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As future generation electrical, information engineering and mechatronics become specialized and fragmented, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that many topics in these areas have common threads and, because of this, advances in one discipline may be transmitted to others. The 2011 International Conference on Electrical, Information Engineering and Mechatronics (EIEM 2011) is the first conference that attempts to follow the above idea of hybridization in electrical, information engineering, mechatronics and applications.

This Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Electrical, Information Engineering and Mechatronics provides a forum for engineers and scientists to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges and social, legal, political, and economic issues, and to present and discuss their ideas, results, works in progress and experience on all aspects of electrical, information engineering, mechatronics and applications.

Engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government will find a insights into the solutions that combine ideas from multiple disciplines in order to achieve something more significant than the sum of the individual parts in all aspects of electrical, information engineering, mechatronics and applications.



Advanced Control Algorithm


Chapter 1. The Track Initiation Method Based on Ant-Based Clustering Algorithm and Hough Transform Method

In terms of the phenomenon which occurs in the track initiation method based on Hough transform for multi-target tracking in clutter environment, multiple tracks are initiated by only one target. A novel track initiation method based on ant-based clustering algorithm and Hough transform method is proposed. Firstly, it utilizes the ant-based clustering to remove many clutters and ghosts, and then extracts the possible candidate points originated from true targets. Finally the Hough transform method is applied to initiate the track of the extracted points. Numerical simulations indicated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Huigang Xu, Benlian Xu, Fei Wang, Jihong Zhu

Chapter 2. On the Design of Incremental Predictive Functional Control Algorithm

To improve the predictive functional control (PFC) algorithm, this paper presents an incremental PFC algorithm designed through the combination of incremental control and PFC, and hence it has the advantages of both approaches. The Internal Model Control (IMC) framework is presented from the control law and is used to analyse and evaluate the performance of the controller design and closed-loop system. The proposed algorithm could effectively guarantee rapid unbiased-tracking with enhanced system robustness. The suggested algorithm has been assessed through a set of numerical experiments with a focus on the impact of the number of basis functions in the control law on the system performance and the simulation result proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Wei Wu, Qiang Yang, Wenjun Yan

Chapter 3. A Novel Fuzzy Data Association Algorithm with the Heading-Angle Aided

In this chapter, a new data association method based on fuzzy logic is proposed for the multi-target tracking. Firstly, the heading-angle and distance are analyzed to be the effective parameters for separating the multi-target, the definition of heading-angle and the method of how to calculate the heading-angle have been introduced, the state including the heading-angle is updated using the cubature Kalman filter, at last the fuzzy logic inference method is used for data association. Simulation results show that the proposed method have better performance in data association than the Nearest Neighbor (NN) algorithm and Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA) algorithm.

Pengfei Li, Tian Qin, Li Ren

Chapter 4. The Parametric Design Based on Bee Dual Population Evolution on Chaos

Geometric constraint problem is equivalent to the problem of solving a set of nonlinear equations substantially. We propose a new optimization algorithm—Bee Dual Population Evolution on Chaos Algorithm and apply it into the geometric constraint solving. By the use of properties of ergodicity, randomicity and regularity of chaos motion, genetic algorithm of bee dual population evolution based on chaos is proposed. On the basis of genetic algorithm based on bee dual population evolution, the algorithm adopts chaos optimization to improve species’ initial quality and utilizes the annealing chaotic mutation operator to replace the standard mutation operator in order to avoid the search being trapped in local optimum. The experiment shows that Bee Dual Population Evolution on Chaos has good capability in the geometric constraint solving.

Cao Chun-hong, Tang Chuan, Zhao Da-zhe, Zhang Bin

Chapter 5. Indirect Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control

To study the tracking problem for the uncertain nonlinear systems, a scheme, namely an improved indirect adaptive dynamic surface control, is proposed. The program used integral Lyapunov function can avoid the controller singularity, canceled the derivative of virtual input, and induced nonlinearity item which can make better use of nonlinear information to improve the performance of loop transition completely. The method is of characteristic with little calculation for unknown parameters to identify untidily. Finally theory is proved that the closed system is stable.

Yunjian Wang, Xiaodong Liu, Guodong Wang

Chapter 6. An EPON Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm Based on the Multiple Traffic Prediction and Error Correction

According to the upstream TDM in the system of Ethernet passive optical network (EPON), a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm (DBA) based on the mechanism of the multiple traffic prediction-correction is presented in this chapter. To improve the real-time performance of the bandwidth allocation, this algorithm forecasts the traffic of varying priority services, then corrects forecast error according to its Gaussian distribution characteristics, which will make traffic prediction closer to the real traffic. The simulation results show that proposed algorithm is better than the existing DBA algorithm. Not only can it meet the delay requirement of high priority services, but also control the delay abnormity of low priority services. In addition, with rectification scheme it is obvious in improving the bandwidth utilization.

Ziyi Fu, Juanjuan Bai

Chapter 7. Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Double Strange Attractors via Passivity Approach

This paper is devoted to address passivity-based approach synchronization between master and slave Newton–Leipnik chaotic systems, each of which has double co-existing strange attractors. Unlike the already existing results, Lyapunov stability and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) approach is firstly employed here. Synchronization was realized in virtue of control action added in the slave system, which was designed in an easy going way under auspices of the solution of the LMI, which in essence is a convex optimization. On account of which the identity of slaved system model and master system model was facilitated and guaranteed. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effect of the proposed synchronization scheme.

Yunzhong Song, Yanyan Li

Chapter 8. Adaptive Inverse Control Method Based on SVM-Fuzzy Rules Acquisition System for Twin-Lift Spreader System

This paper proposes a new method of adaptive inverse control based on Support Vector Machine-Fuzzy Rules Acquisition System (SVM-FRAS) for twin-lift spreaders. In this control mechanism, an identifier is established based on SVM-FRAS, and an inverse controller based on SVM-FRAS is designed. The proposed adaptive inverse control method can automatically extract control rules from the process data. Comprehensibility is one of the required characteristics for a complex twin-lift spreader. We use the proposed SVM-FRAS-based adaptive inverse control method to obtain the rule-based process and the control model of the twin-lift spreader. Based on the simulation experiments for twin-lift spreaders, the SVM-FRAS adaptive inverse control method is found to be effective.

Xixia Huang, Fanhuai Shi, Hui Zhang

Chapter 9. SVM-Based Fuzzy Rules Acquisition System for Twin-Lift Spreader System

This paper proposes a support vector machine-based fuzzy rules acquisition system (SVM-FRAS) for twin-lift spreaders. The character of SVM in extracting support vector provides a mechanism to extract fuzzy If–Then rules from the training data set. We construct the fuzzy inference system using fuzzy basis function. The gradient technique is used to tune the fuzzy rules and the inference system. Modeling is one of the key techniques in the automatic control of twin-lift spreaders, and is still a very difficult problem. Comprehensibility is one of the required characteristics in modeling for the complex twin-lift spreaders. We use the proposed SVM-FRAS to obtain the rule-based model of twin-lift spreaders. Experimental results show the SVM-FRAS model possesses good generalization capability as well as high comprehensibility.

Xixia Huang, Fanhuai Shi, Hui Zhang

Chapter 10. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in the Decision-Making of Manufacturers’ Production and Delivery

The aim of this paper is to study the loading decision problem in manufacturer’s product distribution. Owing to the order fulfillment optimization condition of the manufacturer, the decision-making model of manufacturers’ production and delivery has been founded. This paper has given out the algorithm finding the solution based on particle swarm optimization. The results indicate that the decision-making of manufacturers’ production and delivery is a complicated N-P decision-making problem and finding the solution is also very difficult. The solving algorithm based on particle swarm optimization is effective to the model of this paper.

Lingxiao Yang, Liangyou Shu

Chapter 11. MPPT Algorithm Under Partial Shading Conditions

This paper proposes a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on analyzing the output characteristics of PV array under uniform irradiance and partial shading conditions (PSC). The algorithm adds partial shadow judging conditions in variable step perturb and observes (P&O) method. The system runs the variable step P&O method to realize MPPT when photovoltaic array is under uniform irradiance. Under PSC, the control method can eliminate the interference of local maximum power point (MPP) to make the PV array running at global MPP. Experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm can automatically track the global MPP under uniform irradiance and PSC.

Guihua Liu, Panbao Wang, Wei Wang, Qi Wang

Chapter 12. Echo State Network-Based Internal Model Control for Pneumatic Muscle System

Pneumatic muscle (PM) has strong time varying characteristic. The complex nonlinear dynamics of PM system poses problems in achieving accurate modeling and control. To solve these challenges, we propose an echo state network (ESN)-based internal model control (IMC) for PM system in this paper. Here, ESN is employed for identifying the plant model and constructing controller. Recursive least squares (RLS) is used for the online update of ESN. The ESN-based IMC fully embodies the virtues of ESN and IMC. It can build high accurate plant model without detailed model information, as well as attain strong robustness by online self-tuning of controller and internal model. Experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. The results show that ESNBIMC achieves satisfactory tracking performance.

Jun Wu, Yongji Wang, Jian Huang, Hanying Zhou, Hong Cai

Chapter 13. A Self-Optimizing Cumulative Inversion Based on Combination Weight Method for Particle Size Distribution

Using cumulative inversion to get particle size distribution based on dynamic light scattering is a very important and popular method. However, noise, dust and drifts can interfere with this information heavily. In this paper, after the introduction of fundamentals of dynamic light scattering and the method of conventional cumulative inversion, a self-optimizing cumulative inversion based on the minimum weighted mean combined with fitting standard deviation and fitting correlation coefficient is proposed. By contrasting it with the cumulative inversion of Brookhaven Instrument in simulation experiments according to four noise factors, the results show the validity and feasibility of the proposed approach.

Jian Qiu, Peng Han

Chapter 14. LQR-Based Adaptive Control Strategy for the Planar Double Inverted Pendulum

In this paper, based on previous research results and the linear quadratic optimal theory, the improved LQR adaptive controller was designed that can optimize control effect using coordinated factor. The mathematical model of planar double inverted pendulum is established by means of analytical dynamics method, then the optimal controller is presented with LQR theory, and further the output of the LQR adaptive controller is refined through coordinator, which is the function of the states of planar pendulum, and on account of that, control action exerted on the pendulum is improved. Simulation results together with pilot scale experiment in the lab verify the efficacy of the suggested scheme, show that the controller designed to be simple, real-time is good, and can also ensure that the different operating conditions with high control precision, fast response, good stability and robustness.

Jiaolong Zhang, Wei Zhang

Chapter 15. Simulation Research on Self-Adaptive Dynamic Optimizing Control for Step Change of Parameters of Control Plant

All effects on self-adaptive dynamic Optimizing control system from step change and drift of every parameter of control plant and control method are discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis and simulation research show that whichever suitable step period

$$ T_{0} $$

is selected and the parameter of pure time

$$ \tau<T_{0} /2 $$

delay is satisfied, the simple, convenient and practical self-adaptive dynamic optimizing method for an extremum value control system is feasible, regardless of the parameters of control plant step and drift. It can solve a never-evading problem in the practical industrial process by using the previous method. The problem is that accurate identification of the parameters and order of linear part in the extremum value control system is too difficult. The method in this paper only needs much less a priori information concerning the controlled plant. This new method can automatically not only identify the parameters of control plant, but can also automatically adapt to the drift of the parameters. So it is very simple, convenient and practical to be realized in the real industrial process.

Guoqiang Li, Yuanfeng Zhang, Yongqin Liu, Wenjiang Liu

Chapter 16. Sparse Multipath Channel Estimation Using Regularized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit Algorithm

Conventional linear channel estimation methods, such as the least squares, are unavailable in practical applications since all entries of the solution obtained by these methods were nonzeros. Using the sparsity of channel, several methods have been proposed, such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) and convex program. However, OMP algorithm is unstable in the case of highly redundant dictionary and the convex program method is hard to implement due to its complexity. In this paper, a novel sparse channel estimate strategy named as regularized orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is proposed. This algorithm combines the advantage of OMP algorithm and convex program methods. Numeral experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective for the problem of sparse multi-path channel estimation.

Rui Wang, Jing Lu

Control Theory


Chapter 17. FSM Compensation Technology for High Accuracy Airborne Stabilized Sighting System

The fast-steering mirror (FSM) is a device used to control the direction of light beam accurately. As a sensitive instrument, it is very significant in astronomical telescope, laser communication, autoadaptation optical system and laser weapon, etc. Aiming at the difficulty of improving stabilization accuracy for airborne stabilization technology, an FSM driven by piezoelectric ceramic is proposed to compensate residual error of traditional integrated stabilized platform in order to improve system stabilization accuracy greatly. Through simulation and experiment validation, it shows that this method can improve stabilization accuracy by more than a magnitude.

Feifei Xu, Ming Ji, Qingqing Xu, Chuangshe Zhao, Shaojun Shou

Chapter 18. Decoupling Control of MIMO System Using Neural Network Based on APSO

To improve the decoupling and dynamic property of MIMO strong-coupling system, this chapter presents a modification of the particle swarm optimization algorithm (APSO) intended to combat the problem of premature convergence observed in many applications of PSO. Then the algorithm is used for training decoupling neural network. To prove the training outcome a typical MIMO system is used to be decoupled using the neural network trained by APSO. Finally PID controller is used to control the decoupled MIMO system. In the simulation experiment, the basic PSO and APSO is used for training decouple neural network separately; the controlling result indicated that neural network training by APSO is more stabilized and effective.

Shufang Sun, Jiahai Zhang, Jianhui Wang

Chapter 19. Mean-Square Exponential Stability Control for Networked Control Systems with Interval Distribution Time Delays

To study the problem of exponential stability control for a class of networked control systems with interval distribution time delays, a new approach is given to model the networked control systems with the stochastic time delays which is assumed to be satisfying a interval Bernoulli distribution. Based on linear matrix inequality approach, the mean-square exponential stability controller design method is presented, and the controller gain matrix is obtain by solving a linear matrix inequalities. Moreover, a Lyapunov functional is used, and some stack matrices, which bring much flexibility in solving LMI, are introduced during the proof. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of the results.

Hejun Yao, Fushun Yuan

Chapter 20. Designing and Realizing of Measurement Temperature System Based on Kingview

This paper designs the temperature collecting system by combination Kingview with digital temperature sensor DS18B20 based on 51 SCM. First, this paper illustrates the main hardware circuit of the temperature measuring system. Second, the engineering temperature measurement system software is developed with the KingView software. The characteristics of the system are realized temperature curve real-time display, historical curve enquiry, alarm warning of temperature more than the value and so on.

Zhang Yingqi, Wang Junfeng, Ai Yongle, Xu Shuai, Liu Xuebin

Chapter 21. Design of Real-Time Ultrasound Control System Based on CPLD

Velocity of sound in the material is one of the major parameters of sound, so it is important to get velocity of sound in material accurately for material property study. Based on the ultrasonic velocity measurement method of TRIP, a real-time ultrasound control system with CPLD was designed. Time measurement with CPLD has high speed, high measurement precision and the whole control module has the advantage of simple interface and flexible operation, which fully meet the engineering requirements of real-time scanning applications in velocity of sound measurement.

Yanhua Zhang, Lu Yang, Pengfei Jin

22. Study on Smart Energy Storage Technology and Control Strategy in Micro-Grid

Energy storage technology is an indispensable support for reliable operation of micro-grid (MG). Various forms of energy storage system (ESS)’s application in MG are summarized; as energy storage is not easy enough to use, the development of smart energy storage is necessary. The concept of smart energy storage is proposed. The potential topologies of smart energy storage is given and analyzed, and some crucial control technologies of smart storage are also provided, including charging/discharging control method, power flow distribution control method. The principle of a novel designed power charging/discharging control method of ESS is illustrated, and the effectiveness of the method is verified with simulation results in PSIM.

Xing-guo Tan, Shan Lu

Chapter 23. Study of Data Fusion Method in Distributed Detection System

The datum is disposed by rough set theory in the data fusion center of a distributed detection system. Its basic theoric scheme is explained while its typical applications are discussed. The structure of distributed detection system and crisp fusion method in data fusion center are presented. In crisp method, redundant condition attributes and redundant condition attribute values are removed respectively by the condition attribute reduction, the value reduction of the condition attributes. Decision rules are deduced.

Su-yan Zhang, Jing-feng Zhang

Chapter 24. Exponential Stability Control for T-S Fuzzy Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Stochastic Time Delays

To investigate the exponential stability control problem for a class of nonlinear networked control systems, a T-S fuzzy model is employed to represent the nonlinear controlled plant with network-induced stochastic delay. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, the exponential stability condition and the state feedback fuzzy controller design methods are given in terms of linear matrix inequality. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Hejun Yao, Fushun Yuan

Chapter 25. A Nonlinear-Control Approach Study on Double-Zero Aluminum Foil Mill Profile

Double zero aluminum foil rolling is a kind of technique that crowns almost all of the first-class technology of the current automatic control, which includes control of indexes such as speed, shapes and thickness in the process of double zero aluminum foil rolling. Among these, Profile control is the core technology of aluminum foil rolling, the key operation to enhance the finished product rate of aluminum foil and quality, and the fundamental condition to realize high speed rolling. Based on analyzing the traits of the foil profile, the author makes detailed probe into the control of flatness and thickness, which is the key technique of aluminum foil rolling, and analyzes and studies the nonlinear control of different actuators in the process of rolling.

Taihua Wang, Yu Guo, Jingcheng Qu

Chapter 26. Multilinear Model-Based PI Control of Block-Oriented Nonlinear Systems

In order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional nonlinearity inversion control method for block-oriented systems, a Multi-PI control method is proposed. The virtue of the proposed method is that the classic PI control algorithm is applied to complex nonlinear systems, which largely simplifies the control problems and improves control performances. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-PI control method for block-oriented systems with strong nonlinearity.

Jingjing Du, Xinliang Zhang, Chunyue Song

Chapter 27. Robust Stability of Stochastic Systems with Time-Delay and Nonlinear Uncertainties

This paper is concerned with the robust exponential stability in mean square for stochastic systems with time delay and nonlinear uncertainties. Based on Ito calculus rules, a more general Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional is constructed and a novel delay-dependent stability criteria is obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate that the proposed methods are less conservative than the existing ones.

Wei Qian, Lin Chen

Chapter 28. Iterative Feedback Tunning for Boiler–Turbine Systems

This paper presents an application of iterative feedback tuning (IFT) based on PID controller to the boiler–turbine system. We first transfer the nonlinear boiler–turbine system into a linear system, and then the PID controller can be designed to solve the regulation problem. The PID controller parameters are online tuned based on IFT method. Compare to the fixed parameter PID controller, the IFT-tuned PID controllers can obtain better performance. Simulation shows the effective of the proposed approach.

Xuhui Bu, Fashan Yu, Fuzhong Wang

Chapter 29. New Exact Solutions for the (2 + 1)-Dimensional General Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov System

The mapping method is a kind of classic, efficient and well-developed method to solve nonlinear evolution equations, the remarkable characteristic of which is that we can have many different ansatzs and therefore, a large number of solutions. In this paper, via the improved mapping method and a variable separation method, a series of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational function solutions) to the (2 + 1)-dimensional general Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov (GNNV) system is derived.

Song-Hua Ma

Chapter 30. A Role-Based Feature Model Componentization Method

Feature model is a requirement model in software product line which represents a family of products in a uniform form. To solve feature model’s chaos and entanglement in model description and configuration, we design a feature model componentization method. The method introduces the concept of role and reference role, and implements an algorithm called feature-role-component which maps product line features generated by requirement elicitation and analysis in domain engineering phase to different model components. As the intermediary, the role and reference role decouples the feature and component, which makes convenient selection and composition between feature variants and enhances the componentization level of the system. The method decomposes the system functions in the early phase of software lifecycle, improves the flexibility and adaptability, which makes a stable foundation for higher quality product.

Jun Zhang

Chapter 31. The Design and Implement of Wireless Network of Intelligent Lighting in Classroom

After introducing the traditional lighting instrument and its control character in this paper, I use the wireless communication technology---ZigBee to realize the intelligent lighting in classroom. Network formation of cluster-like tree structure layout is adopted in the system, CC2430 is used as the hardware core. At the end of the paper, the system flow and the function implement is stated. The main body consists of system flow, system initialization, network formation binding, data transmission and dimming with PWM.

Fashan Yu, Mingjie Zong, Chaochao Han

Chapter 32. Application of Hydraulic System in Wave Energy Converter

Energy and environment have always been the two main issues in today’s world. As green renewable energy is abundant, wave energy has become a hotspot in the area of renewable energy. The state of current research in the wave energy converter is described in this paper, especially, the application of hydraulic systems. The stability of output power, the output frequency of hydraulic system in wave energy converter and hydraulic system of manifolding wave energy converters in the wave energy converter are also discussed in this paper.

Yonggang Lin, Wei Huang, Dahai Zhang, Wei Li, Jingwei Bao

Chapter 33. Dynamical Output Feedback Control for Distributed Delay Systems

The dynamical output feedback controller design for systems with distributed delay is discussed in this paper. By neutral transformation and constructing proper Lyapunov-Krsovskii functional, the stability criterion is obtained which guarantees the asymptotical stability of closed-loop system. Then the parameterization of controller is used and the design condition of the desired controller is established in terms of Linear matrix inequality. Finally, a simulation is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Juan Liu

Electric Machines and Electrical Apparatus


Chapter 34. Novel Modulation of Enhanced Z-Source Inverter to Minimize Switching Frequency and Volume of the Z-Source Passive Components

Z-source inverters are proposed as single-stage power converters with buck-boost energy conversion ability. But their voltage boost inversion capability is limited. This paper proposes an enhanced Z-source inverter. Compared to the traditional Z-source inverter, it can obtain high voltage conversion factor with a short shoot-through duration, and can decrease Z-source capacitor voltage stress significantly. Moreover, a novel modulation of proposed Z-source inverter is presented to obtain same voltage gain as maximum constant boost control retaining the switching frequency unchanged. And it can greatly reduce the L and C volume in the Z-network under the six shoot-through intervals per carrier period. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the merits of the proposed method.

Chunwei Cai, Yanbin Qu, Kuang Sheng

Chapter 35. Study of Restraining DC-Bus Voltage Fluctuation in Dual-PWM Inverter

In a system of dual-PWM frequency conversion and speed regulation, DC-bus voltage fluctuates as the load disturbance, which makes it impossible for the system to run safely and stably. In order to restrain DC-bus voltage fluctuation, the principle of DC-bus voltage fluctuation was analyzed by small-signal model, and a kind of feedforward control strategy which can improve the dynamic response of DC-bus voltage was pointed out. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the control strategy and the possibility of reducing capacitance capacity.

Haijun Tao, Ben Xu, Xiumei Xue

Chapter 36. PCSS-Based Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse Generator for Biological and Biomedical Application

Benefit from photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS)’s fast response, high power, high stability and long lifetime properties, design and operation of high voltage nanosecond pulse generator based on PCSS for biological and medical application is presented. The generator comprises pulse power source, photoelectric synchronization control apparatus, PCSS based on Blumlein transmission line and laser diode circuit. It produces 1 kHz repetition frequency rate (RFR), 2-ns-wide, 8 kV amplitude pulses, which can be used in cancer treatment.

Yafang Tan, Hongchun Yang, Jun Xu, Gang Zeng

Chapter 37. Predictive Current Deadbeat Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Based on Space Vector Moduation

In this paper, a kind of predictive current deadbeat control for permanent magnet synchronous motor is proposed, which is deduced from the PI control stratege and conventional rotor field-oriented vector control. The expected reference voltage veclor is calculated from the current error and the rotating voltage and realized by space vector modulation. This new method realizes the dynamic decoupling effect of


axis current and improves the transient performance by eliminating time delay caused by the current loop. The predictive current value is equal to the reference current value and in this way the expected voltage vector can be predicted one sample period ahead, which eliminates the time delay caused by calculation. The experimental results prove the validity of this method.

Ke Zhu, Xuanfeng Shangguan

Chapter 38. Design for Charge–Discharge System of Battery Based on the Three-Phase PWM Rectifier

To solve the problem of low power factor and harmonic pollution in traditional charge–discharge device, a novel configuration which consists of a three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier and Bi-directional DC–DC converter was proposed. It charges battery in rectifier mode and allows energy which is discharged by battery to feedback to power grid. A charge–discharge simulation model based on constant charge/discharge is designed. Simulation results show that the system can achieve sinusoidal input currents and reduce harmonic pollution, and at the same time achieve discharge process of energy to feedback to power gird and save energy.

Zheng Zheng, Wenbin Zhou

Chapter 39. Base on One-Cycle Control for DC Side Active Power Filter and Design PI Regulator

The basic working principle, energy flow and output voltage ripple of DC side Active Power Filter (APF) are analyzed theoretically, the corresponding one-cycle control equation is deprived, the PI regulator for control system is designed. Correcting control system to be the typical type II system, which eliminates the steady-state error and improves the anti-jamming performance. At the same time, the new topology simplifies the control and drive circuit greatly, which has important theoretical value on power factor correction and harmonic treatment of single-phase rectifier load and provides theoretical basis for system synthesis design, too. Simulation results show that the theory is correct and reliable.

Donglei Xie, Liming Ji, Xiansheng Chen

Chapter 40. Numerical Simulation of New Radiator in Electronic Device

An experimental apparatus is set up to test the heat transfer performance of the new radiator, which mainly includes vacuum-pumping and Central Processing Unit tunnel system, heating system and measurement system. The heat dissipation of the Central Processing Unit chip is imitated by the copper bar which is heated by thermal resistance wire. The experimental results showed that the temperature of the Central Processing Unit chip decreased with growth of cooling air velocity, but the temperature drop tendency became gentle when it continued to increase. Higher heat dissipation power resulted in higher CPU chip temperature, but oversized heat flux density made the phase changing process worse.

Shu Xu

Chapter 41. Starting Performance Analysis of Asynchronous Starting Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Due to the existing magnets on the rotor of Asynchronous Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and the owning of a cage structure, as well as magnetic asymmetry of the rotor



axis, the starting process is affected by more than one torques, the electromagnetic torque becomes very complicated in the whole journey. This paper analyzes the main starting torque in order to explore ways of improving the motor starting performance.

Xudong Wang, Zan Zhang, Haichao Feng, Xiaozhuo Xu

Chapter 42. Lateral Jet Force Model Identification Based on FCM–SVM

To describe the lateral jet force model accurately, an identification method based on FCM–SVM is provided. The experimental data is clustered with this method to gain the best partition and separating hyperplanes. Different classes are identified respectively using maximum-likelihood estimation method. The test data is classified through separating hyperplanes. The output of test data can be forecasted according to the expression of corresponding class. Result shows that the precision is increased by 31% compared with traditional identification model. The identification result based on FCM–SVM can supply support for the design of control system.

Xiaofeng Liu, Yunfeng Dong, Xiaolei Wang

Chapter 43. Design and Implementation of an Intelligent COTS System

COTS system is one of the main software development methods in the future; this paper first analyzes the needed functions of the intelligent COTS system, and then introduces design and implementation methods of COTS system. Intelligent COTS system is a software development environment supporting component reuse, not only to manage effectively and query components, but also to well support the integrated components to develop software system based on the reuse.

Ping Zhang, Bin Tao

Chapter 44. Study of the Intelligent Monitoring and Analysis System of High-Rise Building Fire Based on Expert System

To study the ways how to monitor the high-rise building fire timely and analyze it accurately, a kind of intelligent monitoring and analysis system of high-rise building fire based on expert system is designed in this paper. In this system the lower machine is based on single-chip micro-processor and the parameters such as temperature, airflow rate, smoke concentration and so on are detected in the case of unattended by multi-transducers which are linked to the single-chip microprocessor by single-bus technology. The system’s structure is simple and its capability is stable, so automatic detection and management without person can be realized by this system, which has great help in the high-rise building fires prevention and reducing fire loss.

Tao Li, Hui Li

Chapter 45. Research on Actuator Fault Health Management Method Based on Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

The equipment safety and reliability is improved by used health management technology. Considered the characteristics of the actuator health management, a health management method based on fuzzy cluster analysis is proposed in the flight control system. First, an actuator fault parameters model is created according to the characteristics of electric steering actuator. Then, the fault feature extraction and health situation assessment are analysed by applying fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm. Health prognostic is processed by the development of health situation to divide the health degree and health assessment results to apply the exponential smoothing method. The simulation results demonstrate the proposed algorithm is effective for the system.

Zhiyi Huang, Weiguo Zhang, Liyuan Sun, Xiaoxiong Liu

Chapter 46. Design of Intelligent Protection and Control Device for Medium and Small-Scale Asynchronous Motor

This chapter research the basic operation principle of asynchronous motor, perform an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of asynchronous motors of all kinds of faults occurred and the quantity relationship between the fault reason, to establish judgment of the stator current positive sequence, negative sequence, zero sequence components or their combination primarily, by detecting voltage, thermal resistance, external failure of complementary, multiple protective criteria, comprehensive protection scheme induction motor. And to motor working state of recognition, heat and cooling process unified heat capacity, the calculation formulas of zero sequence of protective grounding prevent abnormal operation measures to deal with the problem are discussed, and proposed a novel and simple and practical solutions.

Dao-lin Li, Zhi-qiang Wu, Xiang-yang Chen, Jun-gang Li, Yong Wei

Chapter 47. EMS Investigation of Compound Power Supply for PEV

It is still much to be desired for battery to power alone as energy storage system in pure electric vehicles (PEV). A compound power supply made up by batteries and ultracapacitors (UCs) is proposed and a rule-based energy management strategy (EMS) is designed in order to improve the working efficiency and extend the cycle-life of the battery. Simulation results from ADVISOR show that PEV with compound power supply is more energy efficient and dynamic performance is better compared with PEV with battery only. In addition, the battery current drops greatly, which will help extend the cycle-life of the battery.

Shijing Xu

Chapter 48. Analysis of the Shortest Path of GPS Vehicle Navigation System Based on Genetic Algorithm

The shortest path is one of the key problems in the GPS vehicle navigation system. Genetic algorithm is one of the useful methods in solving the shortest path problem. First, the genetic algorithm is analyzed and improved. Its population is optimized before being initialized aiming at reducing the needless paths and nodes. A combination of roulette and elite protecting method is used to protect the population’s best individual in each generation. The improved genetic algorithm can advance the convergence rate and the quality of solution in searching the shortest path. The functional demands of GPS vehicle navigation system can be met by using this method.

De En, Huanghe Wei, Jinxian Yang, Nana Wei, Xiaoguang Chen, Yangyang Liu

Chapter 49. Radical Extraction for Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition by Using Radical Cascade Classifier

Radical extraction is the key step of radical-based Chinese character recognition. In this paper, we present a method of radical extraction by using radical cascade classifier, which detects radicals within characters. Haar-like features are applied in the cascade classifier, as they can adsorb radical distortion and guarantee the high speed of radical detection. Two methods of radical detection are proposed according to the characteristics of Chinese characters. The experiments are conducted on HITPU database and the results show the methods are efficient.

Enzhi Ni, Minjun Jiang, Changle Zhou

Chapter 50. State Filter for Descriptor Systems with Packet Losses

This paper is concerned with the design of the optimal linear filter for a networked descriptor system with multiple packet losses. A descriptor system is converted to two reduced-order subsystems. Based on projection theory, the optimal linear filters for the two reduced-order subsystems with packet losses are presented in the linear minimum variance sense, respectively. Further, the linear filter for the original descriptor system is obtained. The proposed filter only depends on the data arrival rate but do not depend on the knowledge whether the sensor data are received at a particular time. A simulation example shows its effectiveness.

Lifang Liu, Shuli Sun

Chapter 51. Real-Time Property Analysis and Design of Dual-Channel Simultaneous Data Acquisition and Processing System

Real-time property is one of the most important properties of the data acquisition and processing system. The working principle and designing ways of the data acquisition and processing system was briefly introduced and the factors affecting the real-time property of the system was emphatically analyzed in this paper. In order to design and implement a real-time dual-channel simultaneous data acquisition and processing system, the techniques of dual CPU, HPI (Host Port Interface) and ping-pong buffer strategy were adopted, all of which were important guarantees of the real-time property. Some conclusions obtained in this paper can be of significance to the similar engineering.

Sheng Tang, Xiaohui Li, Ya Liu

Electrician Theory and New Technology


Chapter 52. Design of a Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna for WLAN

A dual-band microstrip antenna with an E-shaped slot is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulation is performed for the characteristics of the antenna with the software HFSS 10.0. The simulated results show that the antenna operates at 2.40–2.50 GHz and 5.07–5.43 GHz, and the bandwidth achieves 100 and 360 MHz, respectively, which can cover ISM dual-band completely. In addition, the antenna has good radiation performance and simple configuration, which is suitable for wireless communication system.

Yating Gan, Suling Wang, Jie Yu

Chapter 53. Research on Electromagnetic Compatibility of LED Display of Mine Safety Monitoring System

Based on the introduction of the constitution and working principle of LED in mine monitoring system display screen, based on switching power supply, the panel itself, from the oscillator, signals line layout analysis of three aspects of the monitoring system of LED display by electromagnetic interference, combined with the specific test case, separately from the suppression of the radiated and transmitted to harass two to carry out rectification, finally through the signal line, power line and ground wire layout solve the antenna vertical polarization direction on radiation the unqualified.

Zhigang Liu

Chapter 54. Lateral Air-Gap Control of a Novel Detent-Force-Based Magnetic Suspension System

A novel detent-force-based magnetic suspension system (DMSS) is introduced. To guarantee system’s stability and safety of running, the lateral air-gap must be controlled to prevent the collisions between the mover and track. The lateral air-gap control system with differential control strategy of double-electromagnets is studied. To achieve no static error control of steady-state position, closed-loop state-space model of double-electromagnets is established. The fuzzy PID algorithm is used to achieve the control process based on fuzzy control theory. A fuzzy PID controller is designed to have the ability of online self-tuning PID parameters. Simulation result shows that the DMSS with the fuzzy-PID algorithm has good dynamic and anti-jamming performance.

Xiaozhuo Xu, Xudong Wang, Haichao Feng, Jikai Si

Chapter 55. Performance Test and Analysis of Phase-Locked Loop

Methods that can improve the frequency stability of phase-locked loop are proposed. In order to analyze the presented methods, a Phase-Locked Loop is developed and an experiment system is constructed to test the performance of the phase-locked loop. Experiments are carried out to testify the validity of the given methods. After analyzing the experiment results, the following conclusion can be drawn that adjusting the value of frequency division coefficients, increasing shielding measure of VCO circuit and changing the time constant of filter can obviously enhance the performance of phase-locked loop.

Guoyong Wang, Wenli Wang, Xiaohui Li

Chapter 56. Design of Quaternary Logic Circuits Based on Multiple-Valued Current Mode

In order to improve the performance of arithmetic VLSI system, a novel structure of quaternary logic gates is proposed based on multiple-valued current mode (MVCM) by using dynamic source-coupled logic (SCL). Its key components, the comparator and the output generator, are both based on differential-pair circuit (DPC), and the latter is constructed by using structure of DPC trees. The pre-charge evaluates logic style, makes steady current flow cut off, thereby greatly saving the power dissipation. The combination of multiple-valued source-coupled logic and differential-pair circuit makes its power lower and its structure more compact. The performance is evaluated by HSPICE simulation with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The power dissipation, transistor numbers and delay are superior to corresponding binary CMOS implementation. Multiple-valued logic is the potential solution for the high performance arithmetic VLSI system in the future.

Haixia Wu, Shunan Zhong, Qilong Cai, Qianbin Xia, Yueyang Chen

Chapter 57. Uniform Control of Single-Phase Two-Stage Grid-Connected Generation and Active Power Filter

In this paper a single-phase active power filter based on a two-stage photovoltaic grid-connected system is presented, which can not only inject PV power into gird but also can always act as an active power filter to compensate the load harmonics current and reactive power. Control method of a double loop of the inverter DC voltage and current control of grid is used. When local nonlinear load is changed, DC voltage can be kept stable. Simulation results of both conditions that harmonics exist or do not exist show that the designed inverter is stable and practicable. Single-phase harmonic detection method does not need coordinate transformation and the algorithm is simple. The feasibility of control strategy and system topology is verified by the simulation and experimental results.

Zhaoyin Yang, Guohai Liu, Zhiling Liao, Zhaoling Chen

Chapter 58. Novel Current Control Method for Active Power Filter

A novel hysteresis current control strategy based on voltage space vector is proposed for shunt active power filter. The differential relationship between reference voltage and current is then calculated discretely to determine the location region of reference voltage vector. Then the appropriate voltage space vector at each instant is determined by using 4-level hysteresis comparators with narrow hysteresis band working in α–β frame. The proposed method can efficiently improve the utilization of voltage and the current tracking performance, and decrease the switching frequency. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed method is valid and feasible.

Zhaoling Chen, Mingyang Wei, Guohai Liu, Zhiling Liao

Chapter 59. Investigation of Busbar-Structure for High Power Converter

In high power converter design, low-inductance busbar connecting DC capacitors and power devices is main concern to improve the quality of the whole power electronics system. This paper analyzes and designs a busbar structure in detail for prototype of the high-speed railway traction converter. The method of partial element equivalent circuit and the Q3D software were used to extract the stray inductance. A hollow-shaped structure is proposed with lower inductance than the initial U-shaped structure. The simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness.

Yifeng Zhu

Chapter 60. Digital Monitoring and Control System Based on Ethernet for Twin-Arc High Speed Submerged Arc Welding

The Ethernet communications was applied to dynamic monitoring and control of high-speed twin-arc submerged arc welding process, with its characteristics of high transmission speed, large capacity and reliability, a digital monitoring and control system based on Ethernet was designed. The sequential control of twin arc-starting and -ending was achieved, and the formation of weld seam was improved with the guarantee of stability and order of welding process, which achieved the technology of twin-arc high speed arc welding.

Qi Li, Xue Jun Li, Kuan Fang He, Ke Wang, Zong Qun Deng

Chapter 61. Characteristic Testing and Experiment to Alternating Current Square Wave Submerged Arc Welding Inverter

Based on the second inverting main circuit topology, a high-power alternating current square wave submerged arc welding power source is developed by combining limiting current and inverting parallel connection technology. The proposed inverting power source was tested and done technologic experiment. The results indicated that the novel power source can be used in thick wire or the multi-wires highly effective submerged arc automatically welding well because it possesses characteristics as follows: the novel power source were good external characteristics, excellent dynamic performance, quick speed of alternating polarity and good stabilisation of welding process, the shape of welding joint is smoothly and artistic.

Kuan Fang He, Qi Li, Si Wen Xiao, Yi Dao Yu

Chapter 62. Study of Current Controller Design and Performance Based on PMA RSM Model Decoupling

The permanent magnet assisted reluctance synchronous machine (PMA RSM) is a controlled object of multi-variable, nonlinearity and strong coupling. The fact that


-axis current can be controlled by


-axis voltage directly, same as the


-axis current, can not be realized even if the field current and torque current have been decoupled in the synchronous coordinates. A decoupling method for the electrical model is presented, which means the speed voltage and mutual inductance voltage are subtracted in the machine model proposed. Therefore the control of d- and


-axis components is changed to single-loop independent control system. Then a current controller is designed, which is applied to the current control of PMA RSM. The result from simulation shows that it is of high performance of dynamic and robustness.

Yu Guo, Taihua Wang, Yong-le Ai

Chapter 63. Harmonic Analysis Based on Independent Component Method

Harmonic analysis plays an important role in power quality research due to the harmful impact to power system and electric apparatus. It is the demand to accurate analysis of harmonics in case to filter. This paper presents a blind source separation algorithm, which combines independent component analysis (ICA) and least square method. During the harmonic analysis, ICA is used to determine harmonic frequencies first, then the least square method is used to determine amplitudes and phases of harmonic components. By MATLAB simulation, the result is shown that harmonics can be separated effectively with a high precision by using the method proposed under the condition with low real-time demand.

Ai Yongle, Zhang Haiyang

Chapter 64. Health Diagnosis Strategy for Coal Mine Underground Cable Line Based on Neural Network and Expert System

In order to evaluate the operation condition of coal mine underground cable line, and to realize the advanced repair for coal mine underground cable line. Through the analysis of health Condition characteristics of the coal mine underground cable line, health diagnosis system of the combination of the neural network and expert system is designed for coal mine underground cable line. The whole structure design of health diagnosis system for coal mine underground cable line is introduced, Establishments of knowledge database, inference machine and interpreter are represented. The simulation results show that the health diagnosis system can realize high real time and high diagnosis accuracy.

Caixia Gao, Yunping Wen, Fuzhong Wang, Chunbo Wang

Chapter 65. The Out-of-Step Protection Strategy for the Vertical-Moving Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor

In order to prevent the safety accidents causing by the out-of-step of the vertical-moving Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor (PMLSM), the out-of-step protection scheme of the combination of the mechanical braking and dynamic braking has been established according to the common features of various out-of-step of PMLSM, on this basis, the mathematical model of dynamic braking of the vertical-moving PMLSM is established, the dynamic braking characteristics of the motor are obtained, and at the same time, the relationship equation between the braking force and the reactance and resistance of armature circuit is established, and the dynamic braking circuit of the vertical-moving PMLSM is designed. The experiment shows that the established out-of-step scheme of PMLSM is practicable, as well as the established mathematical model and theory, can effect prevent the safety accidents causing by the out-of-step of the vertical-moving PMLSM, and thus guaranteed the motor’s safety.

Qiaolian Wang, Caixia Gao, Fuzhong Wang, Chunbo Wang

Computer Network and Security


Chapter 66. Secure Sensitive Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Compressive Sensing

A novel sensitive data secure transmission method in wireless sensor network based on compressive sensing technology is presented. In the proposed method, the sensor nodes encrypt sensitive data using only linear operations such as simple addition and multiply instead of traditional symmetric encryption algorithm, and base station can decrypt sensitive data even when the wireless channel is lossy. Theory analysis and simulation result demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in practical deployment.

Jiping Xiong, Lifeng Xuan, Tao Huang

Chapter 67. Study on Promotion of E-Commerce Websites Based on SEO

Search engine plays a vital role in improving website traffic. Through Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques, website can be friendlier to search engine. This paper minutely analyzes PageRank (PR) algorithm and puts forward strategy based on SEO from the aspects of keywords, website development and page links. Keywords optimization is focused on keywords selection, density and distribution. The point of website optimization is title, Meta tag, domain name etc. Optimization in page links is concerned with inbound links and outbound links.

Xiaoyan Liu, Jian Wang

Chapter 68. Research of P2P Technology and Its Application

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology is an active research area of next-generation networks, which guide the network computer shift from centralized mode to distributed style. The core of network applications spreads from a central server to the edge of the terminal equipment. P2P technology has been widely used in file-sharing, distributed computing and streaming media technology. This paper describes the P2P technology’s definition, features and key technologies, focused on the status of the application of P2P technology and the problems of P2P technology in the final outlook the development of P2P technology’s prospect.

Xingmin Xu

Chapter 69. Study on Safety On-Line Monitoring and Warning Systems of Tailings Reservoir

With the development of select mining industry in all kinds of mineral resources in our country, it has become increasingly a serious problem that safety in production and environment of various tailings reservoir which go with select mine refinery, by means of the modem technology to make the on-line monitoring and warning for tailings reservoir security is a practicable method for ensuring safety in tailings reservoir. Presented design principle of the system, the structure of tailings reservoir on-line monitoring and warning systems, contents of monitoring, information communication style and software system. Focused on the monitoring methods in system construction, such as dam deformation monitoring, interior displacement surveying of dam body, water level monitoring of reservoir areas, automatic monitoring for saturation line and so on, these can be a basis for on-line monitoring and warning system.

Jianxiong Zhang, Xinhui Wu, Guoqiang Zhao

Chapter 70. Research on Database Security Technology

With the rapid development of computer technology, database technology has been applied to a wide range of fields, thus the security of it has also become more and more important. The paper discusses the concept and safety system database security, the main risks facing database system, commonly used technology of database security, data security transmission protocol and the tendency of commonly used database security technology research.

Fuguo Li

Chapter 71. Petri Net-Based Component of the Reconfigurable

Software reuse is one of the realistic ways to solve “software crisis”. Software architecture (SA) and component-based software development technology (CBSD) start to play an important role in software development. In the component-based software development, construction of components and division method directly affects the reusability and work performance of component. This paper proposes a new component generation method which is able to merge or optimize the components based on Petri net components, reduce the difficulty of component reuse, speed up the software development cycle and improve software performance.

Ping Zhang, Bin tao

Chapter 72. Digital Watermark Encryption Algorithm Based on Arnold and DCT Transform

Digital watermarking is one of the effective methods which can protect the copyright of multimedia data. This thesis presents a digital watermarking algorithm based on Arnold and DCT Transform. First, Arnold transform is used to shuffle the watermark image, and then the algorithm makes 8 × 8 DCT on the carrier image. In order to improve the robustness of watermark, this thesis adopted the multi-embedded strategy. The DC coefficients in the block of the same location of each color components are embedded the same robust watermark which is transformed by Arnold. Experiments show that the improved algorithm is an effective approach which can resist the attacks and has good invisibility.

Wei-yuan Han, Yan Yang, Hui-lai Zhi

Chapter 73. Research on Snort Intrusion Detection System and Key Match Algorithm

Traditional encryption and firewall technology cannot fully meet the needs of information security, intrusion detection technology as a necessary means of security, network security plays in its unique role. Snort as a typical lightweight network intrusion detection system (NIDS) is a free open-source projects, design principles and implementation of Snort study of the characteristics can serve as the development of commercial intrusion detection system the cornerstone of a strong academic significance and higher commercial value. The architecture and workflow of Snort was analyzed and key match algorithm (BM algorithm) was studied. The research result has theoretical and practical significance on improvement and optimization of Snort and other intrusion detection systems.

Guo-zheng Zhou, Jun-ya Li

Chapter 74. Research on DoS Attacks and Resist Method Based on 4-way Handshake in 802.11i

As the transmission medium is open, the use of wireless LAN communication requires higher performance and better security. By analyzing the latest generation of wireless LAN security protocols in 802.11i, four-way handshake agreement was introduced, two against the DoS attacks. The first four-way handshake based on fake news of a DoS attack was initiated, proposing added authentication solution. Robust security on the second associated information was proposed by modifying the Robust Security Network Information Element (RSN IE) elements in the important position and launching DoS attacks on the proposed four-way handshake process to improve it. Through analysis, the proposed method can effectively prevent DoS attacks from occurring, to a greater extent to improve the effectiveness of wireless data transmission.

Jun-ya Li, Yan Yang

Chapter 75. Implementation of SNMP-Based Network Management System’s MIB for Dual-Stack

IPV4 to IPV6 transition is an inevitable trend that has been widely recognized; however, the transitions of IPV4 to IPV6 is a long process, and double-stack technology will play an important role in this process. During this period, the dual-stack network management is very important. In the platform of SNMP management, through access to MIB objects the network management purposes is achieved. Therefore, the MIB’s access is the key to the network management. MIB was analyzed in this paper, and access to MIB simple variable with JAVA code is given.

Lishen Yang, Qiansheng Meng

Chapter 76. Network Security Monitoring-Oriented Application-Level Protocol Identification Technology

Along with the development of the Internet and strengthening of network protocol, it becomes more and more difficult to monitor network. And some sensitive information have been leaked outside the application environment. Application protocol identification plays an important role in network security monitoring. With accurate application protocol identification, it can improve the accuracy and robustness of the Network Security Monitoring (NSM). A new method of application protocol identification based on classification and characteristic matching is proposed in this paper. According to the experiment, the method can enhance the accuracy of identification. In this paper, we outline the traditional methods of protocol identification, and then propose a layer protocol identification method based on classification and characteristics analysis, which is applied to NSM. The method classifies the identified data stream by coarseness to match the different characteristics, achieving the purpose of identifying more intrusion. Experimental results show that the method greatly improves the efficiency of protocol recognition.

Dong-xia Wang, Yan-ru Feng

Chapter 77. The Application of Chinese Word Segmentation in Malicious Code Detection

At present, malicious code becomes more and more harmful in common people’s daily life. In order to solve this problem, the relative methods and theories of Chinese word segmentation and malicious code detection are illustrated in this paper. A brief discussion on the new method of malicious code detection based on Chinese word segmentation has been made basically on a summary description.

Xiaoguang Yue, Guangzhi Di, Tonglin Zhao, Yuyan Yang, Ziqiang Zhao, Yuanyuan Dong

Chapter 78. Application of Windows Tilt Correction Technology in Literature Digitization Conversion

Due to the document scan tilt easy to have noise often, the stand of the tilt correction will directly affect the quality of the digital document. This paper puts forward the tilt correction method based on Windows, and gives the results. This algorithm is used to test the layout of this chapter the size is A4, with a resolution of 300 dpi scan input, layout images include Chinese text, English text, images and tables, calculate on a Pentium 4 clocked at 3.0G implemented on a microcomputer. The results show that the results of this basic algorithm close to the actual layout of the tilt angle.

Wenliang Zheng

Image Processing


Chapter 79. Improved Method for Image Segmentation Based on Cellular Neural Network

In this paper, we proposed an improved method for gray image segmentation. The proposed algorithm first searches a threshold automatically that distinguishes the object and background. Then divides the gray image into homogeneous regions by cellular neural network. After some simulations based on the proposed algorithm, we make a comparison among cellular neural network segmentation, traditional single-threshold-based segmentation and Otsu algorithm. The simulation results indicate that cellular neural network segmentation processes a better segmentation effect.

Man Guo, Dongqing Feng

Chapter 80. Denoising and Recognition for Road Signs Based on Markov Random Fields

Since the road signs (RS) are susceptible to noise and difficult to recognize, the paper proposed a method to remove noise of RS and recognize it, where the parameters were estimated by the EM algorithm. The algorithm consists of two steps: first, the RS were modeled and restored by the Markov random field (MRF); Second, recognizing restored RS was through calculating the invariant moments. Simulation experiment compares the median filtering method and Gaussian smooth method. The results show that the proposed algorithm is better than other two methods in restoration and easily to recognize the RS.

Ailan Yang, Weifeng Liu, Chenglin Wen

Chapter 81. Soccer Robots’ Color Logos Recognition Based on HSI Model and Eigenvalues

In robot soccer games, target recognition is a very important technology. In order to improve the accuracy of recognition, based on the analysis of the color library, HSI color model is used to replace RGB color model and some eigenvalues are used as the key factors to recognize robots’ color logos. Experiment shows that the location of color logo can be recognized accurately. The theory has been successfully applied in Climber Robot Soccer Team.

Lei Yao, Deng Xiaolu, Wang Yufeng

Chapter 82. Application of Image Extraction Technology Based on Edge Detection Method

Edge detection algorithm will directly affect the development of the performance of the system. In this article, the image edge detection algorithms are analyzed. We present a practical solution: detect the edge of the image again to deal with binary. A feasible solution is to detect the edge of the image again to deal with binary, the result is similar to the Canny operator edge effect, but the edge of the smoothness is a bit poor. A more effective method needs to be further studied.

Yan Yang, Guo-zheng Zhou

Chapter 83. Research of a Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on DCT Transform

This paper proposes a digital watermarking algorithm based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) transform. Arnold scrambling technology is used to binary watermarking information for pretreatment. Then, the binary watermarking information is embedded in the corresponding component of the DCT transform to implement watermarking embedding solutions. The algorithm is simple and easy to implement. The Matlab simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm has validity, reliability, resistance to attack, robustness and invisibility.

Liang Li, Na Gao

Chapter 84. The MATLAB Realization of Mandarin Digit String Speech Recognition

This chapter has established a mandarin digit string speech recognition system which is based on the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient and the continuous hidden markov model. The system’s preprocessing of speech signal, the characteristic parameter extraction, the training of the model, and the recognition algorithm is discussed in this chapter. Meanwhile the system has carried on the simulation and analysis using MATLAB pronunciation toolbox voice box. Some results of the recognition system are given. Several directions for improvement of the system are proposed in the end this chapter.

Peiling Zhang, Lingfei Cheng

Chapter 85. A Fast Machine Vision for Automated Packaging

This paper introduces a fast, simple, cheap but accurate and reliable vision system designed for the automated packaging robot application, which is to replace manual product packaging. The objective is to develop a vision system and algorithm for such application and achieve pattern tracking in nearly real-time with a normal entry-level computer. This paper describes in detail the implementation of the proposed vision system including image processing and pattern recognition. The application uses only a simple gray scale image of product as sample pattern to track the product in the scene at real-time speed, which has come near to replace human eyes. The proposed machine vision has been implemented and equipped on a real ABB robot arm with other related hardware/software to achieve automated packaging. The performance has been evaluated as a success in both timing and precision. Its stability and reliability are also proved under laboratory testing environment.

Yang Liu, Thanh Vinh Vo

Image Processing


Chapter 86. Activity Analysis in Video Scenes Using an Unsupervised Learning Approach

In this paper, we introduce an unsupervised learning framework for automatically detecting motion patterns in the real video scenes containing multiple groups of heterogeneous objects. First we quantize the vectors of optical flow as the visual features from video scenes, and then these visual features are clustered using hierarchical dirichlet process to discover the key motion patterns in video scenes. We test our approach on two datasets, and experimental results show that this framework can effectively detect the motion patterns in complex scenes.

Peini Zhang, Zhichun Mu

Chapter 87. Modeling and Simulation of Ground Clutter for Radar Seeker

In the way of overlooking, the influence of ground and sea clutter to active radar seeker should never be neglected. It will seriously affect the seeker to intercept and track the target, so it is necessary to analyze the influence of ground and sea clutter to active seeker, so as to improve its capacity of anticlutter. This paper introduced a basic method of studying power spectrum, which described how pulse Doppler radar seeker received ground and sea clutter, as well as the real-time simulation model with high accuracy based on the technique of data abstraction. It was found on analysis that the algorithm applied to closed-loop and real-time simulation experiment of active radar seeker and whole missile.

Shuanghong Liu, Xiaoyu Ma

Chapter 88. A Fast Fractal Image Compression Algorithm Using Improved Quadtree Partitioning Scheme

By presenting an improved quadtree partitioning scheme and by modifying the composition method of the classical domain pool, we propose a fast fractal image compression algorithm. In our partitioning scheme, a square image is divided into four equal-sized square blocks, and then each block is tested to see if it meets some criterion of homogeneity. If a block meets the criterion, it is not divided any further. If it does not meet the criterion, it is subdivided again into four blocks, and the test criterion is applied to those blocks. This process is repeated iteratively until each block meets the criterion. Also, the proposed algorithm is validated and is compared with the classic fractal image compression algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can almost achieve the same reconstructed image quality as the classic algorithm, and can greatly reduce the encoding time and improve the compression ratio.

Hui Guo, Yunping Zheng, Jie He

Chapter 89. A New HVS-Based Fractal Image Compression Algorithm

Inspired by the traditional quadtree fractal coding algorithm, we put forward a new partition principle of the quadtree according to the feature of HVS. Then we apply the feature of HVS to partition domain and range blocks. Also, we present a new HVS-based search method of finding out the best domain block for each range block in this chapter. Based on the new partition principle of the quadtree and the HVS-based search method, in this chapter, we proposed a new HVS-based fractal image compression algorithm. By comparing our HVS-based algorithm with the basic fractal image compression algorithm, the experimental results show that the encoding speed of our HVS-based algorithm is 8–27 times to that of the basic algorithm when the visual threshold is 30, 60 and 90, respectively, whereas maintaining a satisfactory reconstructed image quality. Therefore, our HVS-based algorithm is an effective image compression method.

Hui Guo, Yunping Zheng, Jie He

Chapter 90. Study the Key Technologies of the Handheld Camera Panorama Mode

For the characteristics of using ordinary digital camera or mobile phone to capture images, study of the key technologies of image registration and image fusion is conducted. Extracting and matching the feature points with the Harris corner detection algorithm, and filtering the feature points with the quick RANSAC method is proposed. Then the LM algorithm to optimize the transformation matrix, and the Multi-resolution fusion algorithm for image fusion to make the final output images achieve a satisfactory visual effect are used. Finally, the algorithm through experiment and splicing results are verified for satisfaction.

Xiaoliang Zhang, Lei Shi

Chapter 91. Image Quality Assessment Based on Complex Representation of Structure Information

Local variance and single pixel value are combined to describe image structure information using complex method in this paper in order to improve the consistency of objective image assessment result with that of subjective method. The effect of the detail structure information on the image quality was emphasized by this method accordingly. Singular value decomposition was performed on local variance distribution complex matrix. The angle between the singular value vectors of the reference image and the disturbed image was used to measure their structural similarity. Then the quality assessment process was achieved. Results from experiments show that the proposed method is better consistent with human visual system characteristics than MSE, PSNR, and SSIM.

Yong Wang, Xiaohui Zhao, Xiuling Mo, Yuqing Wang

Chapter 92. Dust Monitoring System Based on Video Image Processing

This paper describes the discharge of smoke during the process of smelting in the steel factory. A video dynamic monitoring method is proposed to monitor the dust emission and extract the dust by using the Otsu threshold segmentation method at any time. After the real-time calculating, it can make a judgment of the concentration and diffusion rate of the dust. The technology of adjusting and optimizing the power of the dust-fan by using the frequency-conversion can avoid the great energy waste compared with the traditional dust-fan which is running at full speed. The technology mentioned in this paper makes the factory save a lot of electricity.

Yi Chu, Guohai Liu, Congli Mei, Yuhan Ding

paper 93. Vector Cartoon Generating Method Based on Layer Representation

This paper presents a vector cartoon generating system based on layer representation. First segment the image into regions and curves, and represent the whole image with an And-Or graph. The segmentation method is graph cut and the curves are the primal sketch in each region. Represent the regions and corresponding curves with layer representation method, this will have a layered vector graph.

Ruxin Gao, Meihong Wang

Chapter 94. Linguistic Description for Extracted Corner Features of the Regular-Shaped Rigid Objects

In this paper, linguistic description for contour features of the regular-shaped rigid objects is studied for future syntactic pattern recognition. First, one-dimensional language is used to describe the contour corner features of every object candidate. Then some rules are made to distinguish between contour features and internal features. Last, but the most important, a modified non-recursive DFS traverse algorithm is put forward to extract the loop of the contour features for every connectivity component and to exclude the contour features which are not on the desired loop. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can successfully describe the valid contour features in one-dimensional language, which make the preparation for future recognition.

Lei Zhang, Yindan Zhou, Xingguo Zhang

Chapter 95. Rigidity Recognition of the Cataract Lens Nuclear Based on Multiple Classifier Fusion

In phacoemulsification, controlling the ultrasonic frequency from the emulsification pinhead is essential, which depends on the accurate judgment of the rigidity of the lens nuclear. In this chapter, a multiple classifier fusion method was applied to the rigidity recognition of the cataract lens nuclear, which used different color components to train classifiers and fused the decisions of all the classifiers to judge the rigidity. The experimental results show that the method can achieve a high recognition rate, which meets the demand of the project.

Aizhong Mi, Zhanqiang Huo

Chapter 96. The Establishment of Sensor Virtual Laboratory Based on VR-Platform

This system comprehensively utilizes 3Ds max modeling tools and VR-platform which is 3D virtual reality interactive Platform. We develop a sensor virtual laboratory system which include teacher’s interpretation, animation demo, independent operation, knowledge consolidating and test. The system represents 3d experimental apparatus, realizes the display of experimental instrument details, experiment process and the simulation of experimental phenomena by using VRP scripting language. Under the condition of collision detection, the system realizes the roam to the laboratory scene. The actual application indicates that the system provides a good solution for experimental teaching when some experimental conditions are restricted.

Dahu Wang, Huan Liu, Hui He

System Analysis and Decision


Chapter 97. Modeling for Interference Coupling Path of Data Acquisition System of Microprocessor Protection Device

The electromagnetic compatibility of the data acquisition system for microprocessor-based protection device was studied and the main work was modeling and simulation for interference coupling path under the electrical fast transient pulse interference signal. Firstly, the input and output data of the interference transmission channel was obtained through the standard electromagnetic compatibility test experiment. Secondly, the data was processed mainly by the identification and the vector matching, and then got the state-space model. Lastly, the simulation model was established by the equivalent circuit in Pspice, which was verified correct through the comparison between simulation and experimental results. The method to establish interference channel model and obtain conclusions have important practical significance to improve the electromagnetic compatibility of microprocessor-based protection.

Wei Zhang, Jiaolong Zhang

Chapter 98. Study of the Web Application System Requirements Analysis UML Modeling

In order to more accurately capture and describe the web application system’s requirements, to improve the software product quality and its efficiency of development, the web application system requirements analysis unified modeling language (UML) modeling was studied based on object-oriented analysis method. The UML modeling mechanism analyzed the key points of the UML modeling and process in detail, adopted an online graduation design management system as an example, given the use cases model, the static model and dynamic model results of the system requirements analysis phase. This example application accumulated the UML modeling experience of web application system requirements analysis, enriched the content of the web application research and has certain directive significance to the web application system requirements analysis UML modeling.

Hong-mei Sun, Rui-sheng Jia

Chapter 99. Fault-Tolerant Control of Time-Delay Systems

The fault-tolerant control for time-delay systems with sensor failures was investigated in this note. Attention was focused on the design of output dynamical feedback controller which guaranteed the asymptotical stability of the closed-loop systems when the sensor failed. Based on the special sensor failure model and stability criterion of time-delay systems, by introducing nonlinear transformation, the sufficient conditions for the existence of feedback controller are obtained. Moreover, the desired controller is obtained by using the cone complementary linearization iterative algorithm. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Shaohua Wang

Chapter 100. Prediction Strategy Level of Coal–Gas-Outburst Based on Expert System

In order to solve the imperfect information and data of coal–gas-outburst prediction level and the problem of low prediction accuracy. Based on the analysis of factors affecting the mining face of coal–gas-outburst prediction, we used expert system theory, and established the level of coal–gas-outburst prediction model. We specifically referenced to the composition of expert systems theory on the mining face of coal–gas-outburst prediction, knowledge representation and knowledge structure, reasoning principle and the knowledge representation model of geological conditions on the prediction of outburst area. Simulation results show that the model correctly predicted 100%, basically consistent with the actual situation.

Fuzhong Wang, Weizhe Liu

Chapter 101. Development of Simulation Support Platform for Modern Tram Operation Control System

The logic relationship among the subsystems of modern tram Operation Control System (OCS), and interface relationship between modern tram OCS and peripheral equipments were analyzed. On this basis, the functional requirements of OCS simulation support platform were analyzed, a design proposal was proposed, general structure and interface were designed. Upon the PC and Windows operation system, the OCS simulation support platform software was developed by VC++ 6.0 and the result has confirmed the correctness and feasible of the OCS simulation support platform.

Liang Ma, Hongze Xu, Peng Zhou

Chapter 102. Design of Brushless DC Motor Control System Based on Back Electric Motive Force (EMF)

This paper discusses the Digital Signal Processor as the core to the sensorless brushless dc motor control system design method. Based on the back EMF zero crossing of brushless dc motor rotor position detection method and double closed-loop speed regulation control strategy, designs brushless dc motor sensorless control system hardware circuit and program. With the simulation and debugging experiments for the system, it shows that the control method not only simplifies the hardware system structure, but makes the motor efficient and stable operation.

Ran Dong, Hongqi Wang, Weiwei Xue

Chapter 103. Analysis of Influence Factors of SRM Torque Ripple on Current Chopping Control Condition

In this paper, the influence factors of SRM torque ripple is analyzed using finite element calculation and magnetic circuit method, on condition of current chopping control. The air gap length, stator and rotor pole arc embrace and stator and rotor yoke thickness variations of switched reluctance torque ripple changes are discussed; simulation results show that: ① to the air gap length of the smaller torque ripple there is an optimum value; ② stator and rotor pole arc embrace of SRM torque ripple has an impact, turn increases the average torque with the stator and rotor pole arc embrace increasing, stator and rotor pole arc embrace in smaller numeric, torque ripple changes little, but when stator and rotor pole arc embrace are greater than certain value, with the stator and rotor pole embrace increasing, torque ripple increased largely. ③ stator and rotor yoke thickness on the SRM torque ripple has an impact, but little impact. With the stator yoke thickness increasing SRM torque ripple gets smaller; with the rotor yoke thickness increasing, SRM torque ripple gets larger.

Longsheng Yuan, Chaohui Zhao, Di Zhang, Jian Li, Feng Xiang, Shuhao Cao, Lei Chen, Huaping Li

Chapter 104. Research on Control System of Belt Conveyor in Coal Mine

The higher demands for control system of the belt conveyor in coal mines were analyzed and a control system based on PLC was developed. The control strategies of speed regulating and power balance of multi-motor drive were discussed in detail. Considering speediness and stability of speed regulation, a control strategy with dead band was proposed. When the error is greater than the given parameter, fuzzy-parameter PID control is adopted to stable the system quickly. When the error is smaller than the parameter, fixed-parameter PID control is adopted to reduce running time. The power balance of the motors is necessary for the normal running of the belt conveyor system. A tracking method is put forward for the power balance of the motors. One motor is selected as the major motor and the other motors are tracking motors. The speed of major motor is controlled to be in accordance with the speed curve, and currents of the other motors are regulated by using fuzzy PID control. These strategies were applied in the developed system and achieved good results.

Li Wang, Li Zhigang

Chapter 105. Research on Process Data Information System of Glass Production

Today, in a high degree of automation companies of the domestic glass industry, most various production sections are independent sets of distributed control system or PLC-controlled equipment. Process equipment operating status and the important production parameters are copied or printed by artificial form to be submitted to the relevant technical departments. And the relevant personnel analyzes the data and revised technical parameters. By this way a lot of manpower and material resources would be wasted, also it would be prone to error. This paper presents a Process Data Information System based on the combination of modern network technology and configuration software, which enables process data to be shared in the relevant departments within the enterprise.

Tao Zhang, Xiaowei Wang, Fashan Yu

Chapter 106. A Fast Recognition Method of Workpiece Based on Improved Coding of Orientation Run Length Coding

A fast recognition on workpiece is proposed in this paper. This algorithm based on object image fully takes advantage of shape features of workpiece. Orientation run length coding is used to set up length samples of part image, which is compared with sample library for recognition. Then, circumference feature is encoded for the workpiece that cannot be identified, which is adopted for second step. Test demonstrates that the workpiece recognition method proposed in this paper can distinguish fast from each other correctly and it can be applied in flexible automatic production for multispecies and small amount manufacture.

Li Zi

Chapter 107. Equation and Graphical Solution of Characteristic Parameter Relationship of Strip Steering in Rolling Process

Ideally rolling parameter is symmetrical relative to the rolling center line in the rolling process. When there is asymmetry incentive disturbance, symmetrical state will be destroyed. It brings typical quality problems like strip steering. This chapter studies transverse asymmetry, characteristic of force and deformation of rolling mill and mill bar, establishes asymmetry characteristic quantity of crucial rolling parameter, a relationship equation of asymmetry characteristic parameter of inducement and result state, online detection model which observes asymmetry characteristic parameter of rolling force and corrective model which adjust wedge roll gap, builds graphical solution of characteristic parameter relationship and equation which explains the characteristic parameter.

Xianqiong Zhao, Yilun Liu, Sheng Huang

Chapter 108. Study on the Crush Model of High-Pressure Grinding Rolls

A high-pressure grinding roll is energy efficient crush equipment. On the basis of mass balance, energy conservation and overall balance, this paper puts forward the intersected idea due to the uneven stress in the roller surface. The grinding and comminution model of roller press is deeply investigated. It puts forward crush model using mathematic theory. The simulated specific energy consumptions and particle size distributions, compared with the experiment data, were considered good enough. The model was able to predict adequately throughput capacity, specific energy consumption and particle size distributions of the edge, center and total products.

Xianqiong Zhao, Sheng Huang, Chao Liu, Ling Deng

Chapter 109. Optimization of Performance Parameters of High Pressure Grinding Rolls

In order to improve grinding effect of high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), it is needed to optimize its performance parameters. According to nonlinear mapping function of artificial neural network and global optimal value search function of genetic algorithm (GA), this chapter, first, setted up the mathematical relationship between the given product size-reduction percentage


and performance parameters, such as working pressure


, roll speed


and original rolls gap


based on back propagation (BP) neural network, then, searched optimal performance parameters by GA. The result shows that using BP neural network with GA to optimize performance parameters of HPGR is accurate, fast and effective, which provides a novel approach for the selection of performance parameters.

Mu Fusheng, Deng Ling, Liu Chao, Huang Sheng

Chapter 110. Design of the Human–Machine Interface of the Control System of a Novel Controllable Mechanism Type Mechanical Excavator

This paper introduces the design of the Human–Machine interface of the control system of a controllable mechanism type planar 3 Degree-of-Freedom mechanical excavator. Based on the kinematics model and the control principle block diagram of the excavator, the interface is established in the C++ programming language, which consists of five parts: (i) speed setting module, (ii) position setting module, (iii) driving information module, (iv) the start button and (v) the stop button. The program codes of each module are given specifically.

Yuchen Pan, Ganwei Cai, Jinling Zhang, Hongzhou Wang

Chapter 111. The Design of Constant Pressure Water Supply System Based on Configuration Monitoring and PLC Control

To describe constant pressure water supply system of speed-adjusting based on PLC control, at the same time, the real-time monitoring is managed by the configuration software of upper computer, this design is energy-saving, safety and high quality, the water supply is high reliability quality and convenient and flexible control etc., it is proved fully realize automatic constant pressure water supply, which can increase water supply quality and reduce running costs.

Zongchao Cui, Yingli Lv, Xinjun Zhang

Chapter 112. Analysis of the UHV Tie Line Active Power Peak Value of Weak Interconnected Grids Following Power Shortage Disturbance in China Power System

An ultra high voltage (UHV) AC tie line that connects North China and Central China power grid has been put into operation in 2009. This paper presents a method to calculate the peak value of active power oscillation of the UHV AC tie line following power shortage disturbance. The typical process of the oscillation on the UHV AC line is analyzed. It is shown that the active power oscillation on tie line of week connection grid is similar with the step response of the second-order system. The oscillation peak value is closely related to fault location, system inertia, and system inter-area damping. The method and analysis are tested in China system.

Feng Hong, Jinfu Chen, Xianzhong Duan

Power System


Chapter 113. A New Substitution Waveform of Very Fast Transient Overvoltage in GIS

So far there is no standard waveform of very fast transient overvoltage. Considering the amplitude, frequency and frequency weighted from a great deal of data and according to IEC 61321-1, an accurate substitution waveform of very fast transient overvoltage is presented by means of probability statistical and time–frequency analysis technique. Simulation validation is carried out while the simulated waveforms and substitution waveforms excite the transformer winding and potential transformer, respectively. Test results indicate that the proposed method is highly reliable.

Huaying Dong, Guishu Liang, Xixiao Liu, Haifeng Sun, Xintong Yang, Xin Liu

Chapter 114. Ray Penetration Window Technology of Mining Explosion-Proof Instrument for Measuring Ash Content of Coal

In order to improve the extraction rate and reduce the gangue content in coal production, real-time data of the ash content of raw coal is needed to guide the miners in the working face to control the top-coal caving. The ray penetration window technology breaks through the rules of “the larger the mass thickness of material, the higher the amount of attenuation” and effectively solves the problem of large attenuation rate when low-energy γ-ray penetrates the explosion-proof enclosure. The application of this technology in the instrument ensures the measurement accuracy, achieves on-site monitoring of the ash content of raw coal and plays a positive role in improving the extraction rate of the mining area, and obtained remarkable economic and social benefits.

Wen-qing Wang

Chapter 115. Cable Burning Analysis Caused by Power Harmonics

This paper focuses on the two aspects that are the analysis of the cable leakage capacitance and harmonic current amplified from the point where there is harmonic current heavily existing in the power cable transmission system. Firstly, the main parameters in the cable harmonic impedance model are estimated. Secondly, the equivalent circuit based on the cable power supplying is established as well as parameters included in the equivalent circuit are estimated. Finally, the harmonic leakage current is simulated by Matlab based on harmonic current and leakage capacitance. Results show that harmonic current through the cable leakage capacitor is amplified with the coincidence cases. It will cause the cable insulation medium theat and burning due to high harmonic current. It would provide a novel way to find the reason of the cable burning by suing analytical methods and results described in this paper.

Yongle Ai, Yinghui Zhang, Yunjian Wang

Chapter 116. Insulation Status Mobile Monitoring for Power Cable Based on a Novel Fringing Electric Field Method

Water tree formed in the insulation layer of underground power cable may cause aging breakdown of cables. Focusing on mobile monitoring for insulation status of these cables, this paper proposes fringing electric field (FEF) method to detect probably formed water tree. With regard to the disturbance expansion caused by applying traditional interdigital FEF sensor in the water tree detection, we design an arch substrate-based interdigital FEF sensor, and build its mathematical model by finite element method. Finite element analysis is carried out to compare the electric field distribution of the above two kinds of sensors in insulation layer. Effectiveness of the electric field penetrability is analyzed by varying finger width and electrode separation of the proposed sensor. The above effectiveness validation also promotes to optimize the parameters of the sensor. Simulation results demonstrate the sensor’s design is reasonable and the electric field penetrability of the novel sensor is remarkably improved compared with traditional interdigital FEF sensor.

Meng-yu Liang, Song-yi Dian, Tao Liu

Chapter 117. Application of Bacteria Foraging Algorithm on Harmonics Optimal Control for Inverter

In the process of converter driving mine hoist, the output voltage contains a lot of harmonics. Aiming at this problem, Harmonics optimal control based on bacterial foraging algorithm is developed in this study. Establishing the objective function to minimize total harmonic distortion (THD) with certain constraints, using bacterial foraging algorithm to solve a series of nonlinear transcendental equation to get the optimal switching time in a certain frequency range and to determine the witching time of the power devices. Compared with other literature, the results show that the application of bacterial foraging algorithm can more effectively suppress the harmonic amplitude in theory, and the total harmonic distortion is smaller.

X. J. Li, Q. Pan, K. F. He

Chapter 118. Research on Low-Voltage Early Warning System of Coalmine Power Grid

Research is proposed on coalmine power grid safety-running in case to insure coalmine normal production. According to the Low-voltage problem now still lying in the coalmine power grid, a method combined fuzzy comprehensive evaluation with gray comprehensive evaluation is proposed, selects power grid evaluation indicators, sets the impact judgment hierarchical matrix of power grid operation, judges the coalmine power grid state in the future by those index value changes, and uses different colors to indicate different power grid states, gives early warning signals if the state is below a certain level. Simulation results show that this method can accurately determine the possible development trend of power grids.

Tieying Zhao, Na Wang

Chapter 119. Online Correction of Voltage Stability in the Case of Communication Interruption of Slack Node

The development and applications of wide-area measurement system (WAMS) provide great potential for online assessment of voltage stability in large-scale power system. By using the WAMS to collect the measured value of local voltage and current vector directly, we can realize the online estimate and instruction of the voltage stability degree of key node. On the basis of the above reasons, this paper further researches the phase failure problem of slack node, puts forward that taking the voltage phase of the node, which has the nearest electrical distance from the slack node, as the reference phase, can also realize online correction of the voltage stability of the key node. The simulations show that this method is suitable for the surveillance of online static voltage stability of node and has certain feasibility.

Jun-dong Duan, Fan Zhou

Chapter 120. Transient Analysis and Time Selection of Capacitor Switched Device of Reactive Power Compensation

Based on the transient analysis of the compensation capacitor switching, studying the effect of the time of capacitor’s input and removal for grid stability. And based on the stationary solution unchanged, focusing on the general solution of the circuit-order homogeneous linear differential equations and analysis of the effect for the switching current shocks. The results show that the phenomenon of over-current can be avoided. The results of ATP simulation show that, the proposed method can effectively reduce the effect of capacitor switching for grid, improve power quality, and extend the life of the capacitor.

Weifeng Yin

Chapter 121. Non-Parametric Statistical Inference for Interval-Valued Steady-State Availability of Electric Power Equipment Based on Markov Renewal Process

The interval-valued steady-state availability (SSA) of electric power equipment is necessary for the imprecise reliability assessment of power system. This paper presented a method of non-parametric statistical inference to get the interval-valued SSA. First the analytical expression of SSA based on Markov renewal process was proposed. Then the point estimations of each equipment’s SSA were obtained through non-parametric estimation. And the interval-valued SSA of this type of equipment was obtained by the Bias-corrected and Accelerated Bootstrap confidence interval estimation. Finally, a case study illustrated the effectiveness of the above method. The interval-valued SSA can cover the true availability well under a given confidence level. So it lays a foundation for the imprecise reliability assessment of power system.

Xianjun Qi, Xinhong Shi, Jiayi Shi

Chapter 122. Simulation Study of Fault Location Based on EMD Algorithm for Small Current to Ground System

In this paper, it established the single-phase to ground fault model of small current to ground system, and simulated the model, according to decomposed by EMD algorithm for transient zero-mode power signal of every detection point along the line installed. It utilized the high-frequency IMF components got to subtract backward first-order, according to analysis the differential waveforms of every detection point, it has the differential waveforms similarity degree of two detection point located the same side of fault point is higher, while the differential waveforms similarity degree of two detection point located the two sides of fault point is lower. In addition, if the fault point was center, the differential waveform symmetry of two sides of fault point is higher. Besides, it has shown that the characteristic information of first-order differential waveform was not varied by the transition resistance’s change. So it utilized the characteristic information of differential waveform to provide a new idea for fault location of small current to ground system.

Xiaowei Wang, Lu Shan, Shu Tian, Tao Zhang, Shuai Wang

Chapter 123. Methods of Harmonic Source Identification and Detection in Distribution Network

In order to create Green Grid and supply the electricity consumers with safe, liable and clean power energy, the accurate and practical harmonic source location methods are urgently needed. Therefore this paper concludes various harmonic source location methods based on the direction of power flow, and explains the disadvantages and advantages of the methods. At last, this paper studies the principles and realization of





algorithm. Moreover, in the Matlab/Simulink, the model is established to stimulate. This paper further analyzes the principles and characteristics of






Zhiguo Hu, Junwei Tian, Yongle Ai

Chapter 124. Research on Wavelet Neural Network for Fault Location in Power Distribution Network

The distribution network own characteristics such as: complicated topology structure and variable operation mode, so the fault location problem of the distribution network has not been solved. Based on the analysis of the single-phase ground of the system, this paper combines wavelet analysis and neural network. The method not only utilizes time–frequency features and zoom capabilities of wavelet analysis in order to pick up the characteristics of component, but also take advantage of the ability of non-linear fitting of neural network. These studies establish mapping between the characteristic component and fault location, thereby, resolving successfully the problem of the precision positioning, the thought of fault location has fully theoretical basis. The data of EMTP/ATP simulation shows that the scheme has high precision, adaptable and reliable performance.

Zhang Yujun, Wang Xiaowei

Chapter 125. Study on Preventing Override Trip System for High-Voltage Power Grid of Coal Mine Underground Based on the Ethernet

This thesis analyzes the reason of power grid of underground Override Trip incident and the existing solution, puts forward a plan of the grid of coal mine underground interlocking protection system based on switched Ethernet, makes designs for software and hardware and makes network real-time characteristic simulation. The results show that the interlocking protection system can satisfy the requirement of quick-break protection quick-action and selectivity and prevent override trip fault.

Yu-mei Wang, Yi-du Guo

Chapter 126. Research on the Intelligent Safety Assessment System of Colliery Power Distribution System

Safe and reliable power supply is an important guarantee of safety production in coal mines. The intelligent safety assessment of a colliery power distribution system can effectively improve the safety and reliability of the coal power grid. According to the characteristics of coal mine production, combined with the practical situation of coal mines, this paper has proposed the intelligent safety assessment index of the colliery power distribution system, given the intelligence assessment and warning display of the security of the system by using the flow data of the various operation states, and given the safe decreasing load order of colliery power distribution system, which provides the reasonable load adjustment scheme. Then, a colliery power distribution system as an example is given to show the rationality of the intelligent safety assessment.

Duan Jun-dong, Guo Li–li, Cao Kai

Chapter 127. Research on Power Quality Data Transfer Format Based on XML in Power Quality

Strength, compatibility, economy and interactivity are the main developmental features of Smart Grid in China. Aiming at the data exchange and sharing problem, Extensible Markup Language (XML) are introduced based on the research of Power Quality Data Transfer Format (PQDIF) in power quality management system. To study this research deeply, PQD files are transformed into XML files to solve these issues, and it describes the elaborate notes and attributes of XML files. In addition, now taking mass data needed to be stored into account, two open data compression methods will also be introduced below. The generated XML files have superiority on scalability, readability, compression and other aspects absolutely, which will be used widely in power quality data monitoring system.

Lu Zhao, Guohai Liu, Yue Shen

Chapter 128. Design of Energy Management Terminal in Microgrid

This chapter introduces an energy management terminal (EMT) designed for a microgrid. The EMT acts as a central online control and monitor unit in the microgrid. It can acquire parameters of measuring points in the microgrid regularly by communicating with other terminals or measuring instruments installed in the measuring points all over the microgrid. The EMT is developed in embedded system based on ARM micro processor. The software is programmed by C++ with QT programming language for computation and GUI display. The EMT is used in one of the smart grid demonstration project and proved to be useful.

Luo Yan, Deng Wei, Pei Wei

Chapter 129. Study on Low-Voltage Switchgear Reliability Based on Fuzzy Fault Tree

In view of the inaccurate factors for the probability of equipment failure, the reliability analysis of the low-voltage switchgear system is analyzed by fuzzy fault tree theory. According to the analysis of water pump circuit system of low-voltage switchgear using trapezoidal fuzzy number, we can obtain the fuzzy probability of return route failure and the fuzzy importance degree of bottom event. Combined with the fuzziness of probability, the project error has widespread application prospect in the reliability project.

Jingqin Wang, Junlan Nie, Shuyu Xu

Chapter 130. An Innovative Protective Algorithm for UHV Power Transformer

Transformer differential protection is influenced seriously by harmonics in inrush current and the operation time is long. In order to solve this problem, this paper introduces a T-type equivalent model of transformer protection. The parameters of the model can be calculated uniquely and timely at steady state. A new transformer protection algorithm is presented. The algorithm is based on the balanced equations of T-type equivalent model and the variation of the measured excitation inductance. With EMTP simulation tool, a simulation platform for the first UHV power transmission system in China is established. Situations such as energizing, external faults, internal faults and normal operations in the system are covered in the simulation. The operation time of the proposed protective scheme is short and the scheme has high sensitivity.

Xiang-li Deng, Chuan-qi Wang, Zhe Zhang, Xiang-gen Yin

Chapter 131. Partial Discharge Detection in XLPE Cable Joint Based on Electromagnetic Coupling Method

Aiming at the partial discharge (PD) characteristics of XLPE cable, a set of PD detection system which bases on the wideband current sensor is developed. The amplitude-frequency characteristics of the wideband current sensor and its influencing factors such as iron core material, permeability, turns of the coil and integrating resistor are analyzed by experiments. Finally, four typical partial discharge models are designed, and the PD detection system is utilized to detect them. The sensor signals corresponding to different partial discharge models are analyzed.

Rijun Dai, Fangcheng Lv, Heming Li

Chapter 132. Fast Unrestrained Differential Protection Based on Phaselet Algorithm

The misoperation of differential protection caused by saturation of CT would take place during external fault of transformer. In order to solve this problem, this paper describes a fast unrestrained differential current protection algorithm based on phaselet algorithm, which relies only on sampling data of one-fourth circle. Based on the relationship between phaselet algorithm and full circle Fourier algorithm, this paper induces the linear relationship between the two algorithms. The magnitude-frequency characteristics of phaselet are analyzed and the fast protection criteria is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated by the static testing and dynamic testing. The relay based on the proposed algorithm has been applied in field. The algorithm proposed has fast operation time and can be influenced by CT saturation.

Chuan-qi Wang, Xiang-li Deng, Zhe Zhang, Xiang-gen Yin

Chapter 133. Analysis of Electric Wire Fracture Based on Infrared Image Diagnosis

First the infrared images which are collected in Luoyang substation are analyzed. The types and eliminating methods of the defects are determined. Second, Visual Basic 6.0 combining with MatrixVB is used to design an infrared image processing system software. The system realizes the filter for infrared image processing, grayscale processing and edge detection conveniently in actual application. Using this system, the substation’s infrared fault diagnosis are convenient and can be used for qualitative analysis.

Yanzhou Sun, Xue Zhou, Xinwei Niu

Chapter 134. Sentiment Analysis of Text Using SVM

In recent years, development with the internet, information processing turns more and more important for us to get useful information. Text Categorization, the automated assigning of natural language texts to predefined categories based on their contents, is a task of increasing importance. Therefore, an approach of text emotional classification based on support vector machine was proposed. The system includes four parts: word segmentation, establishment emotional word database, training the model of classification, and testing. The system is actually used for classification of the reader’s emotions that classify the text to achieve the purpose of forecast readers’ emotion.

Yong Yang, Chun Xu, Ge Ren

Detection Measurement Technologies


Chapter 135. Research of Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System for Induction Motor

Continuous on-line condition monitoring provides information on the energized induction motor’s response to normal and emergency conditions, which makes it is possible to evaluate current condition of induction motor and detect abnormality. It allows corrective measures to be taken to prevent upcoming failure. Condition monitoring can reduce the downtime of the processes and increase the maximum interval between failures, thus minimizing the number and cost of unscheduled maintenances, which can reduce breakdown maintenance and increase production system availability and effectiveness.

Jiang Yongying

Chapter 136. Mismatch Detection of Distributed Target in Non-Gaussian Clutter

The mismatch detection of radar-distributed target is analyzed when the signal may not lie in alignment with the look direction, in non-Gaussian clutter modeled as a spherically invariant random vector. Based on the generalized likelihood ratio test design procedure, a distributed target detector is obtained, by utilizing a priori target scatterer density. It is showed that, the GLRT-based detector can reject the unwanted signal effectively. Moreover, the effects of the correlated fluctuating scatterers and of the additive thermal noise on the detection performance are also evaluated.

Tao Jian

Chapter 137. Relaxed Hybrid Forecasting and its Application to Railway Passenger Turnover

Conventional hybrid forecasting model has been widely used in various forecasting problems, but the sum of weights is limited to 2. An improved hybrid model named as relaxed hybrid model is proposed in this study, where the weights are relaxed to positive real data. The weights are searched by particle swarm optimization algorithm with compress factor technique. The relaxed hybrid model is employed to railway passenger turnover forecasting. The forecasting results show that our proposed model is an effective model for nonlinear time series forecasting.

Xuejun Chen, Suling Zhu

Chapter 138. Application and Research on Extended Kalman Prediction Algorithm in Target Tracking System

Target tracking is a critical important part in robot controlling system and it usually cannot get satisfied results because of the complex condition. The Kalman Forecast Algorithm on the camera platform which has two degrees of freedom has been researched in this paper. The motion model has been built based on the particular characteristic of the target tracking system. An extend kalman filter algorithm has been made up on this paper for this nonlinear model to dynamically compensate the error in line procession. The results show that the new algorithm can get fine effect in control of noise, time and punctual. And it meets the requirement of real-time target tracking. Therefore, a great value of application is showing up.

Zheng Zhang, Xiaowei Liu, Guangyou Yang, Jiang Min

Chapter 139. Novel Hexagonal Opto-Electronic Detector and the Corresponding Object Recognition Criterions Used for Multi-Object Detection and Tracking

In this paper, in order to achieve multi-object detection and tracking, a novel hexagonal opto-electronic detector and the corresponding object recognition criterions are proposed. First, a hexagonal detector with 360° field of view is proposed. Second, to achieve the detection and tracking of multi-object with high speed, two object recognition criterions of the proposed detector, which are called object signal width criterion and horizontal scale ratio criterion, respectively, are proposed. Finally, the simulation experiments of the proposed hexagonal detector and the two criterions have been carried out, while the results show that the detection and tracking of multi-object can be achieved with high speed, which indicates that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in photo-electric detection, computer vision, virtual reality, augment reality, etc.

Yong Song, Kai Zhang, Xiang Li, Bangzhi Kang, Fuzhou Shang, Qun Hao

Chapter 140. The Translation Method to Calculate the Radar Detection Probability Under Noise Jamming

According to the reasoning for the signal-jamming-ratio, the function relationship formula of radar detection probability under non-jamming and jamming conditions is found. In virtue of the JNR, An attenuation coefficient is introduced to denote the translation magnitude compared with the radar detection probability curve under non-jamming conditions. The simulation results for Marcum and Swerling model show that this translation method makes the detection probability calculation more convenient and maneuverable.

Wang Hui-ting, Gao Bin, Zhang Man-zhi

Chapter 141. Application of Compact-Type Wavelet Neural Network in Fault Diagnosis of Frequency Converter

The modified wavelet packet algorithm and the principle and algorithm flow of the compact-type wavelet neural network (CWNN) were put forward. For common faults of six pulse AC–AC frequency converter, the fault feature vector is extracted using the modified wavelet packet. The fault feature vector is used as the input feature vector of the CWNN. Simulation results indicate that the CWNN can accurately classify faults. The convergence rate of the CWNN obviously surpasses the BP neural network, and the fault diagnosis of six pulse AC–AC frequency converter is efficiently accomplished.

Xin Wang, Yunyun Zhang

Chapter 142. Study of Fluorescence Sensor Temperature Compensation Based on BP Neural Network

Fluorescent sensor can convert the information of molecular recognition into fluorescent signal perceived by the outside world. Because fluorescent sensor has the features of high selectivity, high sensitivity, low production cost, not destroying the samples, and easy to realize the online testing, it has wide application prospects. Because the temperature has some influence on the fluorescence characteristics, it is very important to prevent the temperature effect on the measurement accuracy of the fluorescent sensor by using BP network for temperature compensation. In this paper, first the characteristics of fluorescence sensor and some knowledge of the fluorescence are described; next the BP model and BP neural network structure are introduced; then the LMBP algorithm is derived; finally, the principle of BP neural network compensation for sensor characteristics is illustrated, and the LMBP network structure is designed.

Qiongfang Yu, Qiongxia Yu, Aihua Dong

Chapter 143. Temperature Sensitivity Analysis of LPFG by New Transfer Matrix Method

The temperature sensitivity of long period fiber grating is analyzed by new transfer matrix method. The new transfer matrix method can analyze the modes coupled between the core mode and multiple cladding modes. Compared to the usual method used, such as solving the coupled mode equation by the fourth order adaptive step size Runge–Kutta algorithm, the new transfer matrix method has a faster calculation speed. The theoretical results are exactly in agreement with the method of solving the coupled mode equation.

Guodong Wang, Rui Wang, Yunjian Wang, Suling Wang

Chapter 144. Coal−Rock Interface Detection Using Digital Image Analysis Technique

Aiming at the defects in traditional coal−rock interface detection (CID) system, a new CID model was developed using the digital image analysis technique. First, image features of coal and rock were analyzed in detail and feasibility study of the detection method based on vision was conducted. Second, some rock and coal samples were collected from typical mines in China, and image acquisition was carried out in the laboratory within a simulated environment. Third, the color image of the sample was enhanced by a method based on RGB color-components, in which a new image was synthesized from the color-components with weighted sum method and the weighted coefficients were generated using back-propagation (BP) neural network. Finally, the synthesized gray image was segmented by using a rapid region-based segmentation algorithm and a ratio presenting content of the rock in the coal seam was calculated as the output of the CID system. Study results indicate a very low detection error. The proposed algorithm in this paper is valid for all types of coal mines. The model is required to be calibrated with respective image data taken from the working face.

Jiping Sun, Bo Su

Chapter 145. Study on Ultrasonic Detecting Technology for Drill Collar Defects

In order to improve the detecting accuracy of drill collar defects and reduce omission and misjudgment, a multi-probe synthesized detecting method was proposed, which is applicable to detect defects in large diameter thick-walled pipe. Hardware schematic diagram was provided, ultrasonic signal processing methods suitable for engineering application were proposed, and location and type of internal defects were displayed through a graphical interface. It makes a beneficial exploration for the automation, digitization and visualization of the drill collar ultrasonic detecting.

Lu Yang, Yanhua Zhang, Gang Zhang

Chapter 146. On-Line Safety Monitoring for Disk Braking System of Rope-Less Elevator

The rope-less elevator driven by permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) is a revolutionary new technology for high-rise buildings. In the practical operation, PMLSM inevitably encounters various kinds of turbulences which directly affect the rope-less elevator’s safe and steady operation. The function and structure of disk braking system of rope-less elevator is introduced in this chapter. The influencing factors of disk braking system are analyzed, and the research on safety monitoring system technique is made. Combining with practical situation, it is concluded that physical quantity being inspected, the on-line monitoring model is established with modern control method. The monitoring system is developed by programable logic controller to achieve on-line momtoring and alarm of given physical quantity, storage and fetch of important parameter, and search of operating trouble record so as to realize the on-line monitoring safety of braking system.

Hongwei Zhang, Fashan Yu, Xinhuan Wang, Youfeng Luo

Chapter 147. Underground Emergency Escape System Based on the Internet of Things

To have dynamic emergency escape instructions to guide the trapped workers, underground emergency escape system based on the internet of things is studied. It uses nodes to monitor the concentration of gas in coal mines. The nodes, distributed in the mine, are the component units of the wireless network. If the concentration exceeds the warning line, it broadcasts an emergency signal to the whole network and calculates the next safe evacuation direction through the data collected by real-time algorithm and displays the direction on the LED dynamically. By then, the network shows a number of security paths pointed by all the individual nodes connected together. So it most likely avoids the dangerous areas consisted by disaster nodes and guides people to flee the danger zone.

Hui Li, Yingpei Sun, Li Zhang

Chapter 148. Real-Time Detection System of State of Train Wheels Based on LabVIEW

Virtual instrument (VI) is the computer technology and traditional instrumentation technology product of the combination, and is an important direction of development of the instrument. LabVIEW is a graphical programing language based on virtual instrument software development tools. This paper uses the LabVIEW 2010 point-by-point analysis of the database, sets up the state of the train wheels real-time detection system. It can carry on the examination in the train normal operation situation to the wheel’s condition. As can be seen from the simulation, the test results are precise and rapid, with high practical value.

De En, Ningning Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Jieyu Feng, Ningbo Zhang

Sensors and Signal Processing


Chapter 149. Distributed Optimal Fusion Filter for Multi-Sensor Systems with Finite Consecutive Packet Dropouts

The distributed fusion filtering problem is studied for systems with multiple sensors of different finite consecutive packet dropout rates. The phenomenon of packet dropouts is described by a Bernoulli distributed random variable. By introducing a set of new variables, the system is transferred into a random parameter system by using state augmentation method. The filtering error cross-covariance matrix between any two local filters is derived. The distributed fusion state filter is obtained by applying the optimal matrix-weighted fusion estimation algorithm in the linear minimum variance sense. A simulation example shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

Haixia Chen, Shuli Sun

Chapter 150. Method of Obtaining Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor by Measuring Crack Mouth Opening Displacement on a 3-Point Bending Specimen

This paper focuses on how to obtain the Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor by measuring Crack Mouth Opening Displacement on a pre-cracked 3-Point Bending Specimen. During the experiments, one uses impactor to hit on a pre-crack 3-Point Bending Specimen and at the same time uses a high-speed camera to take a set of photos of the crack. Crack Mouth Opening Displacement can then be measured from these photos. According to the relationship of J integral, Crack Open Mouth Displacement and the Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor, the Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor could be obtained. This result could be useful for guiding the practical engineering design.

Yayu Huang, Xiangping Hu, Yujie Shen, Taohong Liao

Chapter 151. Fault Diagnosis of ZPW-2000A System Based on PSO-GA-BP Algorithm

ZPW-2000A joint-less frequency shift automatic block system has a crucial and realistic significance in maintaining the safety of railway transportation. The traditional fault diagnosis for ZPW-2000A is inefficient and troublesome. A new fault diagnosis method was proposed based on BP neural network, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA-BP). In order to compare with the diagnostic performance of PSO-GA-BP, some other hybrid algorithms were also simulated. It came to the conclusion that PSO-GA-BP algorithm was more effective in convergent rate, convergent accuracy and diagnostic accuracy according to the simulation results. The PSO-GA-BP neural network is efficient, convenient and provides a new approach to fault diagnosis.

Bo Fan, Shiwu Yang, Xingmin Wang, Yuhang Wang

Chapter 152. Mine Workface Gas Emission Time-Series Fractal Properties

Mine workface gas emission time series has a complex nonlinear characteristics, R/S method is presented to analyze their fractal characteristics in this paper. First, R/S basic principle is introduced and long-range correlation properties are analyzed; at the same time the effective correlation length is calculated. Second, the algorithm program is implemented under MATLAB200b environment, and two noise sequences are used to verify it. Finally, three gas outburst time-series data and two non-outburst time-series data of Hebi 10th mine 1,113 workface are analyzed using above program. The results show that: they Hurst index values are greater than 0.5, whether exist gas outbursts or not, which show workface gas emission time series has positive correlation feature, and this feature of non-outburst’s is obviously stronger than outburst’s. Furthermore the effective correlation length of non-outburst gas time series is also significantly longer than outburst occurs.

Meiying Qiao, Jianjun Qiao, Hui Tao, Xiaoping Ma

Chapter 153. Researches on the Laser-Induced Sound as the Sound Source of Imaging Sonar

To determine whether Laser Induced Sound (LIS) could be used as sound source of imaging sonar for minesweeper. Experimental environment and some important parameters are described. The structure and acoustic parameters of LIS transducer are articulated with a series of diagrams and formulae. Width and the directivity index of the beam of LIS transducer are achieved. The analysis of the feasibility of LIS as sound source of imaging sonar play an important role in this paper, which consist of four parts: analysis of distance resolution of sonar with LIS, the detection range of LIS under background noise, reverberation, thorough analysis of the feasibility of LIS as imaging sonar’s sound source. The results show that sonar with LIS as sound source could detect a metal ball with radius of 3 cm or the target with target strength of −50 dB, its range resolution and the maximum detection range are 5–8 times higher than the existing imaging sonar’s.

Yan-Hui Wang, Jian-Zhou Mao, Zhi-Hong Xiu

Chapter 154. Analysis and Design of Sensors Based on MEMS Process

Due to the features of light weight, small size, high intelligence, MEMS is widely used in the field of nature and engineering science, such as communication, aerospace, biomedical and materials science and so on. In this paper, MEMS manufacturing process is introduced, the structure and working principle of MEMS’ acceleration seismic sensors are analyzed and designed.

De En, Nana Wei, Huanghe Wei, Yangyang Liu, Xiaoguang Chen

Chapter 155. The Study of Displacement Measurement Instrument of Displacement Sensor Based on Polarized Light

A kind of displacement measurement instruments based on polarized light displacement sensor is presented in this chapter. The signals from two polarized light displacement sensors that respectively indicate the value of coordinate X and coordinate Y are subdivided by a special circuit. After the subdivided signals are identified and counted, a microprocessor processes the identified and counted signals to obtain the values of the displacement and implements the error correction algorithm. The characteristics of the instrument are reliable, easy to extend and convenient to debug.

De EN, Xiaoguang Chen, Yangyang Liu, Nana Wei, Huanghe Wei

Chapter 156. Optimal Filter for Stochastic Uncertain Systems with Multiplicative Noise and Sensor Failure Rates

The current paper is concerned with the optimal linear filter problem for linear uncertain discrete-time stochastic systems with multiplicative noise and sensor failures. Based on the innovation analysis approach, the optimal linear filter is developed in least mean square sense. Compared with the robust filter in the literature, the proposed filter avoids the artificial filtering gain that brings the additional computation. The steady-state filter is also investigated. A sufficient condition for the existence of the steady-state filter is given. The asymptotic stability of the optimal filter is analyzed. Illustrative example shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Jing Ma, Shuli Sun

Chapter 157. Study on Timing Sequences of Interface Program of Digital Temperature Sensor DS18B20

DS18B20 belongs to a kind of single-bus digital temperature sensor with corresponding simple hardware circuit connection. As a result it is necessary to make use of software to provide complicated and accurate timing logical sequences to realize data transfer correctly between the sensor and host computer, and finally to ensure the accuracy of data the host receives. It is the most foundational element to provide accurate timing logical sequences making use of some kind of relatively complicated software structure for data transfer of the single-bus digital sensors.

Huang Wenli, He Linlin

Chapter 158. A Novel Purely Digital Temperature and Humidity Monitoring Control System

A kind of novel purely digital temperature and humidity controller is introduced in-depth. The temperature signal is received from digital sensor DS18B20 of single-bus structure made by Dallas Corporation in America, and the humidity signal from the sensor DHT11 similar to DS18B20 in structure made by Aosong Corporation in Guangzhou, China. The hardware electric schematics, including single-chip microcomputer (SCM) circuit, temperature and humidity gauging circuit, nixietube displaying circuits, alarm circuit, and the corresponding software design, including data transfer of DS18B20 and data transfer of DHT11, are also introduced.

Wenli Huang, Jianfeng Cui

Chapter 159. Design of Counting System Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor

In order to facilitate to get real-time statistic number of people in and out of the building, based on pyroelectric infrared sensor, peripheral circuit and its corresponding control circuit were designed and real-time statistics on the number of people in the building were realized. General structure of the system was given,and hardware and software design of counting system were mainly stated. Practice shows that the counting system of building has higher stability, response speed and precision, and it has low price, so it has a broad application prospect.

Yanhua Zhang, Lu Yang, Ni Jing

Chapter 160. Temperature Compensation Method of Acceleration Sensor SD1221

Temperature error is in a large proportion of the total error in the micro-capacitive acceleration sensor, so the quality of temperature compensation has a direct impact on the measurement accuracy of the sensor. Based on the analysis of changes of acceleration sensor SD1221 affected by temperature, a linear forecast amendment method was put forward. Actual tests show that the method can reduce the impact of temperature changes effectively, simplify the amendment process and meet the requirements in a wide temperature range.

Yanhua Zhang, Lu Yang, Zeyu Yang

Chapter 161. Acquisition of Weak GPS Signals Based on Cross Correlated Interference Elimination

The cross-correlated interference between strong and weak signals is a problem pressed for solution during acquisition of weak GPS signals. This paper adopts an algorithm combined successive interference cancellation and ingenious differentially coherent integration to solve the problem. The cross correlated interference is eliminated by successive interference cancellation, and then the weak GPS signals are captured by ingenious differentially coherent integration in a short time. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can eliminate the cross correlated interference between strong and weak signals effectively and capture the weak GPS signals whose C/N are low down to 15 dB/Hz. It can improve the sensitivity of GPS software receiver.

Chao Deng, Dandan Wang

Chapter 162. An Analysis on Improved Wireless Channel Allocation Strategy

With the wide application of GPRS/GSM mobile access network, the efficient channel allocation strategy has shown importance in supporting the quality of network service. In view of GSM/GPRS network limitations, which has a low utilization about wireless resource and channel, and based on the existing resource allocation strategy, an improved channel allocation strategy is proposed. Numerical results indicate that new strategy can decrease the voice call blocking probability, reducing the average transmission time of GPRS packet, improving the channel utilization, etc.

Lei Shi, Caihong Zhao

Chapter 163. The Waveform Generator Based on Quartus II Software

With the development of technology in computer software, hardware and Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI), EDA is gradually taking the place of the traditional method of designing and has become the basic method of modern electronic designing. Many EDA software functions are more comprehensive. The Quartus II software offers an intuitive and user-friendly interface based on customer feedback, and the popular Maxplus II interface. This paper introduces the operational method of Quartus II software with waveform generator design as an example, and gives the simulation result with Quartus II software.

Lili Zhao, Jian Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Caijuan Shi, Xiaodong Yan

Chapter 164. An Improved Probabilistic Data Association Method for Multi-Target Tracking in Clutter

Improved data association methods for multi-target tracking are discussed in this paper. We introduce an exquisite gating technique based on the well-known probabilistic data association (PDA) filter, which calculates the association probabilities to the targets being tracked for each validated measurement. An important feature of the new algorithm is that it can divide the joint validation region into several parts in which the association probabilities can be calculated with more accuracy. The algorithm is tested and compared with both the generic PDA and joint probabilistic data association (JPDA) filter. Simulations are also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Yazhao Wang, Yingmin Jia, Junping Du, Fashan Yu

Chapter 165. Improved Wavelet Threshold Denoising Method for Railway Signal

Railway signals are inevitably mixed with a variety of noise. Therefore noise reduction becomes crucial in railway operations. In this paper, the wavelet threshold denoising method was applied to railway signals. A new wavelet threshold function was proposed to overcome the disadvantages of soft threshold and hard threshold. The new method is more smoothing. More details of the signals are reserved. The obtained simulation results show that the new thresholding algorithm has better denoising effect in signal to noise ratio (SNR), minimum mean square error (MSE), and results in closer approximation to the real signals, compared with hard thresholding and soft thresholding methods.

Juan Zou, Shijie Jia, Shaohua Chen

Chapter 166. Performance of 100 Gbit/s Transmission System Based on Non-Return to Zero and Return to Zero in Single Mode Fiber High-dispersion Fiber

Transmission performance of 100Gbit/s signal with non-return to zero (NRZ) and return to Zero (RZ) in single mode fiber (SMF) high-dispersion fiber is investigated. The bit error rate (BER) against transmission distance, laser power and chromatic dispersion is simulated and analyzed. The maximum transmission distance is obtained for different modulation format. Comparison of NRZ and RZ transmission over SMF high-dispersion fiber, it is shown clearly the advantage of NRZ modulation scheme for 100Gbit/s transmission over long SMF link. The scheme of chromatic dispersion compensation is also studied.

Chunbo Jiang

Chapter 167. Wide-Area Backup Protection Algorithm Based on Multisource Information Fusion

Wide-area backup protection is a novel technique presented in recent years, which uses multisource information to make fault identification decision and availably prevents catastrophic blackouts. However, the property of algorithm will be deteriorated when information error exists. For the sake of improving the property of wide-area backup protection, this paper proposes an information fusion strategy using genetic algorithm to optimize the decision-making function. The operation information from local directional pilot relay and impedance relay is applied to establish the fitness function. Simulation tests based on IEEE 3-generator and 9-bus system validates the presented algorithm under as many as 3 bits information error.

Zhiqin He, Zhe Zhang, Xianggen Yin, Zhenxing Li, Xing Deng

Chapter 168. P2P-Based Self-Organized Streaming Media CDN Content Delivery Strategy

In order to cope with the shortcomings of the existing streaming media CDN, and accomplish large-scale deployment streaming media delivery system, in this chapter, we introduce peer to peer(P2P) idea into streaming media CDN. Then we put forward a framework of PBSMCDN(P2P-Based Self-organized Streaming Media Content Delivery Network)and study streaming media content delivery strategies, and present a Random push algorithm based on partial access feature of steaming media. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective.

Qi-xing Xu, Zi-ao Zhan

Chapter 169. Improved Sparse Multipath Channel Estimation via Modified Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

Impulse response of sparse multipath channel (SMPC) can be recovered from a short training sequence since most entries of SMPC are zeros. Though the ordinary orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm provides a very fast implementation of SMPC estimation, it suffers from the coherence of atoms in dictionary, especially in the case of SMPC with a large delay spread and short training sequence. In this chapter, a modified OMP method is proposed and a sensing dictionary is designed adaptively to improve the performance of the OMP algorithm. Numeral experiments illustrate that the proposed algorithm based on adaptive sensing dictionary outperforms the ordinary OMP algorithm.

Jing Lu, Rui Wang

Chapter 170. The Study on Distribution Optimization Method Between Supply Chain Strategic Partners

The distribution problem in supply chain is studied in this paper. To minimize the logistics cost in upstream and downstream enterprises in supply chain, bi-level programming method is innovatively used in this paper to establish the optimization model of the supply chain network distribution. Solving methods for this model are discussed and then an efficient arithmetic combined with layered iterative method is proposed. The model is calculated by Lindo software to verify the feasibility, efficiency and superiority of this method.

Yang Jianhua, Mu Dandan

Computer Application and Communication Engineering


Chapter 171. Advanced Route Design Based on Properties of Nodes in Opportunistic Networks

Opportunistic network is a kind of highly partitioned wireless ad hoc networks. Message ferry (MF) as an availably solution exploit controlled mobility to forward message in a specific route. In this paper, we study the problem of efficient data delivery in opportunistic networks, and propose an Advanced Route Design Based on Properties of nodes (ARDBP) to find the appropriate nodes which should be visited on the next route to improve the data delivery performance. The enhanced route algorithm designs the choice of ferry to deliver messages according the different properties of nodes. We evaluate the performance via ONE simulation to confirm the enhanced approach is efficient in data delivery performance, compared to the Nearest Neighbor Algorithm of Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP).

Qilie Liu, Xiang Pang, Yun Li, Yingjun Pan

Chapter 172. Study of Two Adaptive Beam-Forming Algorithms

The technology of adaptive beam-forming is the key technology in smart antenna. The performance of the whole smart antenna system is directly affected by the convergency and computation complexity of the adaptive algorithm. Based on the principle of smart antenna adaptive beam-forming, this chapter analyzes the Least-Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least-Squares (RLS) algorithms, and suggests an improvement of LMS algorithm. The convergence result and performance indicators were analyzed through simulation. In the same environment, the two algorithms were compared. Finally, a DSP + FPGA beam forming system is designed based on adaptive algorithm.

Duan Li, Wei Li

Chapter 173. Performance Analysis of 10 Gbit/s Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Signal Transmission System Over Multimode Fiber

Performance of 10 Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal transmission system over multimode fiber (MMF) is researched. It is simulated that the constellation diagram change with transmission, chromatic dispersion, different Multi-quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) modulation mode. It is shown that dispersion is the main factor to limit the transmission distance. As a number of subcarriers are related to dispersion and bandwidth utilization, a chromatic dispersion compromise needs to be considered.

Chunbo Jiang

Chapter 174. Research of Botnet Detection Based on Multi-Stage Classifier

The botnet represents a growing threat to the network security and the variants that emerge endlessly. Although the known anomaly detection algorithms can detect the unknown botnet to some degree, the generalization and the accuracy of the models remain to be improved. Whereas in this paper we proposed a botnet anomaly detection structure based on multi-level classifier, the first level classifier proposes a new periodical communication detection method. Compared with spectrum analysis, the algorithm has a lower complexity and can make online and real-time detection of the botnet; the second level classifier establishes the decision tree using the statistical characteristics of the IP pairs of the periodical communication. The result of the experiment indicates that compared with the algorithms only adopting the periodical communication or that based on the flow statistical characteristics, the multi-level classifier model not only has the higher generalization but also the higher accuracy in detecting the unknown botnet.

Xin Liang Wang, Nan Lu, CuiCui Wang

Chapter 175. Network Topology Model and Fault Analysis for Electrical Control Systems

The safety analysis and fault diagnosis is an important issue for the maintenance process of large complex industrial system such as electrical control system, and the integrated system is required to be taken into account when all the effect factors are included. Based on the above consideration, the topology description using complex network is introduced in this paper, the nodes represent the components in the electrical control system and the edges represent the relationship between components. The characteristics of the model are analyzed from the complex networks viewpoint, and fault analysis and propagation inference process is given based on the proposed network topology. Application study is given to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

Yuan Haibin

Chapter 176. CDS: A Multi-Channel MAC Protocol with Collision Detection for Wireless Sensor Networks

This paper proposes a multi-channel MAC protocol, CDS, for WSNs to tackle the collision incurred by channel selection. By using collision detection, when the collision occurs, a receiver can timely detect it and notify the sender to abort this transmission. Performance improves because the remainder of this message is not sent on this channel unnecessarily. Instead, this channel is released for other more productive transmissions. Therefore, CDS can efficiently handle the collision, and conserve more energy to extend the lifetime of WSNs. More importantly, CDS is fully distributed with no requirements of time synchronization or multi-radio, so it is practical to realize CDS in sensor nodes. Moreover, CDS is evaluated in testbed experiments, and the results indicate that when the number of channels, loads and number of neighbors increase, CDS significantly improves throughput.

Yahong Guo, Desheng Zhang

Chapter 177. Dynamic Positioning Control System of the Dredger

A Dredger’s dynamic positioning system (DPS) is a real-time control system composed of several complex algorithms. A dredger’s dynamic positioning real-time control system is designed with Siemens Industrial-Personal-Computer (IPC)-based controller using WinAC RTX software. A real-time industrial Ethernet (Profinet IO) structure is used in this system. Traditional Hardware-Programmable-Logic-Controller-based platform is replaced with the WinAC software-based one in the Industrial Personal Computer. Software and hardware resources in Industrial Personal Computer are well utilized. This design not only improves the operation speed and saves the cost, but also improves the control real-time performance and enhances the network’ robustness.

Zhang Yu-hua, Jiang Jian-guo

Chapter 178. Research on Technology for Context Awareness in Pervasive Computing Environment

To facilitate the development and deployment of context-awareness application in pervasive computing, a context-awareness framework needs to be used to adapt to different execution contexts and hide heterogeneity from applications. Therefore, after examining the concept of context and context awareness computing and some key technologies for context-awareness in pervasive computing, including context acquisition methods, context modeling and reasoning, and programming context etc., a dynamic context-awareness framework is put forward to effectively manage the context information and services mobility which has not been supported in the previous models. The model provides the standard interface to realize the interaction among the heterogeneous devices and hide heterogeneity from applications.

Xianquan Zeng, Yudong Feng

Chapter 179. Optimization of Iterations Based on Turbo Code Decoding

To reduce the iterations of Turbo code decoding without degrading the quality of image, which was used as signal source of a new scheme, is presented. Because each bit of binary system takes on varying degrees of content of other systems such as decimal system in the course of data format conversion, ensuring the iterations of high-bit and giving up the low-bits can maintain the image definition as well as decrease the sum of iterations obviously. Simulations of comparing this method with some widely used normalization techniques show that the proposed approach can achieve reducing 50% sum of iterations of decoding with higher overall BER and cannot debase the figure sharpness.

Yanping Xu

Chapter 180. Error Resilience Technique for Network Transmission in Wireless Video Surveillance System

To solve the problem of error resilience in wireless network transmission, the method of adopting slice coding was proposed based on Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) mode and intra-block refreshing. It combined the above three factors: slice coding might reduce the length of each packet, so it was easy for error resilience because the probability of packet loss was reduced accordingly; FMO mode made full use of spatial information for error correction and reduced bit rate; intra-block refreshing might eliminate the incorrect transmission by the loss of inter prediction macroblocks. The results of simulative experiments have proved that the method is of low time delay, less complex and high reliability, which can effectively solve the errors in wireless transmission and improve video quality.

Yu Jianguo, Shang Jianzhen

Chapter 181. Research on Spread Spectrum Communication Anti-Multipath Jamming Based on MATLAB

Aiming at the problem that the multi-path interference is always the bottleneck which prevents the enhancement of the narrowband communication quality and the uncertainty of radio channel and channel decline are the negative factors which prevent the enhancement of the wireless communication quality, the mechanism of the spread spectrum communication multi-path interference is investigated in this paper by the research on spread spectrum communication. The spread spectrum communication of anti-multipath interference model is built and the relevant MATLAB program is compiled, the prospective simulation result is obtained, all of these will directly verify that the spread spectrum communication system multi-path interference performance is very good.

Xuejun Li, Zhicheng He, Jigang Wu

Chapter 182. Application of Signal Sparse Decomposition Based on DEPSO

To reduce the calculation of signal sparse decomposition, put forward to use the hybrid algorithm, DEPSO which mixed the characteristics of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and difference optimization algorithm (DE), to complete the searching of the best atoms of signal sparse decomposition based on matching pursuit (MP) algorithm. This method not only helps to get the best matching parameters with high precision, but also avoids falling into the partial optimal solution which is common to single optimization algorithm. The result of experiment shows that, compared with the single algorithm, using DEPSO greatly improved the searching speed, efficiency and accuracy of decomposition. Besides, the calculation has also dropped down dramatically.

Mu Fusheng, Liu Chao, Deng Ling, Huang Sheng

Chapter 183. Transmission of Quantum Information and Experimental Measurement of Remote Operation of Quantum State

Remote operation of quantum state is an effective way to realize the quantum communication. This paper introduces the basic principles of quantum communication and quantum entanglement. And the operation of the quantum information is essentially dealing with the quantum state. Due to the existence of quantum entanglement, the measurement of quantum state will result in the collapse of the associated quantum state. Therefore, this paper puts forward implementation scheme for remote operation and measurement of quantum information.

Z. G. Wang

Chapter 184. Thyristor Ports Voltage in Double Anti-Star-Controlled Rectifier Circuit with Balancing Reactor

High-power controlled rectifier circuit includes a balanced reactor with dual reverse star-controlled rectifier, and multiple rectifier circuit. In this paper, we analyze and calculate the voltage of the thyristor for the working process of a dual reverse star-controlled rectifier with balanced reactor, and MATLAB simulation, making a basis for the study of the application in the occasions which requires low voltage, high current, and provides a basis for the exact choice of power electronic devices in order to save energy and reduce costs.

Feng Zhao, Bingjiao Wu

Chapter 185. Research for Management System of Mining Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Based on Wireless Network

With sustained and rapid development of China’s economy since the beginning of reform and opening up, the demand for all kinds of energy resources has been increasing greatly, especially coal, as one of the basic energy, the demand for which is most obvious. In 2009 our county’s coal output reached 3.05 million tons, accounting for 77.2% of primary energy. However, the management system of electromechanical equipment is still not perfect, which severely restricts safe and highly effective coal production. It is very tedious to get information about electromechanical equipment, for in nowadays specialized management personals check, maintain, and register the equipment in the fixed place and at the fixed time, which results in heavy workload and low efficiency. To improve the supervision and efficiency of electromechanical equipment maintenance, to prevent electromechanical equipment omissions caused by human, to guarantee the electromechanical equipment to run normally, efficiently and safely, to reduce electromechanical equipment’s influence upon production, to improve the production efficiency and the modern management level and to realize electromechanical equipment’s maintenance management modernize and informationize, we design and launch an information dynamic management system of mine electromechanical equipment that based on wireless network.

Hui He, Jizheng Sun

Chapter 186. Stripes Modulating Photograph Technology Researches to Obtain the Shape Information of Fast Moving Objects

The stripe modulating photograph technology for shape information of fast moving objects was supposed. This technology resolves the problem of take stripes modulating images of fast moving objects with high quality because of the moving blur. This system consists of short-pulsed laser grating modulate illumination source, CCD cameras with high resolution and the timing control system. The moving blur of the fast moving objects in the images was decreased efficiently for the laser stripe illumination source with about 12 ns half-wavelength. Then the stripe modulated image of fast moving objects with high quality was obtained. This technology makes it possible to get shape information of the fast moving objects with little distort.

Honge Luo, Jinliang Gu, Ping Chen, Yan Xia, Baoming Li

Chapter 187. Study on the Construction of Distributed Collaborative Product Design Platform Based on the Internet of Things

To enhance the response to customers’ demand and the efficiency of designing product in networked collaborated environment, a new concept for product design, which emphasizes the supply chain view is put forward based on the Internet of Things (IOT). In accordance with the requirements of collaborated design, the relative application technologies of IOT are deeply analyzed. To optimize and carry out the product design flow through the network, a framework of Distributed Collaborative Product Design Platform established on the IOT is given. The fundamental structure, feasibilities, functions and key technologies of this platform are described in detail. All of these researches provide significant practical references for enterprises to build the related product design platform for improving the design quality.

Jiang-bo Zheng, Hong-Xue Yan

Chapter 188. A Cultural Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Flow Shop Scheduling Problem

To describe the minimization of the makespan in permutation flow shop scheduling problem, Cultural Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) is proposed. Two kinds of spaces, population space and belief space, are set in the algorithm. The population space is evolved with adaptive PSO strategy and the belief space is with update function. The interaction between two spaces is by the acceptance operation and impact operation using synchronous transmission mode. The proposed algorithm is tested on different scale benchmarks and compared with the other representative algorithms. The result shows that CPSO has faster convergence speed and is better than other algorithms in not only the solution quality but also the stability.

Yu-lin Zhang, Xia Zhu

Chapter 189. A Scheduling Method Based on Deadlines in MapReduce

When Map tasks are scheduled to the nodes without the input data, they will cause the remote data access delay which degrades the performance of MapReduce. The delay can be hidden by prefetching the input data to the nodes predicted to run the tasks. However, when the actual nodes running the tasks are not identical with the predicted nodes, the default method of Hadoop MapReduce cannot schedule the tasks to the nodes with the prefetched data. This makes hiding the delay by prefetching difficultly. In this paper, we propose a new scheduling method to handle the problem. The method sets scheduling deadlines for the tasks of which the input data have been prefetched. It schedules the tasks to the nodes with the prefetched data before the deadlines or to other nodes after the deadlines. The experiments have shown that the new method scheduled more than 90% of tasks to the nodes with the input data or the prefetched data, and improved performance of MapReduce by 6.5~12%.

Zhang Xiaohong, Ju Shui, Jiao Zhibin

Chapter 190. Product Data Sharing and Integration Technology in Network Supported Collaborative Design

In network supported collaborative design, the sharing and integration of multi-site and heterogeneous data is one of the key problems. The flexible data model and open access characteristics of XML can provide powerful support for the product data sharing and integration. This paper presents the XML-based solution of product data sharing and integration. On the basis of summarizing STEP and the XML technology characteristic respectively, the technology of the integration of XML language and STEP standard to express product is analyzed. Aiming at the related question in data transmission and exchange using XML, such as data parse, data storage and data query, this paper all gives the detailed explanation.

Wang Qi, Ren Zhong-wei, Yu Lian-yong

Chapter 191. A Solution for Management Information Systems Integration Based on WebService

By enveloping the data source into WebServices and constructing Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI), the solution gives a method of data integration based on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), then presents WebService and Extensible Markup Language (XML) mapping model to realize data interchange, and the process of registration, query and invocation of WebServices to realize data integration. The solution this paper presented has practical value for universities and large enterprises to integrate information systems.

Guowei Wang, Zhibin Zhang, Manjun Xue

Chapter 192. Application of Association Rule Mining in College Teaching Evaluation

Association rule mining is the most important and most mature one of the research methods and techniques that can find the services a meaningful connection between the hidden and rules. This paper introduces the classical association rule mining algorithm Apriori algorithm and association rules combined with the teaching evaluation, evaluation of data from a large extract useful information hidden, so as to educational administration departments to provide decision support basis for improving teaching quality.

Sanjing Geng, Zhenghui Guo

Chapter 193. Support Vector Machine Selective Ensemble Learning on Feature Clustering and Genetic Algorithm

A novel ensemble learning algorithm, Support Vector Machine Selective Ensemble Learning on Feature Clustering and Genetic Algorithm, is proposed to improve ensemble classifier performance in this chapter. First, features are clustered on weighted average linkage method and feature subsets consisting of the attributes extracted from each category at random serve as the inputs of individual SVM to ensure that there are significant diversities among individual learning machine. Then GA is adopted to optimize SVM parameters to increase individuals’ classification performances. Finally, selective ensemble learning enhances the accuracy of ensemble classification system. Through six data sets simulation, the results show that classification effect of the novel algorithm was obviously improved.

Hui Tao, Xiao-ping Ma, Mei-ying Qiao

Chapter 194. Research on Active Vibration Control of Piezoelectric Intelligent Beam Based on Energy Finite Element Method

The transmission of vibration energy and equilibrium relationship is analyzed. Discrete the energy-balance equation by Galerkin weighted residual method and the Energy Finite Element model of Piezoelectric intelligent cantilever beam system is developed. Energy density wave solution was deduced by classics wave theory, Energy Flow Element model was proved correct by comparing the EFEM solution with exact wave solution. Finally, makes an exploration and analysis on the influence of steady state response and energy density distribution for feedback gain, location and different pairs of piezoelectric elements.

Zhen Zhou, Rui Huo, Xiufang Zhang

Chapter 195. Pipe Network Optimization for Maximal Utilization Rate of Gravity Head Based on LCA

The general optimization design models were aimed at the minimum cost of the gravity distribution network omitted other fees impacts on the system building operation cost and could not ensure the design scheme satisfies the running effect. The objective function in this chapter is based on the gravity water head utilization rate produced by the fall of the head position degree, with two different expressions namely utilization rate of pipe gravity head and utilization rate of path gravity head as network optimization objective functions. Model solution method is with line-up competition algorithm (LCA) between families and inside a family. Compared with the solution method of genetic algorithm aimed at the minimum investment cost, the result showed that the method can obtain the optimal solution and have higher search efficiency.

Yujuan Fu, Yulong Zhang, Huanjie Cai, Dong Chen, Junshi He

Chapter 196. A New Thinking: Personalized Recommendations on Spatial Information

The methods for information overload have not been well developed so far, so recommended system was proposed and has been widely used in e-commerce, digital libraries and other areas. With the coming of the new era of geographic information, the situation of spatial information overload is more serious. In this paper, we proposed a new thinking named “personalized recommendation on spatial information”, and gave its theoretical framework Three aspects of recommendations on spatial information: user profile, recommended algorithm and quality evaluation of spatial information service were employed to explain the theory. They highlighted location, spatial relations, and relations of time, which were different with other recommended system. The issue of spatial information personalized recommendations was proposed in this paper at the first time, and would be paid more attention by more and more researchers.

Mou Naixia, Zhang Lingxian, Li Qing, Liu Wenbao

Power Engineering and Transmission


Chapter 197. Power System State Estimation Based on GM (1, 1) Model

According to the contradiction between the static power system state estimation and the actual operation of power system, based on the study of the classical algorithms of power system state estimation, apply the gray system theory of power system based on GM (1, 1) mode to the state estimation of power system, and create a new dynamic power system state estimation algorithm, for example to a four-node power system network test for State estimation simulation. Measurement of a known algorithm used to predict the gray system theory. On the other hand, measurement of unknown quantity, using the result that come from the known quantity, then get all parameters with character of power system state through statistical analysis of simulation results that the normal measurement system, the method is feasible and has a good filtering effect. The power system state estimation algorithm based on the gray system theory of Power System based on GM (1, 1) model has high estimating precision, fast calculation, use small memory and the adaptability of the measurement system is very strong, so it has good prospects.

Yan Donsong, Xiao Tengjiao, Long Yarui, Huang Yuanliang

Chapter 198. Communication Channel Reconstruction Technology of Wide-Area Protection Under Extreme Catastrophe

A new scheme of communication channel reconstruction technology (CCRT) for wide-area protection (WAP) under extreme catastrophe scenarios is proposed for the purpose of safeguarding the safety and reliability of relay protection. The communication hierarchy of WAP based on MPLS VPN is obtained according to the characteristic of communication system. Under the damage of optical communication channel, CCRT based on circuitous way is first realized by sturdy optical fiber, carrier, microwave and telecommunication channels and so on, and then CCRT based on wireless sensor network (WSN) is built when the circuitous path cannot reconstruct communication channel for more channels damaged. The key technology of WSN, such as the supply energy pattern, router algorithm and multi-hops way, are also discussed. The test results of multiple schemes show that CCRT based on WSN can be suitable for WAP.

Zhenxing Li, Xianggen Yin, Zhe Zhang, Zhiqin He

Chapter 199. Study on Unbalance Factor of Sequence Impedance for Parallel Multi-circuit Cable Lines

Parallel multi-circuit cable lines are wildly used to improve the transmission capacity of urban power grid, but the study on sequence impedance parameters’ asymmetry of multi-circuit cable lines is not available. To analyze the asymmetry of multi-circuit cable lines’ parameters, a method to measure the unbalance factor is introduced in this paper. Furthermore, take engineering practice as an example, the electromagnetic unbalance factor of two-circuit cable lines under different arrangements are calculated by this method. Finally, a comparison among these unbalance factor is made. The comparative results show that the triangle arrangement has better symmetry than straight-vertical and straight-horizontal arrangement, in which the triangle-vertical arrangement’s symmetry is the best.

Xing Deng, Xianggen Yin, Zhe Zhang, Zhiqin He, Zhenxing Li

Chapter 200. The Design and Application of CAN General Line Based on SJA1000 in the Coal Mine Long Distance Electric Communication System

To describe the application of CAN general line based on SJA1000 in the coal mine long distance electric communication system, which improved the traditional CAN (Controller Area Network, CAN) contact general line driver hardware circuit and gave a hint to design the software. It had been proved in the practice that the system worked well and had a better result. This system acquired a fine result when tried out in units such as no.1 tai hang coal mine and so on and had an extremely high application value.

Guofang Qin, Yingli Lv, Zhongqi Wang

Chapter 201. Transmission Parameters Extraction of Multi-conductor Cable Based on Transmission Circuit Method

A new transmission circuit concept is put forward to replace the energy approach by varied equivalent current density using finite element method. This new concept is studied in detail for two-dimension model of multi-conductor and further research are also carried out for temperature-dependent characters. Next, the application of this concept is exploited to determine corresponding transmission parameters, such as impedance, resistance and inductance matrices considering coupling effect. Numerical results demonstrate the correctness of the new approach, and furthermore can provide with the temperature-dependent behaviors of these parameters.

Hu Guoyou, Li Shunming, Xia Pinqi, Men Xiuhua, Guo Haidong

Chapter 202. Research on the Line Fault Branch Location Method of 10 kV Village Distributed Network

According to the characteristics of village distributed network, such as the main line power supply, the multiple branches, the tree distribution network is equivalent to multiple-input multiple-output network, and based on the equivalent, a multi-terminal mathematical model is established. Fault branch is determined through the measurment of branch resistance changes from measurable endpoint voltage changes, and the algorithm is implemented. The algorithm is verified by simulation of the Matlab software. The results show that this algorithm can quickly and accurately locate the fault branches, improve operational reliability and reduce power losses.

Shan Su, Fuzhong Wang

Chapter 203. Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generators in a Distribution Network Using Adaptive Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization

This study presents the optimal allocation of distributed generators (DGs) in distribution network based on an adaptive multi-objective particle swarm optimization (AMPSO). In order to enable the DGs to make the best contribution to the distribution network, a multi-objective optimization model addressing power loss and a voltage stability index (VSI) is constructed, in which the capacity factor of DGs is taken into consideration. In the AMPSO, some adaptive techniques including the use of dynamically changing inertia weight, time-varying acceleration coefficients, mutation operation and circular crowding sorting have been integrated to improve the convergence and the diversity performance of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm has been used to determine the optimal allocation of DGs in a IEEE 33-bus distribution network. Simulation results show that the proposed method can identify the optimal solutions with a good tradeoff between the power loss and the VSI.

Shan Cheng, Min-You Chen, Peter J. Fleming, Xia Li

Chapter 204. Application of DE-Based SVMs for Fouling Prediction on Thermal Power Plant Condensers

Unexpected fouling in condensers has always been one of the main operational concerns in thermal power plants. This paper describes an approach to predict fouling deposits in thermal power plant condensers by means of support vector machines (SVMs). The periodic fouling formation process and residual fouling phenomenon are analyzed. To improve the generalization performance of SVMs, an improved differential evolution algorithm is introduced to optimize the SVMs parameters. The prediction model based on optimized SVMs is used in a case study of a 300 MW thermal power station. The experiment results show that the proposed approach has more accurate prediction results and better dynamic self-adaptive ability to the condenser operating conditions change than asymptotic model and T–S fuzzy model.

Lianghong Wu, Zhaofu Zen, Xiaoping Zhang, Xuejun Li

Chapter 205. Analysis of the Current Return Paths of Power/Ground Plane Segmentation

The power/ground plane Segmentation suppress the simultaneous switching noise by cutting off the path of SSN. A power/ground Segmentation plane model is established and simulated by software HFSS10.0 to analyze the power/ground plane segmentation current return paths. The simulation results that the slotted plane forced return current to flow back from a distance, and circuit size increases, leading to a potential threat of electromagnetic interference.

Yong-Qin Liu, Guo-Qiang Li, Zhi-Ping Zhu, Yan Peng

Control System


Chapter 206. Study of Master Manipulator Control System for Teleoperation

Master manipulator’s performance directly affects the controllability and reliability of teleoperation system. Based on the study of the master manipulator’s role in the teleoperation, this paper describes a distributed master manipulator control system based on CAN bus, and the design rationale of the joint controller is elaborated. In this control system, a lot of servo control and sensor information processing are handled in each joint controller located physically close to the motor that it is controlling. So the master controller’s burden is lightened, and the wiring harness is enormously simplified.

Zunyi Deng, Yimin Mo, Xueqin Gao, Yi Ning

Chapter 207. Bidirectional Variable Probability RRT Algorithm for Robotic Path Planning

The traditional goal-bias RRT is mentioned to improve the efficiency, but it has an inherent problem, when there are lesser vertexes, the search toward the goal is often invalid; however, when there are more vertexes, the search toward other regions is often unnecessary. To solve this problem, we introduce a kind bidirectional variable probability RRT algorithm. In this paper, we build two trees, and one tree expands toward to the other tree at a variable probability. This probability is in proportion to the coverage of the trees, that is, when there are lesser vertexes, the searches are mainly toward unexplored regions, and when there are more vertexes, we attach more importance to the connection of two trees. The results show the good performance and convergence speed of the proposed algorithm.

Kong Yingying, Chen Xiong, Han Jianda

Chapter 208. Design of a Wearable Quantitative Muscle Rehabilitation Evaluation Robotic Hand Device

There is increasing interest in using robotic devices to assist in improving motor function for stroke patients. Rehabilitation evaluation during the motor rehabilitation process plays a crucial role in instructing robotic or manual therapy. Rehabilitation therapists can take some measure in assessing stiffness or motion range of the patient’s joints, but it is difficult for them to evaluate quantitatively and objectively. Furthermore few wearable robotic devices are reported for evaluating the recovery conditions of the patient’s hand internal muscles. The development of a pneumatic muscle (PM)-driven quantitative muscle rehabilitation evaluation robotic hand device serves this role. On account of the variance of the patient’s muscle recovery active forces and the complex nonlinear dynamics of PMs, the device becomes difficult to control. This paper presents a kind of feasible control strategy applied to this device.

Xikai Tu, Liguo Yu, Jin He

Chapter 209. Online Actor-Critic Learning for Motion Control of Non-holonomic Mobile Robot

This paper presents a control structure designed for non-holonomic mobile robots by an online algorithm based on policy iteration for learning the continuous-time (CT) optimal control solution with infinite horizon cost. The algorithm learns online in real-time to the solution of Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation which has been used for optimal control design. This method finds in real-time suitable approximations of both the optimal cost and control policy, while also guaranteeing closed-loop stability, which implemented as an actor/critic structure involves simultaneous continuous-time adaptation of both actor and critic neural networks (NNs). Simulation examples show the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

Kai Wang, Yingmin Jia, Junping Du, Fashan Yu

Chapter 210. Optimization Model and Algorithm for Modern Tram Operation Plan Adjustment

The new concept of virtual station was proposed to describe level crossing. On this basis, modern tram operation plan adjustment model was established with constraints as follows: dwell time; running time between stations; track interval; trams order. Integrated optimization objective of the model contained the total late time, the total number of adjustment and the influence on the traffic order. Improved genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, and the optimal solution obtained was the real-time operation adjustment plan of modern trams. Simulation results show that the model and algorithm can meet operational needs.

Kuo Guo, Hong-ze Xu, Peng Zhou

Chapter 211. Development of Novel Vehicle Operation Control System Elementary Prototype for Modern Tram

By analyzing the business process of modern tram, the functional requirements of vehicle operation control system (VOCS) were given. On this basis, an integrated design of VOCS was proposed, and then the interfaces between the subsystems in VOCS were designed. Based on the PC/104 hardware platform and Vxworks embedded operation system, the functional software of VOCS was developed. Above all, the elementary prototype of VOCS was complete. The debugging result shows that the design of VOCS is reasonable and the elementary prototype meets functional requirements of VOCS.

Zhibin Yuan, Hongze Xu, Peng Zhou

Chapter 212. Development of Novel Central Operation Control System Elementary Prototype for Modern Tram

From the view of Transportation Organization (TO) and Zone Control (ZC), business process of modern tram system was firstly analyzed. Furthermore, functional requirements of modern tram Operation Control System (OCS) were analyzed, and then an integrated design scheme of TO and ZC was proposed. On this basis, structure, interfaces, and software of novel Central Operation Control System (COCS) were designed. Based on industrial computer and Windows operation system, human–computer interaction software and dispatching management software were developed, and based on PC104 hardware platform and VxWorks embedded operation system, security protection software was developed. Finally, the test of the elementary prototype was completed. The test results show that the design of COCS is reasonable and feasible. The COCS elementary prototype realizes functions correctly and completely.

Chengyuan Wu, Hongze Xu, Peng Zhou

Chapter 213. Development of Modern Tram Ground Operation Control System Elementary Prototype

For developing modern tram ground operation control system (GOCS), the business process of modern tram was analyzed. On this basis, functional requirements of the GOCS were analyzed. The design scheme of the GOCS, which included function decomposition, structural design, interfaces design and functional software design, was put forward. According to the design scheme, the GOCS elementary prototype that realized trams operation safety protection was developed. Through debugging with other subsystems of modern tram, expected results were gained which showed that the design scheme of the GOCS was rational and feasible.

Zuoze Ma, Hongze Xu, Peng Zhou

Chapter 214. The Intelligent Multimedia Interpretation System Based on Embedded Technology

A novel multimedia interpretation system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, embedded control technology and multimedia technology is provided in this paper. The novel system consists of three parts: tourists’ visiting cards, RFID module and media player module. This paper describes the design work of hardware circuit, the control software of the RFID module and the media player module. This system was tested using different radio frequency (RF) cards. For different RF cards, the system outputs the corresponding responses: the buzzer outputs beep and the liquid crystal display (LCD) displays the results. The test results show that the intelligent multimedia interpretation system can realize the automatic recognition of tourists’ identities, automatic selection of language, automatic playing of multimedia interpretation files. The system is characterized by self-assistance, convenient operation, intelligence, low power consumption and environmental protection, so it can help to improve the interpretation pattern and raise the intelligence and digital levels. This system can be widely used in tourism and exhibition.

Jie Zeng, Meng Zhang, Hu Sheng

Chapter 215. Embedded Video Server Based on H.264 ASIC

In order to achieve an embedded video server’s flexibility and cut down the cost, a new solution based on Application Specific Integrated Circuit was introduced in this paper. Its hardware design and software hierarchical structure were introduced. An adaptive transmission strategy was proposed to fit the transmission networks. The results of experiments show that its main performance meets the practical needs and it can be used in some fields such as network video surveillance and hard disk video recorders.

Shimei Su, Yan Wang, Yi Liu

Chapter 216. A SoC Design with Delta MPU Cores

The SoC design with delta MPU cores is a typical intelligent solution for embedded systems. In this paper, a design of SoC with multi-core is discussed. There are three MPU cores, operation MPU, backup MPU and monitor MPU, with delta structure in the SoC. The self-repairing function of the SoC is schemed through the back-up MPU to replace operation MPU. In order to transfer two MPU cores for operation of SoC, the input and output of the operation core and back-up core should be similar. The SoC is also called DRSoC, Dynamically Reconfigurable SoC. For some high reliability applications, the SoC design is useful.

Limin Liu

Chapter 217. Design and Implementation of White LED Lighting Automatic Control System

A white LED automatic control system is designed to maintain the illumination intensity of object region. AT89S52 is used as the controller and light senor IC BH1750 with I


C bus is used to measure the illumination of object region. PWM signals are generated to control the RMS of the current to regulate the brightness of white LED. Using numeral PID as the control algorithm the constant lighting control was implemented. The hardware design and software programing of white LED lighting dimming is finished in this paper. The experiment shows the steady-state error is less than 2%, the dynamic characteristics are excellent and the system can reject the interference to some extent.

Fashan Yu, Mingjie Zong, Xifang Tian

Chapter 218. LPV Modeling of the Missile Attitude Control System Based on Small Deviation Equation

With a concern about the missile attitude control system, this paper attempts to solve the online calculation method of the coefficient of the small deviation equation, on which a LFT-based LPV model of the missile attitude control system is set up.

Shaobo Ni, Jianwu Wu, Jiayuan Shan, Lei Liu, Yongji Wang, Kun Hu

Electric Machines and Electric Machines Control


Chapter 219. Adaptive Terminal Sliding Mode Control for Chaos Oscillation of Power System

An adaptive Terminal sliding mode control method is put forward to restrain chaotic oscillation when power system is suffered from periodic load disturbance. First, the use of Lyapunov index proved that the system will occur with chaotic oscillation under certain circumstances. Then through the design of Terminal sliding mode, the convergence of error is sped up to achieve good control effect. Using adaptive law to estimate the changes in disturbance, it makes the controller have strong robustness. According to Lyapunov theory, the stability of closed-loop system is proved. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the control method.

Yuhui Zhang, Zhihua Zhang, Tianyun Li

Chapter 220. Gain Self-Tuning of PI Controller for PMSM Servo System

The PMSM servo system is a nonlinear, time-varying, and complex system. The tradition PI control is very difficult to realize, which is a line control and it needs the accurate mathematical model. Fuzzy control is proposed in this chapter, which synthesizes the fuzzy control and PI control. Using fuzzy inferences method, the parameters can be adjusted adaptively. For PMSM servo system, the vector control is used in current loop and fuzzy PI control is used in speed loop instead of traditional PI control. Results from numerical simulations and practical implementation show that the fuzzy PI controler has better performance and robustness than convertional PI controller in the PMSM servo system.

Lili Cui, Ruibin Wu, Dongliang Liu

Chapter 221. Compositive Diagnosis Method of Turbine-Generator Air-Gap Eccentric Fault

The characteristics of generator stator and rotor radial vibration and the characteristics of stator winding parallel branches circulating current on the air-gap eccentric fault are respectively analyzed. Three types of air-gap eccentric faults are studied, such as static eccentric, dynamic eccentric, and mixed eccentric composed by the previous two. Considering the differences in the stator and rotor vibration characteristics and circulating current characteristics caused by the faults, a compositive diagnosis method of air-gap eccentric fault based on the characteristics of vibration and circulating current is proposed. Finally, the data of a SDF-9 type generator on the fault condition are measured in the laboratory to verify the theoretical analysis presented above.

Li Yonggang, Zhou Guowei, Wan Shuting, Li Heming

Chapter 222. The Vector Control Research of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor

In order to reduce the speed and torque ripples, a vector control scheme for permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM) based on PWM control is proposed in this paper. The proposed control method uses the space vector coordination transformation method to change the stator abc coordination current into


synchronous rotating coordination, and the


axis voltage component was obtained to control the torque directly. By establishing the PWM vector control model based on i


= 0, the simulation experiment was conducted. It is showed that the speed and torque ripples are greatly reduced and the quick dynamic response characteristic is still retained, and that the PWM vector control based on i


= 0 scheme can well control the PMLSM obviously.

Jun Zhu, Xu Dong Wang, Bao Yu Xu, Hai Chao Feng

Chapter 223. Finite Element Analysis and Optimization for Magnetic Circuit System of Moving-Coil Linear Compressor

In order to solve the calculation problem which was caused by the large mesh quantity and convergent issue when finite element model was established according to the real magnetic circuit system structure of moving-coil linear compressor, a new modeling method was proposed. Based on ANSYS parametric design language, a parametric finite element model for magnetic circuit system of moving-coil linear compressor was established and the magnetic analysis was carried out. The validity and reliability of the finite element model was verified through magnetic experiment. According to the magnetic analysis results, the structural optimization design for magnetic circuit system was accomplished and a reasonable schematic was achieved. The optimization results show that not only the magnetic induction of gas gap is increased by 28.16%, but a permanent magnet is also operating at the optimal point and the magnetic saturation of iron core has been removed thoroughly.

Peng Zhao, Shulian Liu, Shuiying Zheng

Chapter 224. A Method of Neural Networks Controller Design for Electric Steering Actuator

To overcome the effect of nonlinear disturbance, the electric steering actuator controller design method based on neural networks is introduced. Firstly, the actuator control system is designed according to the requirement of flight control systems. Then, considering the dynamics of actuators, the nonlinear mathematical model of actuators is built, and the controller is designed with proportion-integral–differential and neural network control method. Finally, two control methods are contrasted. The simulation result demonstrates that NN controller can do it better in removing the influence of uncertainty and disturbance to achieve satisfying control effect.

Huang Zhiyi, Zhang Weiguo, Chen Kang, Su Jianqiang

Chapter 225. Research on Rotor Resistance Estimation for Induction Machines Based on Reactive Power Reference Model

According to the problem of reducing the robust control for indirect-field-oriented control of induction machines with uncertain rotor resistance, an estimation method of rotor resistance based on reactive power reference model is addressed. The estimation procedure is carried out independently of the state resistance, load torque, and rotor speed changes. The paper analyzes the stability of the estimation method last. Finally, the validity and practicability are verified by the simulation results.

Wenxiang Wei, Guorong Liu, Guanghui Zhu

Chapter 226. Simulation of Double-Loop DC Motor Speed-Regulation System of Fuzzy Control

To solve the weak robustness and strong oscillation of current nearby the equilibrium point in the double-loop DC drive system, speed loop (ASR) is introduced to fuzzy control. First, according to the ranges of input and output variables, fuzzy controller was designed and fuzzy rules were generated. Fuzzy control simulation model of double-loop speed regulation system was established and simulation was carried on by matlab. Compared with analysis waveform of the traditional system, it is concluded that apart from achieving rapid and stable starting current, small overshoot, small downhill of steady-state, the fuzzy speed-regulation system can improve the current oscillation.

Sumin Han, Quanyou Wang

Chapter 227. Study on Direct Force Control for PMLSM Based on SVPWM and the Flux Dynamic Compensation

Focused on directing force control (DFC) of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) existing thrust ripple, the space voltage vector pulse width modulation technology (SVPWM) will be introduced into PMLSM DFC strategy in order to reduce thrust ripple and improve system control performance. Full consideration of the motor running process with the rise of temperature, the change of the primary winding resistance caused the error between the flux observed value and the actual value. A new flux dynamic compensation algorithm was proposed. The dynamic compensator was built to improve the observation accuracy of the primary flux, which solved effectively the wrong voltage vector choice and the system control performance failure due to the error of the primary flux. The experimental results show that the PMLSM DFC based on SVPWM and the flux dynamic compensation has better control performance.

Haixing Wang, Jikai Si, Haichao Feng

Chapter 228. Study on Multi-Motor Power Balance of Controlled Speeder for Belt Conveyor

In this paper, the dynamic and static influencing factors of multi-motor power balance for belt convey was discussed and thus the corresponding engineering solution was put forward through analyzing the power balance course of active control for belt conveyor. The new solution which collects the current and speed signal simultaneity as the control bases to solve the power balance for belt conveyor was put forward and the correctness and feasibility of the principle was discussed and then the hardware and software design of electric control system were introduced in detail. The experiment test showed that the electric control system was able to accurately control mechanical drive and hydraulic devices and realize the functions of soft start and soft stop and the belt conveyor had characteristics such as steady power, quick response-time, extensive tape speed range and high transmission efficiency.

Xinhuan Wang, Hongwei Zhang, Wei Xiong

Chapter 229. Research for Fuzzy PID Control Strategy in Linear Motor Feeding System

In order to solve the problem of speed fluctuation in the linear motor drive feeding system. We introduced fuzzy theory on the basis of the traditional PID control algorithm, constituting fuzzy PID control algorithm self-setting PID parameter. Introduce the composing principle and design process of fuzzy PID controller. The MATLAB simulation experiment results show that this control algorithm response speed faster, good robustness, and overshoot is only 5%, satisfy the actual requirements of system.

Fuzhong Wang, Panpan Li

Chapter 230. Research on the Four-Switch Three-Phase Inverter Fed PMSM-FOC System

The Four-switch Three-phase Inverter (FSTPI) based AC drive system has attracted much attention because it can decrease the total system cost and simplify the system topology. It can also realize a fault tolerant topology for a post-fault reconfiguration for the traditional Six-switch Three-phase Inverter (SSTPI). In this paper, the Field Oriented Control (FOC) of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) fed by the FSTPI was studied. First, the space vector pulse width modulation method for FSTPI was discussed and three equivalent zero-vector methods were investigated. Second, the control principle of the PMSM-FOC system was discussed as well. Based on the above analysis, the control model for the system was simulated and the results indicate that the FSTPI-PMSM-FOC drive system can operate steadily and has satisfied dynamic torque feature.

Xiaodan Wang, Hongli Qin, Duan Li

Chapter 231. Research of Active Disturbances Rejection Control in Electric Wheel Dump Truck Speed Regulation System

According to the poor robust control and large-scale parameter perturbation in electric wheel dump truck speed regulation system, a kind of controller based on active disturbances rejection controller (ARDC) is researched in rotor-flux-oriented vector control speed regulation system, analyzing the compensation of ARDC to perturbation of parameters and external disturbance, and dynamic decoupling of rotor flux and torque is achieved. The simulation results show the essential features of the presented method.

Wenxiang Wei, Xiaoping Zhang

Specific Motor and Drives


Chapter 232. Back-EMF Estimation Based on Extended Kalman Filtering in Application of BLCD Motor

This paper proposes a new back-EMF detection method for BLDC motor, which is based on the extended Kalman filter. Through setting the stator current and the back-EMF voltage as the state variables, the model of the extended Kalman filter could be established from the derivation of the BLDC motor’s mathematical model. Accurate speed and position control could be carried out then, and the experiment results show the feasibility and accuracy of this method.

Dongliang Liu, Yao Zhang, Lei Pan

Chapter 233. Study on Modeling and Simulation of Four-Phase Switched Reluctance Machine Based on Ansoft Maxwell2D

According to the real structural parameters of the motor and its external circuit, the complete simulation model of a four-phase 8/6 poles switched reluctance motor (SRM) is built based on Maxwell2D of Ansoft Corporation. The basic performances and the starting process of SRM are analyzed based on this model. The simulation results include the distribution of magnetic field at various rotor positions, static electromagnetic characteristics and dynamic performance. These results agree well with the basic running performances, and can benefit for the design and optimization of SRM and its control system.

Renguo Xi, Shoujun Song, Weiguo Liu

Chapter 234. Key Performance Analysis of Six-Phase Induction Machine Driving by Trapezoidal Phase Current Waveform with Magnet 6.27 Software

This paper researches key performance of the six-phase induction machine using Magnet 6.27 software driving by six-phase trapezoidal phase current. First, the machine model has been drawn with AutoCAD and imported into Magnet which adding the related magnetic material and setting machine parameters. The stator current source has been configured trapezoidal waveform and applied to six-phase induction machine. Second, the performance of air-gap magnetic field and electromagnetic torque has been analyzed with the Magnet 6.27. The analysis results indicate that the trapezoidal phase current realizes the separate control of field and torque current. Finally, the machine simulation model has been added motion unit to realize 2D dynamic simulation under the condition of no-load and load starting. The simulation results indicate that the starting speed of six-phase induction machine driving by trapezoidal phase current waveform is fast and the operation is smooth.

Beibei Xie, Xing Yuan, Yongle Ai

Chapter 235. Design and Finite Element Analysis of Brushless Doubly Fed Machine with Radially Laminated Magnetic Reluctance Rotor

For the problem of the weaker coupling capability between the two sets stator winding of brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM), the lower power density and poor performance. This paper researches a novel 8 + 4 pole radially laminated magnetic reluctance rotor BDFM, the finite element method is adopted to calculate magnetic filed. The best project can be obtained through the determination of pole-arc factor, conducting magnetic and magnetic obstacle layer width radio and the width and number of conducting magnetic layer. The results show: radially laminated magnetic reluction rotor can significantly improve the coupling capability.

Feng-Ge Zhang, Qun Yang, Xiu-Ping Wang

Chapter 236. Electromagnetic Design and 3D Finite Element Analysis for Axial Sectional Claw Pole Machine with Permanent Magnet Outer Rotor

In order to improve work efficiency of the motor in modern automobile ISAD system and solve running problem which the motor copes with under different terrain, the electric and magnetic circuit of claw pole motor of outer rotor permanent magnet of axial split phase is designed and studied in this paper. First, the electric and magnetic circuit of claw pole motor is designed by equivalent magnetic circuit method using MATLAB software. Second, simulation analysis for parameters of no-load back electromotive force, cogging torque and other parameters are conducted by finite element software. Finally, through comparative analysis of experimental and simulation results of the prototype, it is proved that this way of design of the electric and magnetic circuit can improve the motor working performance.

Zhang Feng-ge, Wang Bo, Liu Guang-wei

Chapter 237. Simulation Analysis on Temperature Field for Doubly Fed Wind Generator Used in High Altitude Condition

In this paper, a 1.5 MW doubly fed wind generator was taken as an example. Its three-dimensional heat transfer physical model and mathematical model were established based on giving basic assumptions. Meanwhile, the corresponding boundary conditions of the solved region were given, and the fluid field and temperature field were analyzed by using finite volume method when the generator working in altitude area of 4,000 m. The temperature rise distribution characteristics of solid and fluid inside generator were obtained. The coupling calculating results were compared with the measured results when the generator was in rated operation in plain area. At last, the effect of the altitude to the temperature inside generator was analyzed, which would provide theoretical basis for the operation of wind generator.

Ding Shuye, Ge Yunzhong, Lü Xiangping

Chapter 238. The CAD System of the Wound-Rotor Brushless Doubly Fed Generator

For analyzing and calculating the steady-state performance of the brushless doubly fed generator (BDFG) accurately and quickly, based on the electromagnetic design program of the traditional three-phase induction machines and the equivalent circuit of the BDFG, the computer aided design (CAD) system of the wound-rotor BDFG is developed by using the software of Visual C++ 6.0 in this paper. The machine performance under different rotor speeds and different control voltages can be calculated in the CAD system. The comparison of the calculated results and the experimental data indicates that the results of the CAD system are accurate and it is effective and convenient for the design of the wound-rotor BDFG by using the computer.

Fei Xiong, Xuefan Wang

Chapter 239. Contour Controller Design for Direct Drive XY Table System Based on Friction Observer

The contour accuracy of XY table directly driven by two permanent magnet linear synchronous motors is influenced by the nonlinear dynamics. To enhance the free-form contour following performance, real-time contour error algorithm was adopted. The friction observer can overcome the influences of the nonlinear dynamic of the single axis, the velocity mismatch between two axis is eliminated by the contour controller. The simulation results show that the designed controller makes the system of XY table have high contour machining precision and strong robustness.

Li-Mei Wang, Kai Su, Bing Li

Chapter 240. Maximum Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based on the Hamiltonian

Based on the brief introduction of the port-controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) system, the PCH system model of non-salient permanent magnet linear synchronous motor is established. The control laws are presented in load known conditions. Simulation results show that the method of port-controlled Hamiltonian is easy to be realized to control permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) and the physical meaning is clear and the effect is ideal.

Zhiping Cheng, Liucheng Jiao

Chapter 241. Calculation of Winding Factor and Analysis of Armature MMF of a PMSM with Fractional-Slot and 5-Phase Winding

In this paper, a permanent magnet synchronous machine with fractional-slot and 5-phase winding is studied. After the superposition of the back EMF (electro-motive force) phasors of all coil-sides in a phase winding, the winding factor of the machine is calculated. The method has a clear idea and is fast. On the basis of the calculating armature MMF, the contents of its harmonics are analyzed. For three kinds of coil spans, the comparisons of the winding factors and MMF harmonics are made. The drawn results in this chapter can be applied to guide machine designs.

Shangguan Xuanfeng, Zhang Jiaolong, Zhang Wenli

Chapter 242. Neural Modeling and Control of Hysteretic Dynamics in Ultrasonic Motors

Ultrasonic motors operate on the inverse piezoelectric effect and the frictional driven force. Complex nonlinear characteristics such as hysteresis and friction nonlinearities are involved. Due to the inherent undifferentiable property and complex contact mechanism, to design a high performance controller is a real challenge. To combat this problem, a novel neural modeling and control strategy is presented. The motor velocity is adopted to allow for the nonlinear friction effect, and the multi-valued hysteresis of the motor is transformed into a one-to-one mapping with the introduction of a special hysteretic operator based on the expanded input space method. Based on the neural model, an adaptive neural controller is designed, where a so-called generalized gradient of the hysteretic operator is introduced to get the sensitivity information. Finally, the simulation results are presented for the validation of the proposed approach.

Xinliang Zhang, Jingjing Du, Yonghong Tan

Chapter 243. Conducting Bar Loss Analysis of Squirrel Induction Motor in Steady Operation

When squirrel induction motor is steadily running with full load, with layered superposition principle the formulas of conducting bar harmonic loss is deduced. The harmonic loss, the total loss of the conducting bar and the loss ratio caused by harmonic current in the total losses are calculated. In this chapter, the harmonic loss of the induction motor Y160L-4 is analyzed and calculated when it is in steady operation.

Xudong Wang, Pengfei Li, Xiaozhuo Xu, Yinghua Cui

Chapter 244. Experiment of New Radiator in Electronic Device

The experimental apparatus is set up to test the heat transfer performance of the new radiator, which mainly includes vacuum-pumping and central processing unit (CPU) tunnel system, heating system and measurement system. The heat dissipation of the CPU chip is imitated by the copper bar which is heated by thermal resistance wire. The experimental results show that the temperature of the CPU chip decrease with growing of cooling air velocity, but the temperature drop tendency becomes gentle when it continues to increase. Higher heat dissipation power results in higher CPU chip temperature, but oversized heat flux density makes the phase changing process worse.

Shu Xu

Chapter 245. Analysis of Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Linear Motor Fed by Sinusoidal and Non-sinusoidal Power Supply

Inverters composed of switch arrays provide non-sinusoidal voltage or current, and the tooth-slot and winding distribution of the motor could lead to a mass of space harmonic components, severely deteriorating the motor performance. This paper adopts the field-circuit coupled adaptive time-stepping finite element method to study the characteristics of PMLSM fed by SPWM voltage source inverter. The solve domain of the field equation is divided into polynomial linear triangular elements, the moving medium is subdivided into layers, and the meshing density in the regions where the magnetic flux density varies acutely higher. The characteristic of having thick air gap is considered in the field-circuit 2D model. The co-simulation using state equation and time-step finite element equation is adopted, the time step of the state equation is smaller than that of the time-step finite element equation.

Jikai Si, Shaohua Wang, Xiaozhuo Xu, Haicao Feng, Xudong Wang

Optical, Electrical, Magnetic and Composite Materials

Chapter 246. Research and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cells and its Maximum Power Point Tracking Method

The modeling of photovoltaic cells is done according to its mathematical model in this article. Furthermore, a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method is proposed which applies CV (Constant Voltage) algorithm to adjust the working point of photovoltaic (PV) cells near the MPP (Maximum Power Point) for fast tracking when working point is far from MPP, and uses adapting duty cycle perturb method to optimize the steady state characteristic of MPP for effectively eliminating the output power oscillation under the setting precision. The simulation results verify the correctness of the model and also show that the proposed method tracks the MPP exactly and quickly, improves the energy conversion efficiency, static and dynamic performance of PV system.

Qi-ying Xu, Yong-sheng Zhu

Chapter 247. Research of MPPT for Solar PV Generation System Based on Independent Voltage Controller

To overcome the problem of partial shades or the mismatching of photovoltaic (PV) arrays in PV generation system, a method of diode-clamp multilevel inverter to connecting PV array is proposed, and a new pulse-width modulation strategy is adopted, voltage of every PV array can be controlled independently, the maximize system power can be got, the rated voltage of equipment can be reduced, the output voltage distortion can be cut down, so the efficiency of the whole system is improved. Simulation results verify that the feasibility and validity of control strategy.

Lingzhi Yi, Hanmei Peng, Genping Wang, Xiaoxue Luo, Jie Liu, Shuhao Wang, Zhezhi Yao

Chapter 248. Experimental Investigation on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Cu Sample

In order to investigate the mechanism of laser interacting with materials and obtain the parameters related to the laser plasma, a pulsed XeCl laser (308 nm, ~200 mJ) was employed to irradiate Cu targets placed in air. The laser plasma spectra was obtained by grating spectrometer. Under the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the temperature of plasma was deduced to be nearly 1.7 × 10


K, using multi-line slope by relative intensities of characteristic lines. Spectral profile of Cu at 296.117 nm was found to be well represented by a symmetric Lorentz-type curve, and the main cause of broadening mechanism in the plasma was the collision broadening, which was caused by the collision between electron and atom.

Ribo Ning, Qian Li, Songning Xu

Chapter 249. Application of Neuron-MOS and Pass Transistor to Voltage-Mode Ternary Logic Circuit

To realize voltage-mode ternary circuits, a novel design scheme using neuron-MOS transistors and pass transistors is presented. By controlling the voltage of the multiple-input gate, the neuron-MOS literal circuit is firstly designed. Then, the pass transistors used to pass ternary signal are controlled by the outputs of the literal circuit to realize ternary function. The complementarity and duality principles for generation of ternary complementary and dual circuits using pass transistors are also developed. The design results of ternary AND/NAND, OR/NOR, and mod-3 multiplication gates, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The benefit of the proposed voltage-mode ternary circuits is that they can be fabricated by standard CMOS process with a 2-ploy layer. Besides, they have simple and perfectly symmetrical structure. The effectiveness of the proposed ternary circuits has been validated by HSPICE simulation results with TSMC 0.35 μm 2-ploy 4-metal CMOS technology.

Guoqiang Hang, Yang Yang, Xiaohui Hu, Hongli Zhu

Chapter 250. Simulation Analysis of Structure Parameters on Long-Period Fiber Grating

Coupling mode theory is adopted in the single-mode step-index optical fiber based on the three-layer modal in the application of long-period fiber grating. This paper is focused on the regularity for the change of effective refractive index core fundamental modes and cladding modes with the wavelength, analysis of the character of the coupling constant between cladding mode in different number of the first order and the core mode by numerical simulation. It can provide theoretical reference for the structure parameters design of the long-period fiber grating.

Baishun Su

Chapter 251. The Simulation of the Principle of MPPT Control of PV Systems Based on BOOST Circuit

In the photovoltaic power generation system, in order to use solar energy maximize, to improve the efficiency of the system, we must consider the maximum power tracking. This paper is about the basic principle and simulation of MPPT based on BOOST circuit impedance matching, by analyzing the basic working principle of BOOST circuit, the principle of achieving maximum power tracking and process, to make the modeling and simulation analysis, simulation results show that the BOOST circuit impedance matching can achieve the maximum power tracking.

Haizhu Yang, Mingzhe Shang, Jie Liu

Chapter 252. Control and Implementation of Inverters Parallel Operation in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic

Traditional inverter parallel control schemes have connection among each module. With increase in the number of modules and the increases in the distance among modules, the signals among each module are vulnerable to suffer interference. According to the principle of parallel operation of inverters, this paper analyzes several parallel inverter control schemes, and compares advantages and disadvantages of several common PQ drop methods. Further studies of the control technology of parallel inverters without iconnection besides this paper also introduces a more suitable method for the grid-connected PV systems. This method takes into account the grid-connected line resistance and the impact of harmonics. Meanwhile, it also improves the dynamic response capability of the system. The simulation proves the feasibility of this method.

Jie Liu, Yongsheng Zhang, Haizhu Yang

Chapter 253. High Precise Self-Adaptive Digital Illuminometer-Based CPLD

The paper designs a kind of self-adaptive digital illuminometer of high accuracy. The meter consists of silicon photocell, current to voltage converter, auto gain amplifier with complex programmable logical device, analog value to digital value converter, liquid crystal display. The illuminometer has many advantages of wide measurement range, short response time, high photoelectric conversion efficiency, high resolution, and high portability, so it is very useful in many fields.

Xiuwu Sui, Jing Lu, Xiaoguang Qi, Dapeng Li

Chapter 254. Centralized Controller and Communication Protocol Design of Remote Meter Reading System

In view of the following problems: the backward technology in remote meter reading, the poor interoperability of communication protocol and the high cost for network operation, the author has proposed a two-layer network construction based on GSM and ZIGBEE and designed the communication protocol of remote meter reading system with consideration of the data characteristics of meter reading system. And then, to ensure the reliability of communication links, the serial communication program is designed by calling, answering and then communicating after repeated experiments. In the end, the designed system is tested under experimental conditions, and the results show that the system had many advantages, such as high reliability, low cost, simple networking, high reliability for communication data and moderate speed of meter reading, and satisfied the design requirements basically.

Xiangqun Zhang, Zhongbiao Zhao

Chapter 255. Frames of Subspaces for Banach Spaces

Bessel sequences of subspaces, frames of subspaces and independent frame of subspaces for Banach spaces are introduced and discussed. Frames of subspaces is a generalization of frames of subspaces for Hilbert spaces. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for a Bessel sequence of subspaces to be a frame of subspaces for Banach spaces are given. It is proved that a Bessel sequence of subspaces becomes a frame of subspaces for Banach spaces if and only if its analysis operator is invertible. Lastly, Riesz bases of subspaces for Banach spaces are introduced. It is shown that an independent frame of subspaces is just a Riesz Basis for Banach spaces.

Chunyan Li


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