over the world. An intelligent transportation system includes automation, control and management of vehicular system to address the issues related to traffic, congestion, accidents and pollution. It also includes development of plug-in vehicles along with an automation of transportation. A plug-in vehicle is an integral part of smart grid technology. Smart grid technology and plug-in vehicles both emphasize on the issues of GHG emission and renewable integration. A plug-in vehicle can be classified into plug-in electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Integration of plug-in vehicle with smart grid infrastructure can improve the efficacy, reliability and consistency of the grid. The vehicle to smart grid infrastructure can facilitate bidirectional communication between electric vehicle (EV) and smart grid infrastructure. It is a crucial technology for grid stability due to flexible control and a huge storage capability of electric vehicle along with grid integrated renewable energy resources. Integration of plug-in vehicles and smart grid network includes two prominent technologies for electric power flow and communication signal flow. This chapter describes an inclusive analysis of communication standards used for communication between smart grid and plug-in vehicle. It includes various types of communication interfaces such as vehicle-to-grid infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle as well as vehicle-to-everything for vehicular communication in the smart grid environment.
Lipi Chhaya

Smart Grid, V2G and Renewable Integration

Our country’s electric power infrastructure is well governed by the system called Grid. Every day the overtaxed Grid grows in size and complexity. Certain challenges like the power system Grid security and the pollutants due to the carbon-di-oxide emissions are treated as the threatening aspects of our Nation’s growth. These challenges could be overcome by bringing internet technology into the electric power system. This is by far called the Smart Grid technology that is capable of self-healing during any disturbances and could equip as many Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as possible into our Grid. Indian power sector can be made carbon-free at an effective cost if it is controlled and monitored in an effective way. Information and Communication Tools (ICT) helps to modernize the operation of the electrical networks in a smart platform. Smart Grid is in that sense equips a large number of technologies with a greater number of policies and regulations associated with each category of subsystems. Some of the commonly addressed characteristics of the Smart Grid (SG) in the literature include load response and load management through electric vehicles, microgeneration, smart meters, and information pertaining to the energy uses and prices. Vehicle to Grid (V2G) allows the bidirectional flow of power between the main grid and electric vehicles. The electric vehicles include plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). Vehicle to Grid technology is gaining attention in the recent decade as a large amount of electric vehicle enters the market. V2G is an emerging technology that improves the low grid efficiency and reduces the fluctuations in renewable energy interactions. This technology provides efficient load management services to the grid. By this way, the stability of the grid is increased during high demand and low demand hours. This inevitably increases the grid efficiency. The main objective of the vehicle to grid technology is to fit in the electric vehicle completely into the smart grid setup thereby improving the grid’s full utilization capability in handling the distributed energy resources integration more effectively.
K. Logavani, A. Ambikapathy, G. Arun Prasad, Ahmad Faraz, Himanshu singh

Blockchain-Based Smart Contract Design for Crowdfunding of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Setup

Electrical vehicle (EV) technology is envisioned as a state of art technology in time to come. One main reason for paramount research interest in this field is that EVs are considered best alternative to counter environmental pollution caused by conventional vehicles. Although many renowned companies like Tesla, Nissan have launched their EVs, still there is hesitation among common masses in buying it. It has been found that in countries specially like India, lack of charging stations is the main reason for people not transiting to EVs as a prime mode of transportation. In this direction, government of India has taken visionary steps by launching schemes like FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles). Through such scheme, government is funding and giving subsidies to set up charging stations. In order to give pace to collect enough funds, the new emerging concept of crowdfunding can be very useful. In presented research work, a blockchain-based smart contract has been designed on Ethereum platform for EV charging station setup crowdfunding. The designed smart contract has been coded in solidity language. It has been implemented and tested on REMIX IDE Ethereum platform.
Manish Kumar Thukral

Modeling and Designing of E-bike for Local Use

In the present communication, one electrical bike has been designed and fabricated which can be ride by one person with or without one more sitting person. This bike’s speed can be controlled by throttle and disk break. The maximum speed of this bike has been observed as 38–40 km/h at normal city road conditions. It has major components as: BLDC 900 W motor (3400 rpm), motor controller and lithium ion battery pack. The applied battery pack gives 48 V with 25 Ah, which is able to charge fully in 8 h. At constant speed and full charge of battery, it travelled 80–100 km distance. The cost per km has been calculated as INR 0.45 only. The total cost of bike manufacturing for testing is INR 26,400 and INR 31,400 for half load and full load conditions. Such bikes are really useful in present society like: students, ladies and old age people for local uses and it does not emit carbon in environment so it is environment-friendly too.
Rohit Tripathi, Adwait Parth, Manish, Manoj K. Shukla

A Novel Energy and Exergy Assessments of Solar Operated Combined Power and Absorption Refrigeration Cogeneration Cycle

The particular research is widely based on the concept of cogeneration cycle which has been developed by integrating a solar field consisting of heliostats coupled with the LiNO3-H2O absorption refrigeration cycle. Energy and exergy analyses have been performed on this conceptual cycle. Estimates for the irreversibility of all the major energy-consuming components of the cycle lead to possible measures for performance enhancement. The analysis also involves the determination of effects of DNI, variation in the mass flow rate of steam and molten salt on change DNI, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency of the solar-based cogeneration cycle. The energy efficiencies of the Rankine cycle and cogeneration cycle lie in the range 31.45–42.38%, and exergy efficiencies lie between 42.51% and 56.5%. Further, the performance parameters computed are the exergy destruction, which shows that out of total irreversibility evaluated in the system about 2495 kW is being contributed by a central receiver, 1869 kW by heliostat and 586 kW in HRSG are the most influenced parameters in the whole cycle.
Mohd Parvez, Mohammad Emran Khan, Faizan Khalid, Osama Khan, Wasim Akram

The Effectiveness of Smart Grids V2G and Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

A smart grid is an integrated grid network that manages the demand for electricity in a safe, reliable, and economical way, based on advanced infrastructure and designed to promote the integration of all those involved. In the Smart Grid environment, customers and utilities alike have resources for handling, tracking, and reacting to energy problems. The transfer of energy from the utility to customer is a conversation of two kinds. Through making the consumer aware of the time with a minimum electricity tariff and being able to incorporate carbon-free energy sources into power grids, it will reduce the electricity costs. This chapter deals with the effectives of smart grid V2G, its integration with renewable energy systems along with some of the smart grid technologies.
Partha Pratim Das, Awasthi Aditya Bachchan, Vijay Chaudhary

A New Series-Parallel Switched Capacitor Configuration of a DC–DC Converter for Variable Voltage  Applications

DC-DC converter is to provide a predetermined and constant output voltage to a load from a poorly specified or fluctuating input voltage source. Switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC power converters are a subset of DC-DC power converters which efficiently convert one voltage to another with the use of a network of switches and capacitors. Unlike traditional inductor-based DC-DC converters, switched capacitor converters do not depend on magnetic energy storage elements like inductors which increase the complexity of the circuit and also reduce the circuit efficiency. In this chapter, a converter designed to utilize input source to produce multiple output ratios is presented. The proposed converter circuit has a capability to reconfigure its gain using variable circuit structure by selectively activating converter switches by changing the pulses given to the switches which in turn produces both positive and negative voltage ratios. The same switches and capacitors are reused and connected in a predetermined pattern to generate the required output voltage optimizing the usage of the components. The proposed circuit uses four flying capacitors for charging and discharging the voltages, one output capacitor which is ten times of the flying capacitors value used for filtering any ripples in the output voltage, 13 active switches of MOSFETs used to achieve the required output with only one input voltage. It supports various voltage conversion ratios such as 5/1, 4/1, 3/1, 2/1, 1/2, 2/3, 1/5, 1/11, 1/21, 1/31, 1/41, 1/16, 3/43, 2/7, 3/13, 1/6. Out of these conversion ratios, four are of up modes which lift the voltage and 12 are of down ratios. Due to the continuous power supply reduction, positive output ratios of switched-capacitor circuits are widely used in electric vehicle for electronic devices such as audio controller, charging system and LED light and the negative output ratios to find applications in operational amplifiers. While SCs are only capable of a finite number of conversion ratios, SC converters can support a higher power density, smaller size compared with traditional converters for a given conversion ratio. Finally, through simple control methods, regulation over many magnitudes of output power is possible while maintaining high efficiency. The major contribution of the proposed circuit is to obtain maximum voltage conversion ratios with reduced number of switches and capacitors. The working principle, conversion ratios, modeling considerations in different conversion modes, the output waveform results for the voltage ratios and equivalent resistance of the proposed circuit are also explained.
B. Hemanth Kumar, A. Bhavani, C. V. Jeevithesh, Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban, Vivekanandan Subburaj

A Comprehensive Study on Electrical Vehicle in Charging Infrastructure, Challenges and Future Scope

The looming worldwide vitality emergency has opened up new open doors for the car business to satisfy the ever increasing need for cleaner and eco-friendly vehicles. The beneficial commercialization and quick selection of energized transportation requires quick, prudent and solid charging framework. This has required the advancement of drive trains that are either completely or mostly jerked as EVs, PEVs, and PHEVs. This work gives an exhaustive, best in class survey of entire remote charged advances of electrical vehicle (EVs), attributes as well as gauges accessible writing, just as reasonable ramifications and potential security measures. A relative outline of conductive charges as well as contactless charges are trailed by nitty-gritty portrayal of static contact less charges, contact less dynamic charging, and quasi-dynamic contact less charging. A significant number of electric vehicle are running on street those determination are discussed. The measures are then classified to convey a lucid perspective on the present status, trailed by a clarification of the core of these norms. Need and development in normalization of remote charging frameworks are then pondered. V2G (Vehicle to Grid) utilization of remote charging are checked on. Money related assessment of remote charging and social implications, practicality and prosperity issues in contactless charging plan. Executions of batteries are examined in terms of safety and productivity. This work will be profoundly gainful to explore substances, industry experts, and venture delegates as a prepared reference of the remote charging arrangement of EVs, with data on significant attributes and guidelines.
Piyush Sharma, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neeraj Priyadarshi, Farooque Azam, Sajeevikumar Padmanaban, Akash Kumar Bhoi
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